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International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, to try their perpetrators. The tribunal was an ad hoc court located in The Hague, Netherlands; the Court was established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council, passed on 25 May 1993. It had jurisdiction over four clusters of crimes committed on the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991: grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, violations of the laws or customs of war and crimes against humanity; the maximum sentence it could impose was life imprisonment. Various countries signed agreements with the UN to carry out custodial sentences. A total of 161 persons were indicted; the final fugitive, Goran Hadžić, was arrested on 20 July 2011.

The final judgment was issued on 29 November 2017 and the institution formally ceased to exist on 31 December 2017. Residual functions of the ICTY, including oversight of sentences and consideration of any appeal proceedings initiated since 1 July 2013, are under the jurisdiction of a successor body, the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals. United Nations Security Council Resolution 808 of 22 February 1993 decided that "an international tribunal shall be established for the prosecution of persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991", calling on the Secretary-General to "submit for consideration by the Council... a report on all aspects of this matter, including specific proposals and where appropriate options... taking into account suggestions put forward in this regard by Member States". The Court was proposed by German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel. By 25 May 1993, the international community had tried to pressure the leaders of the former Yugoslavian republics diplomatically, politically, – with Resolution 827 – through juridical means.

Resolution 827 of 25 May 1993 approved S/25704 report of the Secretary-General and adopted the Statute of the International Tribunal annexed to it, formally creating the ICTY. It would have jurisdiction over four clusters of crime committed on the territory of the former SFR Yugoslavia since 1991: grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, violations of the laws or customs of war and crime against humanity; the maximum sentence it could impose was life imprisonment. In 1993, the ICTY built its internal infrastructure. 17 states have signed an agreement with the ICTY to carry out custodial sentences.1993–1994: In the first year of its existence, the Tribunal laid the foundations for its existence as a judicial organ. The Tribunal established the legal framework for its operations by adopting the rules of procedure and evidence, as well as its rules of detention and directive for the assignment of defense counsel. Together these rules established a legal aid system for the Tribunal; as the ICTY is part of the United Nations and as it was the first international court for criminal justice, the development of a juridical infrastructure was considered quite a challenge.

However after the first year the first ICTY judges had drafted and adopted all the rules for court proceedings.1994–1995: The ICTY established its offices within the Aegon Insurance Building in The Hague and detention facilities in Scheveningen in The Hague. The ICTY hired now many staff members. By July 1994 there were sufficient staff members in the office of the prosecutor to begin field investigations and by November 1994 the first indictment was presented and confirmed. In 1995, the entire staff came from all over the world. Moreover, some governments assigned their trained people to the ICTY. In 1994 the first indictment was issued against the Bosnian-Serb concentration camp commander Dragan Nikolić; this was followed on 13 February 1995 by two indictments comprising 21 individuals which were issued against a group of 21 Bosnian-Serbs charged with committing atrocities against Muslim and Croat civilian prisoners. While the war in the former Yugoslavia was still raging, the ICTY prosecutors showed that an international court was viable.

However, no accused was arrested. The court issued arrest warrants. Bosnian Serb indictee Duško Tadić became the subject of the Tribunal's first trial. Tadić was arrested by German police in Munich in 1994 for his alleged actions in the Prijedor region in Bosnia-Herzegovina, he made his first appearance before the ICTY Trial Chamber on 26 April 1995, pleaded not guilty to all of the charges in the indictment.1995–1996: Between June 1995 and June 1996, 10 public indictments had been confirmed against a total of 33 individuals. Six of the newly indicted persons were transferred in the Tribunal's detention unit. In addition to Duško Tadic, by June 1996 the tribunal had Tihomir Blaškić, Dražen Erdemović, Zejnil Delalić, Zdravko Mucić, Esad Landžo and Hazim Delić in custody. Erdemović became the first person to enter a guilty plea before the tribunal's court. Between 1995 and 1996, the ICTY dealt with miscellaneous cases involving several detainees, which never reached the trial stage. In 2004, the ICTY published a list of five accomplishm

Norman Harris (rugby)

Norman Harris was a Welsh rugby union, professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1940s and 1950s. He played club level rugby union for Abercarn, Ebbw Vale and Newbridge, representative level rugby league for Wales, at club level for Oldham and Rochdale Hornets, as a centre, i.e. number 4 or 5. Harris was born in Abercarn, Wales, he died aged c. 88–89 in Oldham, Greater Manchester, England. Harris started his rugby career as a rugby union player in Wales. Born in Abercarn, Harris played for four South Wales clubs Abercarn, Ebbw Vale and Newbridge. In 1946, Harris left behind amateur rugby union by signing for professional rugby league club Oldham, it was while playing for Oldham that Harris was first selected for the Wales national rugby league team, a home match on 12 April 1947 against France. Wales won the match 17–15, Harris scored his first international points with a try during the game, he was awarded his second cap just seven months in the next encounter with France, this time played away at Bordeaux.

