The Formula 3000 International Championship was a motor racing series created by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile in 1985 to become the final preparatory step for drivers hoping to enter Formula One. Formula Two had become too expensive, was dominated by works-run cars with factory engines; the series began as an open specification tyres were standardized from 1986 onwards, followed by engines and chassis in 1996. The series ran annually until 2004, was replaced in 2005 by the GP2 Series; the series was staged as the Formula 3000 European Championship in 1985, as the Formula 3000 Intercontinental Championship in 1986 and 1987 and as the Formula 3000 International Championship from 1988 to 2004. Formula 3000 replaced Formula Two, was so named because the engines used were limited to 3000cc maximum capacity; the Cosworth DFV was a popular choice, having been made obsolete in Formula One by the adoption of 1.5 litre turbocharged engines. The rules permitted any 90-degree V8 engine, fitted with a rev-limiter to keep power output under control.
As well as the Cosworth, a Honda engine based on an Indy V8 by John Judd appeared. In years, a Mugen-Honda V8 became the unit of choice, eclipsing the DFV. Costs began to increase significantly; the first chassis from March, Automobiles Gonfaronnaises Sportives and Ralt were developments of their existing 1984 Formula Two designs, although Lola's entry was based on and looked much like an IndyCar. A few smaller teams tried obsolete three-litre Formula One cars, with little success—the Grand Prix and Indycar-derived entries were too unwieldy as their fuel tanks were about twice the size of those needed for F3000 races, the weight distribution was not ideal; the first few years of the championship saw March establishing a superiority over Ralt and Lola—there was little to choose between the chassis, but more Marches were sold and ended up in better hands. In 1988, the ambitious Reynard marque entered with a brand new chassis; the next couple of years saw Lola improve slightly—their car was competitive with the Reynard in 1990—and March slip, but both were crushed by the Reynard teams, by the mid-90s, F3000 was a virtual Reynard monopoly, although Lola did return with a promising car and the Japanese Footwork and Dome chassis were seen in Europe.
Dallara tried the series before moving up to Formula One, AGS moved up from Formula Two but never recaptured their occasional success. At least one unraced F3000 chassis existed—the Wagner fitted with a straight-six short-stroke BMW; this was converted into a sports car, however. The series saw occasional controversy. Definitive rules for the 1985 season did not appear. In 1987 questions were asked about the ability of some of the drivers, given the high number of accidents in the formula. In 1989 the eligibility of the new Reynard chassis was challenged, as it was raced with a different nose to the one, crash tested; this season saw problems with driver changes - the cost of F3000 was escalating to the point that teams were finding it difficult to run drivers for a whole season. A rule limiting driver changes to two per car per season meant that some cars had to sit idle while drivers with budgets could not race them. In 1991, some Italian teams started using Agip's so-called "jungle juice" Formula One fuel, worth an estimated 15 bhp, giving their drivers a significant advantage.
In the early years of the formula there was much concern about safety, with a high number of accidents resulting in injuries to drivers. There was one fatality in the International Championship - Marco Campos in the last round of the 1995 series. Formula 3000 races during the "open chassis" era tended to be of about 100–120 miles in distance, held at major circuits, either headlining meetings or paired with other international events; the "jewel in the crown" of the F3000 season was traditionally the Pau Grand Prix street race, rivalled for a few years by the Birmingham round. Most major circuits in France, Spain and the United Kingdom saw the series visit at least once. In 1996, new rules introduced a single engine and chassis, to go along with tyre standardization introduced in 1986; the following year the calendar was combined with that of Formula One, so the series became support races for the Grand Prix. Several Grand Prix teams established formal links with F3000 teams to develop young drivers.
