The International Electrotechnical Commission is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology". IEC standards cover a vast range of technologies from power generation and distribution to home appliances and office equipment, fibre optics, solar energy and marine energy as well as many others; the IEC manages four global conformity assessment systems that certify whether equipment, system or components conform to its international standards. All electrotechnologies are covered by IEC Standards, including energy production and distribution, electronics and electromagnetics, multimedia, telecommunication and medical technology, as well as associated general disciplines such as terminology and symbols, electromagnetic compatibility and performance, dependability and development, safety and the environment; the first International Electrical Congress took place in 1881 at the International Exposition of Electricity, held in Paris.
At that time the International System of Electrical and Magnetic Units was agreed to. The International Electrotechnical Commission held its inaugural meeting on 26 June 1906, following discussions among the British Institution of Electrical Engineers, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, others, which began at the 1900 Paris International Electrical Congress, continued with Colonel R. E. B. Crompton playing a key role. In 1906, Lord Kelvin was elected as the first President of the International Electrotechnical Commission; the IEC was instrumental in developing and distributing standards for units of measurement the gauss and weber. It first proposed a system of standards, the Giorgi System, which became the SI, or Système International d’unités. In 1938, it published a multilingual international vocabulary to unify terminology relating to electrical and related technologies; this effort continues, the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary remains an important work in the electrical and electronic industries.
The CISPR – in English, the International Special Committee on Radio Interference – is one of the groups founded by the IEC. 86 countries are IEC members while another 87 participate in the Affiliate Country Programme, not a form of membership but is designed to help industrializing countries get involved with the IEC. Located in London, the Commission moved to its current headquarters in Geneva in 1948, it has regional centres in Asia-Pacific, Latin America and North America. Today, the IEC is the world's leading international organization in its field, its standards are adopted as national standards by its members; the work is done by some 10,000 electrical and electronics experts from industry, academia, test labs and others with an interest in the subject. IEC standards have numbers in the range 60000–79999 and their titles take a form such as IEC 60417: Graphical symbols for use on equipment. Following the Dresden Agreement with CENELEC the numbers of older IEC standards were converted in 1997 by adding 60000, for example IEC 27 became IEC 60027.
Standards of the 60000 series are found preceded by EN to indicate that the IEC standard is adopted by CENELEC as a European standard. The IEC cooperates with the International Organization for Standardization and the International Telecommunication Union. In addition, it works with several major standards development organizations, including the IEEE with which it signed a cooperation agreement in 2002, amended in 2008 to include joint development work. Standards developed jointly with ISO such as ISO/IEC 26300, ISO/IEC 27001, CASCO ISO/IEC 17000 series, carry the acronym of both organizations; the use of the ISO/IEC prefix covers publications from ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 - Information Technology, as well as conformity assessment standards developed by ISO CASCO and IEC CAB. Other standards developed in cooperation between IEC and ISO are assigned numbers in the 80000 series, such as IEC 82045–1. IEC standards are being adopted by other certifying bodies such as BSI, CSA, UL & ANSI/INCITS, SABS, SAI, SPC/GB and DIN.
IEC standards adopted by other certifying bodies may have some noted differences from the original IEC standard. The IEC is made up of members, called national committees, each NC represents its nation's electrotechnical interests in the IEC; this includes manufacturers, providers and vendors, consumers and users, all levels of governmental agencies, professional societies and trade associations as well as standards developers from national standards bodies. National committees are constituted in different ways; some NCs are public sector only, some are a combination of public and private sector, some are private sector only. About 90% of those who prepare IEC standards work in industry. IEC Member countries include: Source: In 2001 and in response to calls from the WTO to open itself to more develo
Ellicott Development Co. is an American property management and development real estate firm based in Buffalo, New York and led by CEO William Paladino. The company's asset base includes residential, hotels, parking garages, convenience stores. Ellicott Development Co.’s services include legal, financial, accounting, site selection, site assemblage, architectural design and drafting services, leasing, maintenance and security services. Ellicott Development Co. was founded by lawyer and real estate developer Carl Paladino in 1973. The company is named after the Ellicott Square Building, Paladino's first and largest real estate acquisition to date; the Ellicott Square Building was named after Joseph Ellicott, the planner and surveyor who laid out the then-village of Buffalo. The company buys properties, builds stores, leases them to national retail outlets and government agencies; the company has operations in Central New York and portions of Pennsylvania. Ellicott Development Co. describes itself as "a multi-faceted integrated Property Management and Development Firm with the "In-House" capacity to provide legal, financial, accounting, site selection, site assemblage, architectural design and drafting services, leasing, maintenance and security services."Ellicott Development Co. has properties throughout the Buffalo/Niagara region, Upstate New York and into Western Pennsylvania.