He played two more internationals while at Oldham, two encounters with England, in December 1947 and February 1949. By the time of his fifth international game for Wales, just two months Harris had left Oldham and signed for Leigh. Harris played for Leigh from 1949 until the end of the 1951–52 season. Harris played right-centre, i.e. number 3, in Leigh's 7–20 defeat by Wigan in the 1949–50 Lancashire County Cup Final during the 1949–50 season at Wilderspool Stadium, Warrington on Saturday 29 October 1949, played left-centre, i.e. number 4, scored a try in the 6–14 defeat by Wigan in the 1951–52 Lancashire County Cup Final during the 1951–52 season at Station Road, Swinton on Saturday 27 October 1951. At the start of the 1952–53 season, Harris joined Leigh becoming the team's player-coach, he made 67 appearances for Leigh and was awarded a final international cap while with the club in 1953. He retired from rugby in October 1954, died in Oldham, Greater Manchester. Harris' international career was eclipsed by his grandson, Iestyn Harris, who made 25 rugby union appearances for Wales and 19 rugby league appearances for Wales.

Wales England 1947, 1949 France 1947, 1947, 1949 Other nationalities 1949, 1953 Statistics at orl-heritagetrust.org.uk

Htin Aung

Htin Aung was an important author and scholar of Burmese culture and history. Educated at Oxford and Cambridge, Htin Aung wrote several books on Burmese history and culture in both Burmese and English, his English-language works brought a much-needed Burmese perspective to the international study of Burmese history written by British historians of the colonial era. His important works include A History of Burma, Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism, Selections from Burmese Folk Tales, Thirty Burmese Tales and Burmese Drama. Htin Aung, as the rector of the University of Rangoon from 1946 to 1958, was the highest ranking academic in the Burmese education system, at the time, he was one of the founding fathers of the Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning. Htin Aung was born to a Burmese aristocratic family on 18 May 1909, his parents were Daw Mi Mi. He was a great-great-grandson of Maha Minhla Mindin Raza, a military officer in the Konbaung court, who fought in the First Anglo-Burmese War.

He had six other siblings. He was the youngest of four brothers, including Myint Thein and Kyaw Myint. Htin Aung graduated from Yangon's elite St. Paul's English High School, he went on to receive a Bachelor of Laws from Cambridge University, a Bachelor in Civil Law from Oxford University, a Master of Laws from the University of London, doctorates in Anthropology and Literature from Trinity College, Dublin. Htin Aung was the Rector of Rangoon University from 1946 to 1958 and Vice-Chancellor in 1959, he was appointed Ambassador to Sri Lanka from 1959 to 1962. He became a visiting professor at Columbia University and at Wake Forest University. Htin Aung authored many important books on Myanmar, under the pen name of Maung Htin Aung, his books are used in the study of the comparatively under-documented history and culture of Myanmar. Burmese Drama Burmese Folk-Tales Burmese Drama: A study, with translations, of Burmese plays Burmese Law Tales Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism; the Stricken Peacock: An Account of Anglo-Burmese Relations 1752–1948 Burmese Monk's Tales Epistles Written on Eve of Anglo-Burmese War A History of Burma Lord Randolph Churchill and the dancing peacock: British conquest of Burma 1885 Burmese history before 1287: A Defence of the Chronicles.

Folk Tales of Burma Htin Aung, Maung. A History of Burma. New York and London: Cambridge University Press. Htin Aung, Maung. Burmese History before 1287: A Defence of the Chronicles. Oxford: The Asoka Society. International Who's Who: 1964. Europa Publications Limited. 1964. Maung Maung. Robert H. Taylor. Dr. Maung Maung: Gentleman, Patriot. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9789812304094. "Rotarian Honors". The Rotarian. Rotary International. 87: 68. November 1955. ISSN 0035-838X

National Lift Tower

The National Lift Tower (previously called the Express Lift Tower is a lift-testing tower built by the Express Lift Company off the Weedon Road in Northampton, England. The structure was commissioned in 1978 with construction commencing in 1980, was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 12 November 1982, it has been a Grade II Listed Building since 1997. The tower is in west of Northampton town centre; the area is named after Northampton Abbey, an Augustinian monastery dedicated to St James, founded in 1104–05. When the former Express Lift factory, which included the lift-testing tower, was redeveloped for housing in 1999–2000, excavations were carried out to determine the location and remains of any parts of the abbey. A cemetery of c. 300 burials was excavated during winter 2000–01. The bones were analysed to determine the health and burial practices in the late-medieval population of Northampton. Designed by architect Maurice Walton of Stimpson Walton Bond, the tower is 127.5 metres tall, 14.6 m in diameter at the base and tapers to 8.5 m at the top.