The series grew through the late nineties, reaching an entry of nearly 40 cars - although this in itself was problematic as it meant many drivers failed to qualify. In 2000, the series was restricted to 15 teams of two cars each. However, by 2002 expenses were once more high and the number of entries, sponsors dwindled. International Formula 3000 was experiencing tough competition with cheaper formulae, such as European F3000, World Series by Nissan and Formula Renault V6 Eurocup. By the end of 2003, car counts had fallen to new lows; the 2004 season was the last F3000 campaign, due in part to dwindling field sizes. In 2005 it
Banavie railway station is a railway station on the West Highland Line serving the village of Banavie, although it is much closer to Caol, Scotland. To continue on to the next station at Corpach, trains must pass over the Caledonian Canal at Neptune's Staircase, a popular tourist attraction. Banavie station opened along with the Mallaig Extension Railway on 1 April 1901, it comprises a single platform on the north side of the line. Another station named "Banavie" existed above the Neptune's Staircase flight of locks, renamed Banavie Pier railway station and closed to passengers in 1939.'Banavie Junction' for the pier branch was located just to the south of the level crossing at Banavie. In the May 2019 timetable, four trains a day call here in either direction. Three of them are through trains to/from Glasgow Queen Street, whilst the other starts/finishes at Fort William and connects into/out of the sleeper service to London Euston. Services are operated by Abellio ScotRail. From the time of its opening in 1901, the Mallaig Extension Railway was worked throughout by the electric token system.
A signal box, named "Banavie Canal Bridge", was located at the west end of the station, on the north side of the line. It did not become a token station until 4 February 1912, but existed to control the nearby level crossings and the adjacent swing bridge over the Caledonian Canal; because of the continuing requirement to operate the swing bridge locally, Banavie was chosen as the location for the control centre for the West Highland Line's new radio signalling system. Banavie signalling centre opened on 14 June 1987; the Radio Electronic Token Block signalling was commissioned on 6 December 1987. The control centre covers train movements as far south as Helensburgh and Oban and Mallaig to the west. Local train movements in Fort William and the nearby freight yard at Inverlochy are controlled by the mechanical signal box at Fort William Junction. Banavie Banavie Railway Swing Bridge Banavie Swing Bridge Brailsford, Martyn, ed.. Railway Track Diagrams 1: Scotland & Isle of Man. Frome: Trackmaps.
ISBN 978-0-9549866-9-8. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Nationalised Railway Atlas. Penryn, Cornwall: Atlantic Transport Publishers. ISBN 978-0-906899-99-1. OCLC 228266687. RAILSCOT on Mallaig Extension Railway Video footage of Banavie Station
Cryptozoic Man is a four-issue comic book limited series by Bryan Johnson and Walt Flanagan. Flanagan describes the series as the "creepiest cosmic spookshow witnessed!" The concept debuted on the AMC reality series Comic Book Men in which Flanagan star. The other co-stars of Comic Book Men are involved in the development of Cryptozoic Man. Alan Ostman, a middle-aged husband/father, sees his life unravel when his daughter goes missing on a camping trip in the Pacific Northwest... Bigfoot country. After Gray aliens abduct him from a roadside bar, he learns that the fate of the world is dependent on trapping the world's most legendary cryptids; the comic centers on a character, an amalgamation of a human being and legendary creatures like Bigfoot, the Loch Ness Monster and the Jersey Devil. The series has been collected into a trade paperback: Cryptozoic Man Cryptozoic Man at the Comic Book DB
John A. Roche was an American politician who served as mayor of Chicago, Illinois from 1887 to 1889, he was the 30th mayor of the city. John A. Roche was born in Utica, New York on August 12, 1844, he served as an apprentice to his brother for three years. He stayed in business for a long time, had but a high school education, he mentions this in his inaugural address. In 1869, he moved to Chicago to do business, he loved it, decided to become a candidate for the Republican Party. He won against Robert L. Nelson. People admired him for history of business; as a mayor, he was prominent for the drainage and water supply commission and being appointed to suppress gambling in saloons as well as closing disreputable ones. After retiring, he focused his attention once again on business, became manager and vice president of the Crane Elevator Company. In 1893 he was elected president of the Lake Street Elevated Railroad Company, he died on February 10, 1904, one hour after a meeting, from uremic poisoning. He was buried at buried in Rosehill Cemetery in Chicago.