In 2010, the company managed more than 5,000,000 square feet of office, retail and residential space. In downtown Buffalo, the company manages over 1,500,000 square feet of office space, over 1,000,000 square feet of retail space throughout New York and Western Pennsylvania, eight major hotels in the Western New York, as well as more than 550,000 square feet of residential apartments and townhomes in the Buffalo/Niagara region; as of 2010, the Company had built 160 drugstores for Rite Aid becoming the Rite Aid's preferred developer across Upstate New York and western Pennsylvania, 80 of which Ellicott still owned. Ellicott Development Co. has owned and/or developed many significant properties. Examples include: 14 North Street, 14 North St. Buffalo – built in 1899 and the First Baptist Church. Berkeley Apartments known as the Graystone Hotel, 24 Johnson Park, Buffalo – built in 1894 by architect Carlton T. Strong and engineer Ernest L. Ransome for the Pan-American Exposition. Ellicott Square Building, 283 Main St. Buffalo – built in 1896 and designed by Charles Atwood of D. H. Burnham & Company.
Fairmont Creamery Building, 199 Scott St. Buffalo – built in 1920 for the Fairmont Creamery as a cold storage facility. Fidelity Trust Building known as the Swan Tower, 284 Main Street in Buffalo – built in 1909 and designed by E. B. Green of Green & Wicks United Office Building known as the Giacomo, 220 Rainbow Blvd. Niagara Falls – built in 1929 and designed by the Esenwein & Johnson. Mickey Rats, a landmark bar and grill on the Lake Erie shoreline in Evans, New York. 11 Chicago Street, Buffalo – a former Brownfield site. It will purportedly be used for industrial use. 310 Niagara Street, Niagara Falls – now used as the offices of The Niagara Gazette. The Niagara Gazette will be moving into space owned by Ellicott at 473 Third St. Niagara Falls. Plans for renovation are unknown at the current time. 399 Ohio Street, Buffalo – 5-story mixed-use development with 30 apartments on the upper three floors, with commercial space and ground-level restaurant. The site is across from Father Conway Park in the Old First Ward.
Waterfront Village, Buffalo – nine townhouses on Ojibawa Circle adjacent to the existing Ellicott Development, Pasquale Towers 722 West Delavan Frederick Law Olmsted School - School 56, Buffalo – a 76,000 square feet four-story building on Elmwood and West Delevan that will be converted to a mixed-use project with 33 apartments, approved on 28 July 2015 by the Buffalo Planning Board. Due to public outcry regarding Carl Paladino's racist remarks about three local officials and resulting denial by the IDA of tax breaks to the developer, he has decided to convert 722 West Delavan- the old P. S. 56- into a theater and performing arts center. The Ujima Theatre Co. will occupy the space. 207 West Huron, Buffalo – renovation of a 26,000 square feet a lower West Side building, constructed in 1955 960 Busti Avenue, Buffalo – a 56,000 square feet warehouse on the West Side built in 1930, north of the Peace Bridge that overlooks the Niagara River.