The only lift-testing tower in Britain, one of only two in Europe, it was granted Grade II listed building status on 30 October 1997, making it the youngest listed building in the UK at the time. In January 1997, the tower fell out of use. In 1999, the tower and surrounding land was sold to Wilcon Homes for development. From the time it was built, one shaft was used by the British Standards Institution for type testing of lift safety components at the time under the BS5655 and BS EN81 standards. Safety Gear testing involved putting the lift cars into free fall conditions with rated mass at tripping speeds as required by the designers of the safety gear to ensure the lift cars decelerated and stopped within the requirements of the standard. Buffer testing involved impacting them with the maximum and minimum mass at tripping speeds to ensure decelerations were within that requirement by the standard in both cases the aim was to ensure if the lift went into free fall or uncontrolled downward movement the safety components stopped the lift without causing any serious injury to the occupant.

BSI ceased using the test tower soon after the site was acquired for housing in 1997–98. The building is now owned and has been renamed the National Lift Tower. Following extensive renovation and repairs, the tower was re-opened for business in October 2009; the tower is used by lift companies for research, development and marketing. As well as being a resource for the lift industry, the building is available to companies requiring tall vertical spaces, for example companies wishing to test working-at-height safety devices. There are six lift shafts of varying heights and speeds, including a high speed shaft with a travel of 100 metres and a theoretical maximum speed of 10 m/s; the tower's renovation was completed in July 2010. Further building work was planned with planning permission being sought to build a visitor's centre incorporating a 100-seater auditorium and cafe. However, permission for this structure was denied by Northampton Borough Council in March 2012. Abseiling at the tower has been going on since May 2011 with over £140,000 having been raised for charity in the period to May 2012.

Northampton Borough Council has now granted approval for it to be used up to 24 times a year for abseiling. As of 2015, the tower is being used as the world's tallest drainage-testing facility; the tower was lampooned by broadcaster Terry Wogan as the "Northampton lighthouse". He wrote a section of Icons of Northamptonshire about it; the local paper Northampton Chronicle and Echo published an article for April Fools' Day 2008, claiming that the lift tower would be pulled down. Comments were made on the paper's website regarding the lack of respect of the local council for not publicly announcing it. Another April Fools' Day story in the same paper suggested the tower would be redeveloped as a mooring station for airships; the Lift Tower is featured in the science fiction novel Time to Repair by Mark Gallard. List of towers Express Lifts history booklet from 1982 includes internal diagrams of the tower Smith, Tony, "Love in an elevator.... Testing mast: The National Lift Tower", The Register, retrieved 5 July 2013, The Tower rises above the flat plain of the Nene valley near Northampton like some kind of latter-day Barad Dûr or Orthanc.

Official Website Abseiling at the tower website BBC Legacies: Northampton's "Lighthouse" Architectural details Risky Buildings: Express Lift Tower BBC: 360 degree panorama from tower Wilcon Homes Limited Northampton lift tower back on the up and up... Northampton lift tower set for new lease of life New name for Northampton's lift tower British Standards Institution

Atlantis (1913 film)

Atlantis is a 1913 Danish silent film directed by August Blom, the head of production at the Nordisk Film company, was based upon the 1912 novel by Gerhart Hauptmann. It starred an international cast headlined by Danish matinée actor Olaf Fønss and Austrian opera diva Ida Orloff; the film was the first Danish multi-reeled feature film. The story, which tells the tale of a doctor who travels to the United States in search of a cure for his ailing wife, includes the tragic sinking of an ocean liner after it strikes an object at sea. Released only one year after the sinking of the RMS Titanic, the movie drew considerable attention as well as criticism due to similarities to the actual tragedy; the high production costs for Atlantis were not equaled by box office returns at that time. However, the film went on to become the most watched film for Nordisk Film and has been hailed by film historian Erik Ulrichsen as a Danish masterpiece and "one of the first modern films." Dr. Friedrich von Kammacher, a surgeon, is devastated after his wife develops a brain disorder and is institutionalized.

