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International Geophysical Year

The International Geophysical Year was an international scientific project that lasted from 1 July 1957 to 31 December 1958. It marked the end of a long period during the Cold War when scientific interchange between East and West had been interrupted. Sixty-seven countries participated in IGY projects, although one notable exception was the mainland People's Republic of China, protesting against the participation of the Republic of China. East and West agreed to nominate the Belgian Marcel Nicolet as secretary general of the associated international organization; the IGY encompassed eleven Earth sciences: aurora and airglow, cosmic rays, gravity, ionospheric physics and latitude determinations, oceanography and solar activity. The timing of the IGY was suited for studying some of these phenomena, since it covered the peak of solar cycle 19. Both the Soviet Union and the U. S. launched artificial satellites for this event. Other significant achievements of the IGY included the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts by Explorer 1 and the defining of mid-ocean submarine ridges, an important confirmation of plate-tectonic theory.

Detected was the rare occurrence of hard solar corpuscular radiation that could be dangerous for manned space flight. The origin of the International Geophysical Year can be traced to the International Polar Years held in 1882–1883 in 1932–1933 and the last one was in March 2007 to March 2009. On 5 April 1950, several top scientists, met in James Van Allen's living room and suggested that the time was ripe to have a worldwide Geophysical Year instead of a Polar Year considering recent advances in rocketry and computing. Berkner and Chapman proposed to the International Council of Scientific Unions that an International Geophysical Year be planned for 1957–58, coinciding with an approaching period of maximum solar activity. In 1952, the IGY was announced. Joseph Stalin's death in 1953 opened the way for international collaboration with the Soviet Union. On 29 July 1955, James C. Hagerty, president Dwight D. Eisenhower's press secretary, announced that the United States intended to launch "small Earth circling satellites" between 1 July 1957 and 31 December 1958 as part of the United States contribution to the International Geophysical Year.

Project Vanguard would be managed by the Naval Research Laboratory and to be based on developing sounding rockets, which had the advantage that they were used for non-military scientific experiments. Four days at the Sixth Congress of International Astronautical Federation in Copenhagen, scientist Leonid I. Sedov spoke to international reporters at the Soviet embassy, announced his country's intention to launch a satellite as well, in the "near future". To the surprise of many, the USSR launched Sputnik 1 as the first artificial Earth satellite on October 4, 1957. After several failed Vanguard launches, Wernher von Braun and his team convinced President Dwight D. Eisenhower to use one of their US Army missiles for the Explorer program. On November 8, 1957, the US Secretary of Defense instructed the US Army to use a modified Jupiter-C rocket to launch a satellite; the US achieved this goal only four months with Explorer 1, on February 1, 1958, but after Sputnik 2 in November 3, 1957, making Explorer 1 the third artificial Earth satellite.

Vanguard 1 became the fourth, launched on March 17, 1958. The Soviet victory in the "Space Race" would be followed by considerable political consequences, one of, the creation of the US space agency NASA on July 29, 1958; the British-American survey of the Atlantic, carried out between September 1954 and July 1959, that discovered full length of the mid-Atlantic ridges, was a major discovery during the IGY. Although the 1932 Polar Year accomplished many of its goals, it fell short on others because of the advance of World War II. In fact, because of the war, much of the data collected and scientific analyses completed during the 1932 Polar Year were lost forever, something, troubling to the IGY organizing committee; the committee resolved that "all observational data shall be available to scientists and scientific institutions in all countries." They felt that without the free exchange of data across international borders, there would be no point in having an IGY. In April 1957, just three months before the IGY began, scientists representing the various disciplines of the IGY established the World Data Center system.

The United States hosted World Data Center "A" and the Soviet Union hosted World Data Center "B." World Data Center "C" was subdivided among countries in Western Europe and Japan. Today, NOAA hosts seven of the fifteen World Data Centers in the United States; each World Data Center would archive a complete set of IGY data to deter losses prevalent during the International Polar Year of 1932. Each World Data Center was equipped to handle many different data formats, including computer punch cards and tape—the original computer media. In addition, each host country agreed to abide by the organizing committee's resolution that there should be a free and open exchange of data among nations. ICSU-WDS goals are to preserve quality assured scientific data and information, to facilitate open access, promote the adoption of standards. ICSU World Data System created in 2008 superseded the World Data Centeres and Federatio