Anne Foy is a children's television presenter for the BBC. Until March 2008, she worked for the CBBC Channel and on CBBC, she can be heard as the voiceover on the music channel 4Music. Anne has been presenting CBBC weekdays on CBBC Extra on Saturday mornings. Anne appears on Stitch Up!, setting up unsuspecting members of the public to be humiliated for the benefit of the cameras. She has made appearances on The Saturday Show and in the summer of 2003 she presented Britain's Amazing Mates. Anne is the voice of the female veterinarian in CBBC's online game "Vet Set Go" and hosted the BIG GIG 2005. In the Easter holidays, Anne carried out various tasks for the entertainment of CBBC viewers such as abseiling down a cliff face and learning to drive a tractor. Anne had done some radio work on BBC 7's The Big Toe Show. Anne was spotted by a CBBC producer in 2001 after appearing on a CBBC show called DIY TV, hosted by Josie D'Arby, where young people made their own television show. Anne went on to present the hidden-camera show, Stitch Up!.
In between causing Mayhem on the streets and dressing in a series of ridiculous costumes, Anne went on to star in the CBBC sitcom Bad Penny playing the lead role. It wasn't long before CBBC asked her to guest-present their summer location tour in 2003, with Anne becoming a full-time face on CBBC in early 2004, she left CBBC in March 2008 Foy married Sam Nixon in December 2012. They have a daughter, a son, Doyle together. "Bad Penny - Meet the Cast". Archived from the original on 7 February 2007. "AnneFoy.co.uk". Archived from the original on 15 September 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2008. Anne Foy on IMDb
Reversible deactivation radical polymerizations are members of the class of reversible deactivation polymerizations which exhibit much of the character of living polymerizations, but cannot be categorized as such as they are not without chain transfer or chain termination reactions. Several different names have been used in literature, which are: Living radical polymerization Living free radical polymerization Controlled/"living" radical polymerization Controlled radical polymerization Reversible deactivation radical polymerizationThough the term "living" radical polymerization was used in early days, it has been discouraged by IUPAC, because radical polymerization cannot be a living process due to unavoidable termination reactions between two radicals; the used term controlled radical polymerization is permitted, but reversible-deactivated radical polymerization or controlled reversible-deactivation radical polymerization is recommended. RDRP – sometimes misleadingly called'free' radical polymerization – is one of the most used polymerization processes since it can be applied to a great variety of monomers it can be carried out in the presence of certain functional groups the technique is rather simple and easy to control the reaction conditions can vary from bulk over solution, miniemulsion to suspension it is inexpensive compared with competitive techniquesThe steady-state concentration of the growing polymer chains is 10−7 M by order of magnitude, the average life time of an individual polymer radical before termination is about 5–10 s.
A drawback of the conventional radical polymerization is the limited control of chain architecture, molecular weight distribution, composition. In the late 20th century it was observed that when certain components were added to systems polymerizing by a chain mechanism they are able to react reversibly with the chain carriers, putting them temporarily into a'dormant' state; this had the effect of prolonging the lifetime of the growing polymer chains to values comparable with the duration of the experiment. At any instant most of the radicals are in the inactive state, they are not irreversibly terminated. Only a small fraction of them are active, yet with a fast rate of interconversion of active and dormant forms, faster than the growth rate, the same probability of growth is ensured for all chains, i.e. on average, all chains are growing at the same rate. Rather than a most probable distribution, the molecular masses assume a much narrower Poisson distribution, a lower dispersity prevails.
IUPAC recognizes the alternative name, ‘controlled reversible-deactivation radical polymerization’ as acceptable, "provided the controlled context is specified, which in this instance comprises molecular mass and molecular mass distribution." These types of radical polymerizations are not ‘living’ polymerizations, since chain termination reactions are not precluded". The adjective ‘controlled’ indicates that a certain kinetic feature of a polymerization or structural aspect of the polymer molecules formed is controlled; the expression ‘controlled polymerization’ is sometimes used to describe a radical or ionic polymerization in which reversible-deactivation of the chain carriers is an essential component of the mechanism and interrupts the propagation that secures control of one or more kinetic features of the polymerization or one or more structural aspects of the macromolecules formed, or both. The expression ‘controlled radical polymerization’ is sometimes used to describe a radical polymerization, conducted in the presence of agents that lead to e.g. atom-transfer radical polymerization, nitroxide- mediated polymerization, or reversible-addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization.
