SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

International Gothic

International Gothic is a period of Gothic art which began in Burgundy and northern Italy in the late 14th and early 15th century. It spread widely across Western Europe, hence the name for the period, introduced by the French art historian Louis Courajod at the end of the 19th century. Artists and portable works, such as illuminated manuscripts, travelled around the continent, leading to a common aesthetic among the royalty and higher nobility and reducing the variation in national styles among works produced for the courtly elites; the main influences were northern France, the Netherlands, the Duchy of Burgundy, the Imperial court in Prague, Italy. Royal marriages such as that between Richard II of England and Anne of Bohemia helped to spread the style, it was a style of courtly sophistication, but somewhat more robust versions spread to art commissioned by the emerging mercantile classes and the smaller nobility. In Northern Europe "Late Gothic" continuations of the style in its decorative elements, could still be found until the early 16th century, as no alternative decorative vocabulary emerged locally to replace it before Renaissance revival of Classicism.

Usage of the terms by art historians varies somewhat, with some using the term more restrictively than others. Some art historians feel the term is "in many ways... not helpful... since it tends to skate over both differences and details of transmission." The important Bohemian version of the style developed in the court of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor in Prague, which for a brief period became a leading force in the development of European art. Charles came from the Luxembourg dynasty, was tutored by the future Pope Clement VI, as a youth spent seven years at the French court, as well as visiting Italy twice; this and family relationships gave him intimate links with the various courts of France, including that of the Avignon Papacy, from 1363 the separate Valois Duchy of Burgundy under Philip the Bold. The Bohemian style lacked the elongated figures of other centres, but had a richness and sweetness in female figures that were influential. Charles had at least one Italian altarpiece made in Italy and sent to Prague, near where it remains today in his showpiece Karlštejn Castle.

For St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague, he first used a French architect, the German Peter Parler. Much of the development of the style occurred in Italy, it spread north of the Alps to influence France through the colony of Italian artists attached to the Papal Court at Avignon, the works displayed from the residence there in the 1330s and 1340s of Simone Martini, a Sienese precursor of the style. Republican Siena had a large influence on the development of the style, but kept to its own dignified Gothic style throughout the period, afterwards, while the flamboyant Visconti court at Milan closely related to the French royal family, was the most important Italian centre of the courtly style; as the style developed in Northern Europe, Italian artists were in turn influenced by it. The marriage in 1384 between the young King Richard II of England and Charles IV's daughter Anne of Bohemia helped to connect Prague and London, bring the style to England, although Anne died in 1394. A number of central works of International Gothic work are votive portraits of monarchs with a sacred figure – in some cases being received into Heaven by them, as with a miniature of Jean, Duc de Berry, some of his relatives, being welcomed by Saint Peter in the Grandes Heures du Duc de Berry.

From this period come the earliest surviving panel portraits of monarchs, royal manuscripts show a increased number of realistic portraits of the monarch who commissioned them. In architecture, where the style was long-lasting, local varieties of it are known as Perpendicular architecture in England, as Sondergotik in Germany and Central Europe, Flamboyant Gothic in France, the Manueline in Portugal, the Isabelline in Spain. In painting and sculpture, the style is sometimes known in German as the "Schöne Stil" or "Weicher Stil". Stylistic features are a dignified elegance, which replaces monumentality, along with rich decorative colouring, elongated figures and flowing lines, it makes a more practised use of perspective and setting. Figures begin to be given more space in their settings, interest is taken in realistically depicted plants and animals. In some works, above all the famous calendar scenes of the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, the beginnings of real landscape painting are seen.

Decoration became ornate as the style developed in Northern Europe, whereas in Italy the increased sophistication of figure painting was absorbed into Early Renaissance painting. In sculpture the leading Italian artists remained closer to classicism, were less affected by the movement. Claus Sluter was the leading sculptor in Burgundy, was one artist able to use the style with a monumental effect. Most sculptors are unknown, the style tended to survive longer in Northern sculpture than painting, as the detailed realism of Early Netherlandish painting was harder to translate into sculpture. Smaller painted wood figures, most of the Madonna, were significant, being portable helped to disseminate the style across Europe. Notable painters included Master Theoderic and the Master of the Třeboň Altarpiece in Bohemia, the Master of the Parement, Jacquemart de Hesdin and the Netherlandish Limbourg brothers in France, Gentile da Fabriano, Lorenzo Monaco and Pisanell

Hinduism in Java

Hinduism has been a major religious and cultural influence in Java. In recent years, it has been enjoying something of a resurgence in the eastern part of the island. Both Java and Sumatra were subject to considerable cultural influence from the India during the first and second millennia of the Common Era. Both Hinduism and Buddhism, which share a common historical background and whose membership may overlap at times, were propagated in the Maritime Southeast Asia. Hinduism, the Sanskrit language through which it was transmitted, became prestigious in Java. Many Hindu temples were built, including Prambanan near Yogyakarta, designated a World Heritage Site. In the sixth and seventh centuries many maritime kingdoms arose in Sumatra and Java which controlled the waters in the Straits of Malacca and flourished with the increasing sea trade between China and India and beyond. During this time, scholars from India and China visited these kingdoms to translate literary and religious texts. Majapahit was based in Central Java, from where it ruled a large part of what is now western Indonesia.

