The International Criminal Court is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague, Netherlands. The ICC has jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, the crime of aggression, it is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore exercise its jurisdiction only when certain conditions are met, such as when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute criminals or when the United Nations Security Council or individual states refer situations to the Court. The ICC began functioning on 1 the date that the Rome Statute entered into force; the Rome Statute is a multilateral treaty that serves as the ICC's foundational and governing document. States which become party to the Rome Statute become member states of the ICC; as of November 2019, there are 123 ICC member states. 42 states are non-signatory states. The ICC has four principal organs: the Presidency, the Judicial Divisions, the Office of the Prosecutor, the Registry.
The President is the most senior judge chosen by his or her peers in the Judicial Division, which hears cases before the Court. The Office of the Prosecutor is headed by the Prosecutor who investigates crimes and initiates criminal proceedings before the Judicial Division; the Registry is headed by the Registrar and is charged with managing all the administrative functions of the ICC, including the headquarters, detention unit, public defense office. The Office of the Prosecutor has opened twelve official investigations and is conducting an additional nine preliminary examinations, thus far, 45 individuals have been indicted in the ICC, including Ugandan rebel leader Joseph Kony, former Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir, Kenyan president Uhuru Kenyatta, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, Ivorian president Laurent Gbagbo, DR Congo vice-president Jean-Pierre Bemba. The ICC has faced a number of criticisms from states and civil society, including objections about its jurisdiction, accusations of bias, questioning of the fairness of its case-selection and trial procedures, doubts about its effectiveness.
The establishment of an international tribunal to judge political leaders accused of international crimes was first proposed during the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 following the First World War by the Commission of Responsibilities. The issue was addressed again at a conference held in Geneva under the auspices of the League of Nations in 1937, which resulted in the conclusion of the first convention stipulating the establishment of a permanent international court to try acts of international terrorism; the convention was signed by 13 states, but none ratified it and the convention never entered into force. Following the Second World War, the allied powers established two ad hoc tribunals to prosecute Axis leaders accused of war crimes; the International Military Tribunal, which sat in Nuremberg, prosecuted German leaders while the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo prosecuted Japanese leaders. In 1948 the United Nations General Assembly first recognised the need for a permanent international court to deal with atrocities of the kind prosecuted after the Second World War.
At the request of the General Assembly, the International Law Commission drafted two statutes by the early 1950s but these were shelved during the Cold War, which made the establishment of an international criminal court politically unrealistic. Benjamin B. Ferencz, an investigator of Nazi war crimes after the Second World War, the Chief Prosecutor for the United States Army at the Einsatzgruppen Trial, became a vocal advocate of the establishment of international rule of law and of an international criminal court. In his first book published in 1975, entitled Defining International Aggression: The Search for World Peace, he advocated for the establishment of such a court. A second major advocate was Robert Kurt Woetzel, who co-edited Toward a Feasible International Criminal Court in 1970 and created the Foundation for the Establishment of an International Criminal Court in 1971. In June 1989 Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago A. N. R. Robinson revived the idea of a permanent international criminal court by proposing the creation of such a court to deal with the illegal drug trade.
Following Trinidad and Tobago's proposal, the General Assembly tasked the ILC with once again drafting a statute for a permanent court. While work began on the draft, the United Nations Security Council established two ad hoc tribunals in the early 1990s: The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, created in 1993 in response to large-scale atrocities committed by armed forces during Yugoslav Wars, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, created in 1994 following the Rwandan genocide; the creation of these tribunals further highlighted the need for a permanent international criminal court. In 1994, the ILC presented its final draft statute for the International Criminal Court to the General Assembly and recommended that a conference be convened to negotiate a treaty that would serve as the Court's statute. To consider major substantive issues in the draft statute, the General Assembly established the Ad Hoc Committee on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, which met twice in 1995.