All these and further controlled polymerizations are included in the class of reversible-deactivation radical polymerizations. Whenever the adjective ‘controlled’ is used in this context the particular kinetic or the structural features that are controlled have to be specified. There is a mode of polymerization referred to as reversible-deactivation polymerization, distinct from living polymerization, despite some common features. Living polymerization requires a complete absence of termination reactions, whereas reversible-deactivation polymerization may contain a similar fraction of termination as conventional polymerization with the same concentration of active species; some important aspects of these are compared in the table: As the name suggests, the prerequisite of a successful RDRP is fast and reversible activation/deactivation of propagating chains. There are three types of RDRP. A mixture of different mechanisms is possible. In any RDRP processes, the radicals can propagate with the rate coefficient kp by addition of a few monomer units before the deactivation reaction occurs to regenerate the dormant species.
Concurrently, two radicals may react with each other to form dead chains with the rate coefficient kt. The rates of propagation and termination between two radicals are not influenced by the mechanism of deactivation or the catalyst used in the system, thus it is possible to estimate how fast a RDRP can be conducted with preserved chain end functionality? In addition, other chain breaking reactions such as irreversible chain transfer/termination reactions of the propagating radicals with solvent, polymer, additives, et
The New Jersey gubernatorial election of 1985 was a race for Governor of New Jersey held on November 5, 1985. Incumbent Republican Governor Thomas Kean sought reelection for a second term following his 1797-vote win in the 1981 election. Kean's 40-point landslide victory against the Democratic candidate, Essex County Executive Peter Shapiro, is the largest plurality in terms of percentage and raw votes in all modern New Jersey gubernatorial elections. Kean won 564 out of 567 municipalities and his coattails led the Republicans to win the General Assembly with a 50-seat majority. To date, Kean is the most recent Republican to win Essex and Hudson counties in a statewide election. Kean won a 62% majority among African-American voters. Primary elections were held on Tuesday June 4, 1985. Incumbent Governor Thomas Kean was unopposed in the Republican primary election. Robert Del Tufo, former U. S. Attorney for the District of New Jersey Kenneth A. Gibson, mayor of Newark Elliot Greenspan, president of the New Jersey chapter of the National Democratic Policy Committee John F. Russo, State Senator Peter Shapiro, Essex County Executive and former State Assemblyman Stephen B.
Wiley, former State Senator Major party candidates Thomas Kean, incumbent Governor Peter Shapiro, Essex County executive, former member of the General AssemblyOther candidates George M. Fishman, retired social studies teacher Virginia Flynn, word processor, Universal Life Church minister Rodger Headrick, The True Light, real estate salesman Julius Levin, Socialist Labor, apartment manager Mark Satinoff, Socialist Workers, sheet metal worker Kean was riding on high popularity ratings from voters on account of the good economic situation of the state in the 1980s including a surplus in the state budget, his efforts to aid depressed cities through Urban Enterprise Zones and reaching out to groups not associated with the Republicans including African Americans and labor unions led to endorsements from black ministers, Coretta Scott King, the AFL–CIO, The New York Times. Shapiro ran on a platform of reducing car insurance rates, the state's high property taxes, improvement of the environment but his struggles of fundraising due to New Jersey being located in two expensive media markets and Kean's momentum left his campaign little-received.
U. S. Election Atlas Interview with Prof. Cliff Zukin of the Eagleton Institute of Politics about the race
Joseph D. Ward was an American politician who served as Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth from January 1959 to January 1961. Ward was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1948, representing the 13th Worcester District, he was a candidate for Massachusetts Attorney General in 1956, but lost to Edward J. McCormack Jr. in the Democratic primary. Ward was appointed Secretary of the Commonwealth following the death of Edward J. Cronin. In 1960, Ward ran for Governor of Massachusetts, he defeated Endicott Peabody, Francis E. Kelly, Robert F. Murphy, John Francis Kennedy, Gabriel Piemonte, Alfred Magaletta in the primary, but lost to John A. Volpe in the general election, he was elected to the Massachusetts Senate in 1962 and remained there until his retirement from politics in 1972. Ward spent 12 years as a professor of political law at Boston University