Leonese cuisine

Leonese cuisine has its own peculiarities, being caloric. Cecina from León: from beef. In Leonese, cecina means "meat, salted and dried by means of air, sun or smoke". Cecina de León is made of the hind legs of beef, salted and air-dried in the province of León in northwestern Spain, has protected designation of origin status. Botillo: Traditionally made in the western leonese regions. Botiellu, in Leonese, is a dish of meat-stuffed pork intestine, it is a culinary specialty of El Bierzo, a county in the Spanish province of León and of the Portuguese region of Trás-os-Montes as well. This kind of embutido is a meat product made from different pieces left over from the butchering of a pig, including the ribs and bones with a little meat left on them; these are chopped. It can include pork tongue, shoulder blade and backbone, but never exceeding 20% of the total volume, it is consumed cooked, covered with a sheet. Has a PGI status. Bierzo: in the west of the Province of León and covers about 3,000 km².

The area consists of a wide, flat plain. The DO covers 23 municipalities. Tierras de León: in the southeast of the Province of León. Mantecadas de Astorga. Hojaldres de Astorga. Lazos de San Guillermo. Nicanores de Boñar. Queisu de Valdión León Province Leonese language Castilian-Leonese cuisine Spanish cuisine List of Spanish dishes

Center for Civil Liberties

Center for Civil Liberties is a think-tank founded by Václav Klaus Jr. in January 2017, focused on civil liberties, economic issues, education. Klaus said; the center is associated with the Tricolour Citizens' Movement. The Center is active in Šumava National Park, devastated by bark beetles; when the Czech parliament approved a new environmental protection law, local municipalities protested because they believed it ignored the local human population. The Center for Civil Liberties supported these municipalities, with Klaus Jr. stating that people are a part of the environment. On 16 March 2017 the think-tank organised a conference about the situation in Šumava, attended by around 150 people. Václav Klaus Jr. the founder Jakub Unucka Hana Lipovská

USS McCoy Reynolds

USS McCoy Reynolds was a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U. S. Navy during World War II; the primary purpose of the destroyer escort was to escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. Post-war, after operating in the Pacific Ocean battle areas, her crew members returned home proudly with four battle stars to their credit for World War II and one for the Korean War; the ship was named in honor of Marine Private McCoy Reynolds, killed in action on Guadalcanal on November 25, 1942, after exposing himself to destroy a Japanese machine gun nest in the defense of Henderson Field, for which he was posthumously awarded the Silver Star. McCoy Reynolds was laid down by Federal Dry Dock Co.. Newark, New Jersey, 18 November 1943. Edwin K. Winn in command. After shakedown off Bermuda, McCoy Reynolds departed Norfolk, Virginia, 11 July to escort the aircraft carrier USS Ranger to the Panama Canal Zone. Arriving 16 July, she transited the Panama Canal on 26 July: reached San Diego, California, 6 August.

Sailing 3 September, McCoy Reynolds escorted ships via the Admiralty Islands to the Palau Islands. From 20 to 24 September she screened shore bombardment ships aiding the conquest of Peleliu by U. S. Marines. On 25 September, en route to join Task Force 57 out of Guam, McCoy Reynolds made underwater contact with a suspected submarine, for 2 hours launched four depth charge attacks without results. At 0203 26 September, she picked up a contact on surface radar at about 9,000 yards. Five minutes it disappeared. At 0219 she launched the first of seven vigorous, intensive attacks with hedgehogs and depth charges on the target submarine RO-47. Four hours a violent underwater explosion was felt, her lookouts spotted an oil slick which by noon covered an area of 2 square miles. Arriving Guam 28 September, McCoy Reynolds served on escort duty, she escorted two merchant troopships, to Leyte Gulf 11 to 14 November, sailed in convoy 15 November, arrived at Kossol, the 18th. With the destroyer escort USS Conklin, she began a sonar search at 1055 on 19 November for a submarine, spotted in the western entrance to Kossol Roads.

