The International Federation of Football History & Statistics is an organization that chronicles the history and records of association football. It was founded on 27 March 1984 in Leipzig by Alfredo Pöge with the blessings of general secretary of the FIFA at the time, Helmut Käser; the IFFHS was based at Al-Muroor Street 147, Abu Dhabi for some time but, in 2010, relocated to Bonn, Germany. During its early stages, until 2002, the IFFHS concentrated on publishing the quarterly magazines Fußball-Weltzeitschrift, Libero spezial deutsch and Libero international; when these had to be discontinued for reasons which were not told, the organization published its material in a series of multi-lingual books in co-operation with sponsors. The statistical organization has now confined its publishing activities to its website, receiving support from FIFA, organization that recognise the IFFHS and its work although the latter has no affiliation with the football's governing body. Since 1991, the entity has produced a monthly Club World Ranking.
The ranking takes into consideration the results of twelve months of continental and intercontinental competitions, national league matches and the most important national cup. All countries are rated at four levels based upon the national league performance—clubs in the highest level leagues receive 4 points for each match won, 2 for a draw and 0 for a defeat. Level 2 is assigned 3 pts. 1.5 and 0, so on with the next lower levels. In continental competitions, all clubs receive the same number of points at all stages regardless of the performance level of their leagues. However, the UEFA Champions League and the Copa Libertadores yield more points than UEFA Europa League and Copa Sudamericana, respectively; the point assignment system is still lower for the AFC, CAF, CONCACAF and OFC continental tournaments. Competitions between two continents are evaluated depending upon their importance. Competitions not organized by a continental confederation, or any intercontinental events not recognized by FIFA, are not taken into consideration.
Last updated: 21 January 2020 The following table shows the clubs that finished top of the ranking for each year since 1991: The IFFHS recognised these clubs as The World's Club Team of the Year and were awarded with a golden trophy and a certificate during the World Football Gala. In 2012, the IFFHS recognised Barcelona as the World's Best Club Team of the Decade for the first decade of the 21st century. In 2009, the IFFHS released the results of a statistical study which determined the best continental clubs of the 20th century; the ranking did not consider the performance of the teams in national football tournaments, the performance in the intercontinental or worldwide club competitions or those submitted in the IFFHS Club World Ranking, available since 1991. Based on this statistical study series, the below six clubs were named as "continental clubs of the century" by the IFFHS between 10 September and 13 October 2009; these clubs were awarded with a golden trophy and a certificate during the World Football Gala celebrated at Fulham, London, on 11 May 2010.
Source: This award is given to the player who scores the most goals in a league season in any of the top 60 leagues in the world. Source: This award is given to the player who scores the most international goals for both their club and country combined in a calendar year; this includes the player's continental competition, as well as goals scored for their respective national team. Source: Source: The IFFHS World's Best Playmaker is a footballing award which, since 2006, is given annually to the best playmaker of the year, as chosen by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics; the award is awarded at the end of the year at the World Football Gala: the winning playmaker is awarded a gold trophy. Argentina's Lionel Messi and Spain's Xavi have won the award a record four times each, Spanish compatriot Andrés Iniesta has won the award two times. Barcelona is the club with the most wins, with ten in total. Source: From 1991 until 2009, FIFA continued this distinction named "FIFA World Player of the Year".
Source: In 2017, IFFHS started to nominate a world team of the year. Coach: Zinedine Zidane Coach: Didier Deschamps Coach: Jürgen Klopp Source: On 24 April 1990, before the 1990 FIFA World Cup, IFFHS gave out an award for the best European player taking into consideration players who were voted in the shortlist of the France Football's Ballon D'Or from 1956 until 1989. Source: Source: Source: In 2017, IFFHS started to nominate a world team of the year. Coach: Sarina Wiegman Coach: Reynald Pedros Coach: Jill Ellis Source: IFFHS gave out an award decided by votes, conducted with the participation of journalists and former players. Karl Lennartz, a sports historian and professor at the University of Cologne, called the organization "obscure", describing it as a one-man show of its founder Alfredo Pöge; the IFFHS rankings and their significance have been a matter of criticism and the largest German news agency, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, refuse to publish them. Furthermore, it has been stated that the rankings of the IFFHS are not official and the titles they bear serve for publicity.
