The International Committee of the Red Cross is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties to the Geneva Convention of 1949 and its Additional Protocols of 1977 and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts; such victims include war wounded, refugees and other non-combatants. The ICRC is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement along with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and 190 National Societies, it is the oldest and most honoured organization within the movement and one of the most recognized organizations in the world, having won three Nobel Peace Prizes in 1917, 1944, 1963. Up until the middle of the 19th century, there were no organized and well-established army nursing systems for casualties and no safe and protected institutions to accommodate and treat those who were wounded on the battlefield. In June 1859, the Swiss businessman Henry Dunant travelled to Italy to meet French emperor Napoléon III with the intention of discussing difficulties in conducting business in Algeria, at that time occupied by France.
When he arrived in the small Italian town of Solferino on the evening of 24 June, he witnessed the aftermath of the Battle of Solferino, an engagement in the Second Italian War of Independence. In a single day, about 40,000 soldiers on both sides were left wounded on the field. Henry Dunant was shocked by the terrible aftermath of the battle, the suffering of the wounded soldiers, the near-total lack of medical attendance and basic care, he abandoned the original intent of his trip and for several days he devoted himself to helping with the treatment and care for the wounded. He succeeded in organizing an overwhelming level of relief assistance by motivating the local population to aid without discrimination. Back in his home in Geneva, he decided to write a book entitled A Memory of Solferino which he published with his own money in 1862, he sent copies of the book to leading military figures throughout Europe. In addition to penning a vivid description of his experiences in Solferino in 1859, he explicitly advocated the formation of national voluntary relief organizations to help nurse wounded soldiers in the case of war.
In addition, he called for the development of international treaties to guarantee the neutrality and protection of those wounded on the battlefield as well as medics and field hospitals. On 9 February 1863 in Geneva, Henry Dunant founded the "Committee of the Five" as an investigatory commission of the Geneva Society for Public Welfare, their aim was to examine the feasibility of Dunant's ideas and to organize an international conference about their possible implementation. The members of this committee, aside from Dunant himself, were Gustave Moynier and chairman of the Geneva Society for Public Welfare. Eight days the five men decided to rename the committee to the "International Committee for Relief to the Wounded". In October 1863, the international conference organized by the committee was held in Geneva to develop possible measures to improve medical services on the battle field; the conference was attended by 36 individuals: eighteen official delegates from national governments, six delegates from other non-governmental organizations, seven non-official foreign delegates, the five members of the International Committee.
The states and kingdoms represented by official delegates were Grand Duchy of Baden, Kingdom of Bavaria, Second French Empire, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Kingdom of Hanover, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Austrian Empire, Kingdom of Prussia, Russian Empire, Kingdom of Saxony, United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, Spanish Empire. Among the proposals written in the final resolutions of the conference, adopted on 29 October 1863, were: The foundation of national relief societies for wounded soldiers. Only one year the Swiss government invited the governments of all European countries, as well as the United States and Mexico, to attend an official diplomatic conference. Sixteen countries sent a total of twenty-six delegates to Geneva. On 22 August 1864, the conference adopted the first Geneva Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field". Representatives of 12 states and kingdoms signed the convention: The convention contained ten articles, establishing for the first time binding rules guaranteeing neutrality and protection for wounded soldiers, field medical personnel, specific humanitarian institutions in an armed conflict.
Furthermore, the convention defined two specific requirements for recognition of a national relief society by the International Committee: The national society must be recognized by its own national government as a relief society according to the convention, and
In Search of The La's: A Secret Liverpool is a biography about The La's written by M. W. Macefield, published in 2003 by Helter Skelter Publishing; the book gives a detailed history of the band with interviews from several ex-members and other persons related to the group. The author discusses his own journey in tracking down each of the interviewees. "With the timeless single "There She Goes", Lee Mavers' La's overtook The Stone Roses as great British guitar hopes and paved the way for the Britpop renaissance of Blur and Oasis. However, since 1991, The La's have been silent, while rumors of studio-perfectionism and drug addiction have abounded with Mavers lined up as another rock casualty; the author sets out to discover the truth behind Mavers' lost decade and gains a revelatory audience with Mavers himself." The author, MW Macefield, travels to Liverpool to interview several ex-members of the band, sundry other personnel, gets to chat with the group's chief songwriter Lee Mavers. In it several La's myths are dispelled along the way, new song titles are named, the past and future of the band is discussed.
Oh Yeon-ho is the founder of "citizen journalism" in South Korea, CEO of OhmyNews a new approach to cyber-journalism in which ordinary citizens can contribute to a major news organization through being at news events, filing reports, having their work verified and edited by a trained news staff. He is seen as one of the pivotal figures in the contemporary culture of South Korea. Oh was born in 1964 in Gokseong, he graduated from Yonsei University in 1988 with a degree in Korean literature. He earned a master's degree in journalism from Regent University in 1998 and has a PhD in mass-communication at Sogang University in Seoul. In 2006, he received the Wharton Infosys Business Transformation Award for his work with information technology, most his pioneering development of OhmyNews and the society-transforming contributions that resulted. 1988-1999 Reporter, Chief Reporter in Monthly magazine Mahl 1995-1997 Correspondent in Washington, DC in Monthly magazine Mahl 22 Feb 2000 Foundation of Internet News site OhmyNews> CEO, The managing editor of Internet News site OhmyNews 2007-2009 President of Korea Internet Newspaper Association 2016~ Head director of Corporation'ggumtlee' May, 2001 Awarded: The Media Grand Prize of This Year Oct, 2001 Selection: 55 people of South Korea Dec, 2001 Winning the Grand prize: Democratic Press Award Oct, 2004 Winning the Grand prize: Ahn Jong-Pil Press Award Jan, 2006 Awarded: Management Innovation Oct, 2007 Awarded: Medal of Missouri University OCt. 2018 Awarded: Grundtvig Prize 2018 Ranked 16th in'This year's 50s for IT characters' as UK Information Technology site Citizen journalism Independent Media Center Ohmynews OhmyNews official site http://english.ohmynews.com/articleview/article_view.asp?no=153109&rel_no=1 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2843651.stm http://www.changemakers.net/library/temp/nytimes030603.cfm http://www.atimes.com.by-parakeet.gibeo.net/atimes/Korea/FK25Dg01.html http://www.wacc.org.uk/wacc/publications/media_action/253_oct_2003/ohmynews_anyone_can_be_a_reporter Howard W. French "Online Newspaper Shakes Up Korean Politics" New York Times, March 6, 2003 http://creativeink.blogspot.com/2004/12/citizen-journalists.html http://www.editorsweblog.org/2004/05/every_citizen_i.html