"Mayor John A. Roche Inaugural Address, April 18, 1887," Chicago Public Library. Tiwana, Shaw, & O’Brien, Ellen, & Benedict, Lyle.. Inaugural Addresses of the Mayors of Chicago. Chicago, IL: Chicago Public Library Compilations. Louise Pierce, Bessie.. History of Chicago, volume III: The Rise and Fall of a Modern City. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Hucke, Matt.. Rosehill Cemetery and Mausoleum. Retrieved December 12, 2007. Torp, Kim.. The History of Chicago’s Mayors. Retrieved on December 12, 2007
Maryland ritual killings was a series of ritualistic murders that occurred around Harper, Maryland County, Liberia in the 1970s. The crimes have been regarded as "Liberia's most notorious ritual killing case" due to the number of murders, the involvement of high ranking government officials and their subsequent public executions. Between 1965 and 1977 over 100 murders occurred in Maryland County, many of which were killed ritualistically due to the mutilation and removal of body parts. During the 1970s, Liberians in Maryland County were under the threat of ritual murders. Between November 1976 and July 1977, 14 people had disappeared in the county prompting Liberian president William Tolbert to fire Superintendent of Maryland County, James Daniel Anderson, who failed to report the missing people. Tolbert publicly declared "Anyone who kills deliberately: The law will kill that person"; these murders went unreported and uninvestigated until the murder of a local fisherman and popular singer, Moses Tweh.
Tweh was abducted on June 26, 1977. His body was discovered on July 4, 1977 mutilated with his eyes, nose and penis removed. Prior to the discovery of Tweh's body, Wreh Taryonnoh, the girlfriend of Assistant Supervisor of Schools, Francis Nyepan, was heard by a group searching for Tweh saying that "if they would be so lucky to find him, only his bones they might see"; this sparked the arrest of a majority of whom were government officials. In July and early August 1977, 12 people were arrested: James Daniel Anderson, Superintendent of Maryland County Allen Nathaniel Yancy, Representative for Maryland County, House of Representatives Francis Wlateh Nyepan, Assistant Supervisor of Schools Philip B. Seyton, Senior Inspector of the Ministry of Commerce, Maryland County Thomas Barclay, cook of Allen Yancy Wreh Taryonnoh, girlfriend of Francis Nyepan Putu Dueh Wonplu Boye, domestic servant for Francis Nyapan Kotee Weah, Chief Cook for the General Manager of the Firestone Company, Maryland County Tagbedi Wisseh, Acting Chief of Grandcess residents in Harper Joshua W. Brown, Chief Security Officer, Liberia Sugar Company Teah Toby, Kru GovernorThe accused were forced to walk through the street naked "carrying two buckets loaded with sand".
They were tortured during interrogation. During the first Harper Trial, Joshua Brown and Teah Toby were released and became state witnesses; the other ten defendants were sentenced to public execution by hanging. Tagbedi Wisseh was pardoned by Tolbert before execution. Wonplu Boye and Koti Weah both died before execution, it was rumored their own family members poisoned them to avoid shame. On 16 February 1979, the seven remaining people convicted of Moses Tweh's murder, were publicly hanged at dawn in Harper; the media dubbed them the "Harper Seven". Crime in Liberia
Signa A. Daum Shanks is a Métis academic from Saskatchewan, she is a professor at Osgoode Hall Law School, at York University, in Toronto where she teaches Torts, Indigenous governance and history. Her research is concerned with Law and Economics, Indigenous Governance. Daum Shanks obtained a Honours Bachelor of Arts from the University of Saskatchewan and a Master of Arts from Western University in history. During her MA she received training in French translation as well as the eighteenth century legal system in New France, she obtained an LLB from Osgoode in 1999, an LLM from the University of Toronto. She has a PhD in History from the Western University. Daum Shanks clerked at the Land Claims Court of South Africa, she participated in Osgoode’s Intensive Program in Aboriginal Lands and Governments. Daum Shanks has been a faculty member at the School of Native Studies at the University of Alberta and an instructor at Department of Native Studies, the University of Saskatchewan and at First Nations University of Canada.
She is a frequent commentator in the media on topics related to Indigenous peoples in North American, writing on diverse topics such as reconciliation pipelines and Indigenous rights, the use of Indigenous images in sports. Daum Shanks, Signa AK. "Reflections on Treaty-Making in British Columbia". Toronto: University of Toronto. Retrieved 2018-01-15