After considering the Committee's report, the General Assembly created the Preparatory Committee on the Establishment of the ICC to prepare a consolidated draft text. From 1996 to 1998, six sessions of the Preparatory Committee were held at the United Nations headquarters in New York City, during which NGOs provided input and attended meetings under the umbrella organisation of the Coalition for the International Criminal Court. In January 1998, the Bureau and c
Ruminococcus is a genus of bacteria in the class Clostridia. They are anaerobic, Gram-positive gut microbes. One or more species in this genus are found in significant numbers in the human gut microbiota; the type species is R. flavefaciens. As usual, bacteria taxonomy is in flux, with Clostridia being paraphyletic, some erroneous members of Ruminococcus being reassigned to a new genus Blautia on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. One of the most cited papers involving the genus Ruminococcus is a paper describing interspecies hydrogen transfer between Ruminococcus albus and Wolinella succinogenes. In 1972, Ruminococcus bromii was found in the human gut, the first of several species discovered, they may play a role in plant cell wall breakdown in the colon. One study found that R. albus, R. callidus, R. bromii are less abundant in people with inflammatory bowel disease. Ruminococcus is less abdundant in patients with Parkinson's disease. R. gnavus is associated with Crohn's disease. Ruminococcus albus Ruminococcus bromii Ruminococcus callidus Ruminococcus flavefaciensSpecies belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family and therefore in need of reclassification: Ruminococcus gauvreauii Ruminococcus gnavus Ruminococcus lactaris Ruminococcus obeum Ruminococcus torques
A teen situation comedy, or teen sitcom, is a subgenre of comedic television programs targeted towards teenagers. In general, these type of programs focus on characters between 13 and 19 years of age and feature characters involved in humorous situations, focus on the characters' family and social lives; the primary plot of each episode involves the lead character that the program centers on, while secondary plotlines focus on the character parents, siblings or friends, although the secondary characters may sometimes or instead be involved in the episode's main plot. The most common episodic plot lines used in teen sitcoms involve the lead characters dealing with family and friends, ending up in a complicated situation that the characters must solve by episode's end, getting into moral conflicts with their parents, coming-of-age situations. Although adolescents are the main audience focus for these programs, these programs are popular with young adults as well as preteens. Older adults may enjoy them for nostalgic purposes.
Like teen dramas, this genre was generally non-existent during the first 30 years of television. When sitcoms reached their peak in the 1950s and 1960s, these programs were supposed to be family-oriented. Sitcoms of the 1950s and 1960s such as Leave it to Beaver, Father Knows Best, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet and The Donna Reed Show were popular with teenagers, along with the entire family; the teen movie genre led the way towards the teen sitcom genre. The earliest ancestor of the teen sitcom was Meet Corliss Archer, a TV adaptation of a popular radio show about a teenage girl which aired in syndication in 1954; the first teen sitcom on a major network was The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis, a 1959–1963 CBS sitcom based on collegiate short stories by humorist Max Shulman. Dobie Gillis followed the adventures of a teenage boy and his friends through high school, the military, college, was the first American network television program to feature teenagers as its lead characters. In the mid-1960s, the creation of sitcoms such as The Monkees and Gidget were targeted towards teenage audiences.
The 1969–1974 ABC sitcom The Brady Bunch was popular with younger audiences pre-teens and younger teenagers, as was its competitor The Partridge Family, which premiered in 1970. These shows are similar to the "tween" orientated shows that have aired in more recent years such as Hannah Montana; the 1970s featured teen sitcoms such as What's Happening!!, Happy Days and Welcome Back, Kotter. During the 1980s, television series such as The Facts of Life, Silver Spoons, Square Pegs, Family Ties, The Hogan Family, Who's The Boss?, Growing Pains, The New Leave It To Beaver, My Two Dads, Good Morning, Miss Bliss were popular among the younger demographic. Teen-oriented sitcoms have become more popular since the 1990s. Although pertinent social issues relating to the demographic were featured in earlier series, Blossom focused on such issues, with episodes dealing with subject matter such as drug use and teen sex. Several sitcoms aired on ABC during the early and mid-1990s were aimed at teenage audiences as well as families.