On the advice of his parents, von Kammacher leaves Denmark to gain some respite from his wife's illness. Von Kammacher travels to Berlin, where he meets a young dancer named Ingigerd and the doctor becomes fond of her and interested in her; however she has a large number of admirers and thus Von Kammacher gives up on her. However, while in Paris he sees an advertisement in the paper that she is going to New York with her father and decides to follow her. Von Kammacher buys a first ticket on the same liner as the SS Roland. Aboard the ship, von Kammacher learns. Shortly after, he is called to treat a young Russian girl with seasickness and they nearly get romantically involved but class stops this from happening. Halfway across the sea the Roland strikes an unseen object which causes massive flooding and dooms the ship; the passengers panic as the ship sinks into the Atlantic. Von Kammacher finds Ingigered carries her to a lifeboat, he goes back and searches in vain her father but when he can't find him, von Kammacher returns to the lifeboat and holds Ingigereds hand as the lifeboat pulls away.

They watch in horror as the Roland sinks into the ocean. The liner sinks so that many of the lifeboats are never launched and several passengers are swept into the sea and drowned. By morning, only von Kammacher's lifeboat is still floating and 8 still alive, they are saved. Ingigerd is devastated when she is told that there are no more survivors and both her father and boyfriend have drowned. Von Kammacher and Ingigerd arrive in New York and she is unable to continue with her career since she is still shocked over the Roland disaster. Von Kammacher tries to tell her that he loves her and wants a life with her in New York but she refuses to be tied down by one man, he gives up on her and they go their separate ways after she turns down his offer to live with him in New York. Von Kammacher takes an interest in fine art. Through the artistic community, he is introduced to a kind and pleasant sculptor named Eva Burns, they develop a friendship. A New York doctor, a friend of von Kammacher, offers him the use of a mountain cabin, where it is hoped that Friedrich will find some peace and solace.

While he is in the mountains, a telegram from Denmark arrives in New York with information that von Kammacher's wife has died. Upon hearing the news, Friedrich falls critically ill. Eva takes it upon herself to tend to him in the mountain cabin; as she nurses him back to health, their relationship blossoms. Happiness returns to Friedrich's life. Due to the large number of cast and locations, the amount of equipment, Blom took the unusual step of employing two assistant directors for filming; the first was Robert Dinesen who had his own successful career as a director with Nordisk Film in Denmark and Germany. The second assistant was the young Hungarian director Mihály Kertész, who under the name Michael Curtiz became one of the most well-known Hollywood directors through films such as Casablanca and White Christmas. Curtiz appeared in Atlantis in a small supporting role. For the filming of the shipboard scenes, Nordisk Film chartered the Norwegian steamship C. F. Tietgen, taken out of service that year.

However, the Atlantis sinking scene used a large-scale model and about 500 extras as swimmers, was filmed in the bay off Køge, Denmark. Blom filmed two endings for the movie—one happy and one tragic; the alternate tragic ending, in which the Doctor dies at the end, was made in particular for the Russian market. It was believed; some sources claimed that the sinking ship scenes were inspired by the Titanic sinking which had occurred the previous year. However, Blom based his film on Gerhardt Hauptmann's 1912 novel, Atlantis. Hauptmann's novel was published in serialized form in the Berliner Tageblatt a month before the Titanic disaster. Due to the film’s release only one year after the Titanic sinking, Atlantis became associated with the Titanic. In Norway, the film was banned because authorities felt it was in poor taste to turn a tragedy into entertainment; because his original story was autobiographical, Hauptmann's contract with Nordisk Film required two roles be acted by the actual people who were their inspiration.

A letter from Nordisk Film to Fred A. Talbot of England explained, "...the part of "Ingigerd" and the armless virtuoso "Arthur Stoss" were played by the same persons, who

145523 Lulin

145523 Lulin, provisional designation 2006 EM67, is a background asteroid from the central region of the asteroid belt 3.9 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 7 March 2006, by Taiwanese astronomers Hung-Chin Lin and Ye Quanzhi at Lulin Observatory in central Taiwan, it was named for the observatory site. Lulin is a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population, it orbits the Sun in the central asteroid belt at a distance of 2.2–3.2 AU once every 4 years and 7 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 11 ° with respect to the ecliptic; the earliest precovery was taken at ESO's La Silla Observatory in March 1992, extending the asteroid's observation arc by 14 years prior to its discovery observation. This minor planet was named after the Lulin mountain in central Taiwan, location of the discovering Lulin Observatory at an altitude of 2862 meters; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 2 April 2007. At the observatory, Comet Lulin was discovered in 2007.

According to the survey carried out by the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, the asteroid measures 3.9 kilometers in diameter and its surface has a low albedo of 0.073, rather typical for a carbonaceous C-type body. As of 2018, no rotational lightcurve of Lulin has been obtained from photometric observations; the body's rotation period and shape remain unknown. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 145523 Lulin at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 145523 Lulin at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters