The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of non-governmental organizations whose stated objective is a world free of anti-personnel mines and cluster munitions, where mine and cluster munitions survivors see their rights respected and can lead fulfilling lives. The coalition was formed in 1992 when six organisations with similar interests agreed to cooperate on their common goal; the campaign has since grown and spread to become a network with active members in some 100 countries – including groups working on women, veterans, religious groups, the environment, human rights, arms control and development—working locally and internationally to eradicate antipersonnel landmines. A prominent supporter was Princess of Wales; the organization and its founding coordinator, Jody Williams, jointly received the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to bring about the Mine Ban Treaty. The signature of this treaty is seen as the campaign's greatest success; the prize was received on the organisation's behalf by its co-founder, Rae McGrath of the Mines Advisory Group and by Tunn Channareth, a Cambodian mine victim and ICBL activist.
The ICBL monitors the global mine and cluster munition situation, conducts advocacy activities, lobbying for implementation and universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty, humanitarian mine action programs geared toward the needs of mine-affected communities, support for landmine survivors, their families and their communities, a stop to the production and transfer of landmines, including by non-State armed groups. The ICBL participates in the periodical meetings of the Mine Ban Treaty process, urges states not parties to the treaty to join and non-state armed groups to respect the mine ban norm, condemns mine use and promotes public awareness and debate on the mine issue, organizing events and generating media attention. In 2011, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines and Cluster Munition Coalition merged into one unified structure, now known as the ICBL-CMC, in order to realize operational efficiencies and reinforce complementary work; the ICBL and the CMC campaigns remain separate and continue to remind governments of their commitments to implement and promote both treaties.
Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor continues its unique civil society monitoring program on the humanitarian and developmental consequences of landmines, cluster munitions, explosive remnants of war. The activities of the ICBL-CMC are supported by a Governance Board representative of various elements of the ICBL that provides strategic and human resources oversight. An Advisory Committee provides the working of the campaign. Four ambassadors serve as campaign representatives at speaking events and other conferences worldwide, they include Jody Williams, Tun Channareth, Song Kosal, Margaret Arech Orech. The ICBL has 14 staff members based in Geneva, Lyon and Ottawa. Additionally, the ICBL-CMC hosts several interns each year; the Mine Ban Treaty, or the Ottawa Treaty, is the international agreement that bans anti-personnel mines. Entitled The Convention on the Prohibition, Stockpiling and Transfer of Antipersonnel Mines and on Their Destruction, the treaty is sometimes referred to as the Ottawa Convention.
The Mine Ban Treaty was adopted in Oslo, Norway, in September 1997 and signed by 122 States in Ottawa, Canada, on 3 December 1997. As of March 2018, there were 164 States Parties to the Ottawa Treaty; the mine ban treaty suggest several agendas to member states: Never use antipersonnel mines, nor to "develop, otherwise acquire, retain or transfer" them Destroy mines in their stockpiles within four years Clear mined areas in their territory within 10 years In mine-affected countries, conduct mine risk education and ensure that mine survivors, their families and communities receive comprehensive assistance Offer assistance to other States Parties, for example in providing for survivors or contributing to clearance programs Adopt national implementation measures in order to ensure that the terms of the treaty are upheld in their territory Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor is the ICBL-CMC's research and monitoring arm. It is the de facto monitoring regime for the Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions of 2008.
It monitors and reports on States Parties' implementation of and compliance with the Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions, more it assesses the problems caused by landmines, cluster munitions, other explosive remnants of war. The Monitor represents the first time that NGOs have come together in a coordinated and sustained way to monitor humanitarian law or disarmament treaties, to document progress and problems, thereby putting into practice the concept of civil society-based verification. Since its creation in 1998, Monitor research has been carried out by a global network of in-country researchers, most of them ICBL-CMC campaigners, all content undergoes rigorous editing by the Monitor's Editorial Team prior to publication. Mines Advisory Group Geneva Call, an NGO inspired by the ICBL that focuses on non-state ac
WFC Donchanka known as Donchanka TsPOR for sponsorship reasons, is a Ukrainian women's football club from Donetsk. Founded in 1992 as Tekstilshchik Donetsk, it was renamed as Donetsk-Ros in 1994 before taking its current name in 1997. Donchanka was the leading Ukrainian team for much of the 1990s, winning five championships and four national cups between 1994 and 1999. In 1999, the club lost its sponsors and leading players, the shift was made to young talented players, it was third in the 2012 championship, its best result since 2003. Ukrainian League Winners: 1994, 1995, 1996, 1998, 1999 Runners-up: 2000, 2001 Third place:, 1997, 2002, 2003, 2012, 2013 Ukrainian Cup Winners: 1994, 1996, 1998, 1999 Runners-up: 1995, 1997, 1999, 2012 As of 20 December 2012, according to the club's website Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Hesperonychus was a genus of small, carnivorous dromaeosaurid dinosaur. There is one described species, Hesperonychus elizabethae, it is known from fossils recovered from the lowermost strata of the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, dating to the late Cretaceous Period about 76.5 million years ago). Hesperonychus is known from one partial pelvic girdle, holotype specimen UALVP 48778, collected by Dr. Elizabeth Nicholls in Dinosaur Provincial Park in 1982; the fossil remained undescribed, until Nick Longrich and Phil Currie published on it in 2009. A number of small toe bones, including "sickle claws", in the collection of the Royal Tyrrell Museum may belong to Hesperonychus; the gracile appearance of these toe bones makes it unlikely that they belonged to a member of Eudromaeosauria. Despite their small size, the pubic bones were fused, a characteristic of adult dinosaurs, indicating that the specimen does not represent a juvenile of a known species. Though known from only partial remains and Currie estimated its total length at under one meter and weight at about 1.9 kilograms, making it one of the smallest known carnivorous dinosaurs from North America.
The alvarezsaurid Albertonykus was smaller. A phylogenetic analysis performed by Longrich and Currie found Hesperonychus to be a member of the Microraptorinae, a clade of small dromaeosaurids thought to be restricted to the Early Cretaceous of Asia; the authors described this find as "remarkable". While the Late Cretaceous, North American Bambiraptor had sometimes been classified as a microraptorine, more recent studies have found that it is more related to Saurornitholestes. Hesperonychus was assigned to Microraptoria due to having a spatulate pubic symphysis, a strong posterior curvature of the distal shaft of the pubis, lateral tubercules on the pubes. Microraptorines are well known for their small size and, in some cases, ability to fly or glide. Longrich and Currie concluded that it was unlikely for Hesperonychus to exhibit four wings or gliding behavior as in Microraptor, speculated that it was more to be similar to Sinornithosaurus given their closer similarity in size. Hesperonychus seems to show that microraptorines did not vary much in size, remaining small relative to other dromaeosaurids throughout their history.
Aside from extending the known range of microraptorines, the discovery of Hesperonychus filled in a gap in the ecology of Late Cretaceous North America. Unlike contemporary environments in Europe and Asia, North America appeared to lack small carnivorous dinosaurs. In modern ecosystems dominated by endothermic mammals, small animal species outnumber larger ones. Since dinosaurs are presumed to have been endotherms, the lack of small species and great number of known large species in North America was unusual. Hesperonychus helped to fill that gap since, given the number of fragmentary remains and claws that have been collected, it appears to have been a common feature of the Dinosaur Park Formation environment; the next smallest carnivore in the environment was the mammal Eodelphis, which weighed only 600 grams. There does not appear to have been any overlap between the smallest dinosaurs and the largest mammals in ecosystems such as this, which Longrich and Currie explained by hypothesizing that either competition from dinosaurs kept mammals from growing larger, competition from mammals kept the dinosaurs from growing smaller, or both.
Timeline of dromaeosaurid research 2009 in paleontology