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Croydon was a rural district in north east Surrey, United Kingdom, from 1894 to 1915. It was replaced the Croydon Rural Sanitary District; the district surrounded the County Borough of Croydon to the south and west. When established in 1894, the area covered was rural, dotted with small villages and towns, but the expansion of London in the late 19th and early 20th centuries led to rapid urbanisation and the rural district was progressively broken up to form newly created urban districts, it was abolished in 1915. Its area now forms parts of the London Boroughs of Croydon and Sutton and the Borough of Reigate and Banstead. On creation, the district consisted of nine civil parishes; the number was reduced to eight in 1907 with the creation of Merton Urban District, to seven in 1913 when the parish of Morden was absorbed by Merton UD. In 1914 the Surrey County Council made orders for the abolition of the rural district, with its area to be reconstituted as three new urban districts or transferred to neighbouring rural districts.
This was opposed by the County Borough of Croydon which sought to annex most of Beddington, Coulsdon and Woodmansterne. Croydon's scheme was defeated in parliament, the break-up took place in 1915. Vision of Britain
The Saudi Hawks are a BAE Hawk-equipped Royal Saudi Air Force aerobatic team. On June 6, 1998, at King Abdulaziz Air Base, No. 88 Squadron was created by Gen. Abdulaziz Henaidy, the Royal Saudi Air Force's chief of staff, backed by Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz; the squadron is known as the "Saudi Hawks Aerobatic Team." Flying BAE Hawk Mk.65 and 65A jet trainers, it is the Royal Saudi Air Force's official demonstration team. The Hawks debuted in January 1999 at Riyadh, the Saudi kingdom's capital, as part of Saudi Arabia's 100th anniversary celebrations. Six smoke-capable BAE Hawk Mk.65A and three Mk.65s-all modified by BAE Systems are assigned to the team and now wear the team's striking green and white demonstration colors. In February 2000, the Hawks first appeared outside their homeland-in Bahrain. Soon afterward, the team and the various RSAF Hawk squadrons moved to King Faisal Air Base in northwestern Saudi Arabia; the team draws comparison with the RAF Red Arrows due to the similar aircraft.
There are tangible links. From June 2002, the team toured the kingdom for four months and performed at civil and military shows; the team performed its first display in Europe at the Air Power 2011 in Zeltweg. In July 2011, they displayed in the UK for the first time; the display was cancelled on the first day of the Royal International Air Tattoo at RAF Fairford due to bad weather, but they flew a rolling display the following day. In June 2014, they displayed in the Kavala AirSea Show, held in Kavala, Greece. On 6 September 2015, they displayed in front of 450.000 spectators at the airshow dedicated to the 55th anniversary of the Frecce Tricolori display team at Rivolto Air Base, Italy. In January 2018, they displayed in Kuwait. List of military installations in Saudi Arabia Media related to Saudi Hawks at Wikimedia Commons
Freedom of Religion South Africa v Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development and Others ZACC 34 is a decision of the Constitutional Court of South Africa which found that corporal punishment in the home is illegal. The court found that the common law defence of "moderate and reasonable chastisement" is unconstitutional, so that parents are no longer exempt from prosecution or conviction for assault for striking their children; the unanimous judgment was written by Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng and handed down on 18 September 2019. Reactions to the decision were mixed. Freedom of Religion SA, the Christian lobbying group, party to the case, described the decision as "dangerous" and "destructive", it was welcomed by children's rights groups including Save the Children South Africa and the Children's Institute at the University of Cape Town, as well as by the Department of Social Development. Text of the judgment
Untold was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and broodmare. As a two-year-old she showed promising form, winning two of her three races including the Fillies' Mile. In the following year she was campaigned at Group One level and emerged as a top-class middle-distance performer and stayer, she finished second in The Oaks and third in the Irish Oaks before recording her biggest success in the Yorkshire Oaks. She finished third when matched against male opposition and made favourite for the St Leger before ending her career by finishing sixth in the Champion Stakes, she had little success as a dam of winners. Untold was a "robust, well-made, quite attractive" chestnut mare with a large white star and four white socks bred by her owner Robert Cowell at his Chevington Stud in Newmarket, Suffolk, she was one of the most successful horses sired by Final Straw whose wins included the Champagne Stakes, July Stakes and Greenham Stakes. Untold's dam Unsuspected was a successful racemare who won eight races between 1974 and 1976.