Four hours she made contact and closed to attack with hedgehogs and depth charges. McCoy Reynolds and Conklin made a total of eight attacks until an underwater explosion occurred and oil and debris gushed to the surface at about 1745, marking the sinking of the Japanese submarine I-37. Through March 1945, McCoy Reynolds escorted convoys in the Marianas and Marshalls and conducted antisubmarine patrols out of Ulithi and Manus, she departed Ulithi 26 March to screen the Logistics Support Group of the United States Fifth Fleet's Fast Carrier Task Force during the Okinawa campaign. During her third escort mission on 12 May McCoy Reynolds went to the aid of the aircraft carrier USS Bunker Hill, struck by two kamikazes the day before, with heavy losses and serious damage. McCoy Reynolds guarded the carrier to Ulithi, arriving 14 May returned to the Logistics Support Group, with whom she experienced the typhoon of 5 June which damaged more than 20 ships of the fleet. After a convoy run to and from Ulithi, McCoy Reynolds carried out antisubmarine and antiair patrols off Okinawa during the closing weeks of the Pacific war.

On 12 July she captured two enemy soldiers attempting to escape from the island in a dugout canoe. On 9 September she rescued two survivors of a U. S. Army fighter, she made passenger and mail runs from Okinawa to Nagasaki and Sasebo until 15 October when she sailed for Saipan, Pearl Harbor, San Diego, California. Arriving San Diego 5 November, she decommissioned there 31 May 1946 and entered the Pacific Reserve Fleet. McCoy Reynolds recommissioned on 29 March 1951 with Lieutenant Commander Peter S. Smith in command. Following shakedown, she arrived Pearl Harbor the 14th, she operated out of Pearl Harbor until 3 May 1952. Sailing via Midway Island and Yokosuka, she arrived off the eastern coast of Korea 17 May; the next day she began shore bombardment at Songjin, on 21 May she destroyed a North Korean railroad train. She alternated duty off Korea with escort runs and UDT delivery and support from Japan to Okinawa and with Formosa patrol duty until departing 20 August for Pearl Harbor, arriving the 29th.

McCoy Reynolds operated out of Pearl Harbor during the next 16 months and deployed to the Far East 4 January 1954. She reached Manila Bay 18 January and after exercises with the Royal Thai Navy carried out training operations in the South China Sea. After serving as station ship at Hong Kong 20 March to 12 May, she exercised in the South China Sea and Gulf of Siam until making passage to Pearl Harbor, 29 June to 11 July. McCoy Reynolds sailed 31 May 1955 for surveillance patrols off the Carolines and service as a search and rescue ship in the mid Pacific, returning to Pearl Harbor 22 October, she participated in antisubmarine warfare, (other training until sailing for the United States West Coast 24 August 1956. She arrived San Francisco, California, 31 August, underwent overhaul at Hunter's Point and decommissioned at Treasure Island, California, 7 February 1957. She

Didn't You Used to Be...

Didn't You Used to Be... is the only album David Cassidy released on Scotti Brothers Records. The album was released in 1992. Titled, Didn't You Used to be?, is David Cassidy's ninth studio album. The album features ten tracks which are all written or co-written by David Cassidy's wife, Sue Shifrin; the song "I'll Never Stop Loving You" was recorded by Heart on a Japanese special edition bonus CD for their album Brigade in 1990, the following year, by Cher on her album Love Hurts. "I'll Never Stop Loving You" was recorded by the rock band Heart and released on a 3-inch limited edition disc with the Japanese red velvet Brigade box set, the song was titled "Never Stop Loving You". It was released by the EMI Japan label for the Heart compilation Ballads: The Greatest Hits in 1997 and with the reissue in 2001. All tracks composed by Sue Shifrin.

Monponsett Pond

Monponsett Pond called Monponsett Lake and the Twin Lakes one lake is dissected by route 58 into a system of two ponds and East in Halifax, with a small portion of West Monponsett Pond extending into Hanson. The western basin is 282 acres, the eastern basin is 246 acres; the average depth of both ponds is seven feet and the maximum depth is 13 feet. The outflow is Stump Brook, a tributary of Poor Meadow Brook, in the northwestern part of West Monponsett Pond; the pond is part of the Taunton River Watershed. During water shortages water from this pond is diverted into Silver Lake, the principal water supply for the City of Brockton. Route 58 bisects the two ponds. A paved boat launching ramp to West Monponsett Pond is on this highway north of White Island Road. White Island in the center of the pond is known to have been the fishing camp of Wamsutta, brother of Chief Metacomet. A culvert connecting the two ponds is nearby. Route 106 runs close to the southern shore of East Monponsett Pond, Route 36 abuts the southeast corner of East Monponsett Pond, where there is a paved launching ramp.

Access to West Monponsett Pond is an unpaved ramp off Lingan Street. Monponsett Pond Seaplane Base is located on this pond. "MassWildlife - Pond Maps and Info"