As a broodmare she produced several other winners including Shoot Clear, Sally Brown and Mohican Girl. She lived until the exceptionally advanced age of 36, dying in June 2008; the filly was sent into training with Michael Stoute at the Beech Hurst stable in Newmarket. After finishing unplaced on her racecourse debut Untold won a seven furlong maiden race at Yarmouth Racecourse in August; that month she was assigned top weight of 133 pounds in a nursery handicap over one mile at Sandown Park Racecourse. She struggled to obtain a clear run in the straight but finished to win by a head from the colt Hills Bid. Untold was moved up in class and started 6/4 favourite for the Fillies' Mile at Ascot Racecourse in September in which she was ridden by Walter Swinburn, her main rivals appeared to be Tender Loving Care and Moonlight Lady and the Waterford Candelabra Stakes runner-up Meteoric. After taking the lead early in the straight she got the better of a sustained struggle with Moonlight Lady to win by half a length, with the pair finishing three lengths clear of Sue Grundy in third place.
Untold sustained a minor training setback in the spring of 1986 and did not appear on the track until 7 June when she was one of fifteen fillies to contest the 208th running of the Oaks Stakes at Epsom Downs Racecourse. She started a 20/1 outsider in a fifteen-runner field headed by the 1000 Guineas winner Midway Lady. Swinburn opted to ride the Stoute stable's more fancied runner Maysoon leaving Paul Eddery to take the ride on Untold whilst Brian Rouse rode the stable's other runner Colorspin. Untold took the lead early in the straight and maintained her advantage until the final furlong when she was overtaken and beaten a length into second place by Midway Lady, with Maysoon and Colorspin in third and fourth. Following the race the filly was bought by Sheikh Mohammed. Untold was sent to Ireland for the Irish Oaks at the Curragh on 12 July and started 8/11 favourite against seven opponents. Swinburn chose to ride her in preference to Colorspin, but again made the wrong decision, as Untold appeared unsuited by the soft ground and finished a distant third behind her stablemate and the Irish filly Fleur Royale.
On 19 August Untold was one of eleven fillies to contest the Yorkshire Oaks on good to firm ground at York Racecourse. Once again, Swinburn had to make a choice between the Stoute stable's runners and decided to partner Colorspin, whilst Greville Starkey took the ride on Untold. Colorspin started favourite ahead of Gull Nook, Ivor's Image and Rejuvenate. After chasing the leaders, Untold wore down the leader Park Express in the last quarter mile to win by three quarters of a length with Ivor's Image taking third ahead of Colorspin; the St Leger Stakes at Doncaster Racecourse on 13 September saw Untold, ridden by Swinburn, take on seven colts in the final Classic of the British season. She was made the 5/2 favourite ahead of the Gordon Stakes winner Allez Milord and King George V Stakes winner Moon Madness, she struggled to obtain a clear run in the straight and despite making some progress in the closing stages she never looked to win, finishing third behind Moon Madness and Celestial Storm.
In October she was brought back in distance for the Champion Stakes over ten furlongs at Newmarket but failed to show her best form on rain-softened ground and finished sixth of the eleven runners behind Triptych. In 1985 the independent Timeform organisation gave Untold a rating of 112 p twelve pounds behind their best juvenile filly Femme Elite. In the official International Classification she was rated ten pounds inferior to the top-rated two-year-old filly Baiser Vole. In their annual Racehorses of 1985, Timeform stated that she "would be on our short list for the Oaks". In the International Classification for 1986 she was rated the third best filly in Europe over 11 furlongs+ behind Darara and Midway Lady. Timeform rated her on 124, five pounds behind their best three-year-old fillies Darara and Sonic Lady. In Racehorses of 1986 they described her as "thoroughly genuine". Untold was retired from racing to become a broodmare for Sheikh Mohammed's Darley Stud. None of her foals won many never made it to the racecourse.
Untold died in 2005. Her known foals include
"Try Some, Buy Some" is a song written by English musician George Harrison, first released in 1971 as a single by former Ronettes lead singer Ronnie Spector. The latter recorded this and other Harrison compositions, such as "You" and "When Every Song Is Sung", in London for a planned comeback album on the Beatles' Apple Records; the project was co-produced by her husband at the time, Phil Spector, whose temporary withdrawal from music-making in 1966 had forced Ronnie to reluctantly abandon her own career. After the single became only a minor hit, following recording sessions, hampered by the producer's erratic behaviour, the proposed album was cancelled. In 1973, Harrison added his own vocal onto a new mix of the instrumental track and included the result on his album Living in the Material World. Harrison wrote "Try Some, Buy Some" during sessions for All Things Must Pass, his successful 1970 triple album co-produced by Spector; the song's austere melody was influenced by Harrison composing on a keyboard instrument rather than guitar.
The lyrics reflect his perception of God amid temptations associated with the material world and take the form of a recollection of his first spiritual awakening. Ronnie Spector admitted to being unable to understand the concept and disliking the song, commentators have duly noted its unsuitability as a vehicle for her comeback. "Try Some, Buy Some" is notable for the extent to which Phil Spector employed his Wall of Sound production, as well as for being a significant commercial failure for Spector, in the manner of his ambitious 1966 production "River Deep – Mountain High", by Ike & Tina Turner. The recording features a choir and long, lavishly orchestrated instrumental passages, the musical arrangement for, supplied by John Barham. Besides Harrison, the backing musicians include Leon Russell, Pete Ham, Klaus Voormann and Jim Gordon; the single's B-side was an upbeat song in the rockabilly style. Some commentators question the inclusion of Harrison's reading of "Try Some, Buy Some" on Living in the Material World and view it in an unfavourable light, citing his struggle to sing in a key suited to the former Ronette.
Having long been unavailable following its 1971 release – during which time she divorced Spector and attempted to relaunch her career without him – Ronnie Spector's version was reissued in 2010 on the compilation Come and Get It: The Best of Apple Records. A longtime admirer of the song, David Bowie covered "Try Some, Buy Some" on his 2003 album Reality and performed it on his tours in support of the album. George Harrison's song "Try Some, Buy Some" dates back to the recording sessions for his 1970 triple album All Things Must Pass, was one of a number of tracks left over from that project. In his autobiography, I, Me, Harrison recalls writing the tune on an organ and, not being an accomplished keyboard player, having difficulties doing the correct fingering in both hands, it was only when his friend Klaus Voormann took over the left-hand part, to play the bass line, that he was able to hear the piece as he had imagined it. Harrison musical biographer Simon Leng describes the tune as "the most extreme example" of its composer's "circular melodic" style, "seeming to snake through an unending series of harmonic steps".
As reproduced in I, Me, Harrison's handwritten lyrics show the opening chord as E minor and the bass line descending through every semitone from E down to B, followed by a change to a B7 chord. Harrison acknowledges in his autobiography that the melody and "weird chords" came about through experimentation on a keyboard instrument, which allowed him more harmonic possibilities than are available on a guitar; the song's time signature is a waltz-like 34, similar to the verses of his composition "I Me Mine", the last track recorded by the Beatles, in January 1970. Lyrically, former Melody Maker editor Richard Williams describes "Try Some, Buy Some" as "a Harrisonian hymn to his Lord", in keeping with the religiosity of All Things Must Pass tracks such as "My Sweet Lord", "Awaiting on You All" and "Hear Me Lord". Harrison biographer Elliot Huntley writes of "Try Some, Buy Some" delivering Harrison's Hindu-aligned devotional message "in television evangelist terms"; the song begins with the lines "Way back in time / Someone said try some, I tried some / Now buy some, I bought some..." before Harrison states that he opened his eyes "and I saw you".
According to Christian theologian Dale Allison, the lyrics are a "reflection on some sort of conversion experience", in which Harrison provides "before and after" comparisons. Before his spiritual awakening, Harrison sings of variously possessing, seeing and knowing "ot a thing" until, Allison writes, "he called upon God's love, which came into him."As in his compositions "Simply Shady" and "Tired of Midnight Blue", Harrison refers to the drug culture prevalent in the music industry, in the verse-two lines "I've seen grey sky, met big fry / Seen them die to get high..." Author Joshua Greene writes of Harrison's concern during the 1970s for friends who "wasted their time chasing sex and drugs and money", while Allison suggests John Lennon and Eric Clapton as being among the people on whom Harrison "personally witnessed the toll drugs and drink took". In addition to the song echoing the "lost and found" message of many Christian conversions, Allison writes that "Try Some, Buy Some" demonstrates Harrison's incarnation among the "twice-born" in Bhagavad Gita terminology.
The same theme of salvation through reconciliation with his deity is present in Harrison's 1968 song "Long, Long" and would con