The remnants of the Majapahit kingdom shifted to Bali during the sixteenth century as Muslim kingdoms in the western part of the island gained influence. Although Java was converted to Islam during the 15th century and afterwards, substantial elements of Hindu customs and beliefs persist among ordinary Javanese. In central and eastern Java, Abangan or'nominal' Muslims are predominant.'Javanists', who uphold this folk tradition, coexist along with more orthodox Islamicizing elements. Hinduism or Hindu-animist fusion have been preserved by a number of Javanese communities, many of which claim descent from Majapahit warriors and princes; the Osings of East Java are a community. Most Tenggerese are Hindu, but their religion includes many elements of Buddhism including the worship of Buddha along with Hindu trinity Shiva and Brahma; the Badui have a religion of their own. It is interesting to study conversion to Hinduism in two close and culturally similar regions, the Yogyakarta region, where only sporadic conversions to Hinduism had taken place, the Klaten region, which has witnessed the highest percentage of Hindu converts in Java.

It has been argued that this dissimilarity was related to the difference in the perception of Islam among the Javanese population in each region. Since the mass killings of 1965-1966 in Klaten had been far more awful than those in Yogyakarta, in Klaten the political landscape had been far more politicized than in Yogyakarta; because the killers in Klaten were to a large extent identified with Islam, the people in this region did not convert to Islam, but preferred Hinduism. There is fear for those who are adherent of Javanism of the purge, in order to hide their practices they converted into Hinduism, though they may not practice the religion. Many of the new "Hindus" in Gunung Lawu and Kediri are example of this; the existence of Hindu temples in an area sometimes encourages local people to reaffiliate with Hinduism, whether these are archaeological temple sites being reclaimed as places of Hindu worship, or built temples. The great temple at Prambanan, for example, is in the Klaten area. An important new Hindu temple in eastern Java is Pura Mandaragiri Sumeru Agung, located on the slope of Mt Semeru, Java's highest mountain.

Mass conversions have occurred in the region around Pura Agung Blambangan, another new temple, built on a site with minor archaeological remnants attributed to the kingdom of Blambangan, the last Hindu polity on Java, Pura Loka Moksa Jayabaya, where the Hindu king and prophet Jayabaya is said to have achieved spiritual liberation. Another site is the new Pura Pucak Raung in East Java, mentioned in Balinese literature as the place from where Maharishi Markandeya took Hinduism to Bali in the fifth century AD. An example of resurgence around major archaeological remains of ancient Hindu temple sites was observed in Trowulan near Mojokerto, the capital of the legendary Hindu empire Majapahit. A local Hindu movement is struggling to gain control of a newly excavated temple building which they wish to see restored as a site of active Hindu worship; the temple is to be dedicated to Gajah Mada, the man attributed with transforming the small Hindu kingdom of Majapahit into an empire. Although there has been a more pronounced history of resistance to Islamization in East Java, Hindu communities are expanding in Central Java near the ancient Hindu monuments of Prambanan.

The resurgence of Hinduism in Java is driven in part by the famous Javanese prophesies of Sabdapalon and Jayabaya. Many recent converts to Hinduism had been members of the families of Sukarno's PNI, now support Megawati Sukarnoputri; this return to the'religion of Majapahit' is a matter of cultural preservation of the traditionalist Javanese rather than an actual practice of Hinduism. There is fear by many Javanese "Hindus" of losing their Kejawen identity, with increasing Balinese attempt to standardize the Hinduism in Java. Hinduism in Indonesia Hinduism in Southeast Asia

Glen Wilton, Virginia

Glen Wilton is an unincorporated community in Botetourt County, United States. Callie Furnace was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. Glen Wilton lies between the George Washington National Forest and the James River, whose headwaters are about four miles northeast with the most narrow part being a mile south, near the beginning of Wood's Island, CSX Railroad and James River Division, running parallel to the river. Glen Wilton is the only community in Virginia. Mountain trails lead southwest to Roaring Run and north to Iron Gate. During the flood of 1985, the town of Glen Wilton was isolated for more than 24 hours, an emergency route was established through the mountain to the town of Iron Gate: however, with the heavy rains even the emergency route became impassable. Settlers arrived to the area in the 1700s. There is evidence of Native Americans living in this area as well. A couple of Indian burial sites still exist today. Tucker, Sr. now deceased, had a collection of Indian arrowheads, pieces of pottery, various tools and other Indian artifacts that he had found while walking to these sites.

Letters hand-delivered, were addressed as Upper James River or James River, Botetourt County. In 1837, letters sent through the mail were addressed as Clifton Forge, Botetourt County and/or Alleghany County. With the building of the Buchannan and Clifton Forge Railroad between November 16, 1876 and November 10, 1880 the train station was referenced as Wilton Depot for a short time during the 1880s the post office was called Carolina, named after the wife of D. S. Cook, the President of the Princess Furnace Company. By 1890 and as a result of the birth of the mining operation the area was named Glen Wilton. Glen for the glen site it occupies and Wilton for Wilton Cook, son of D. S Cook. In 1834, Archelius Reynolds purchased a large tract of land from Charlotte Davidson Pitzer. In 1841, John Lewis Circle, Sr. purchased land from Mrs. Pitzer; as a result, the area within a mile north and south of what would be named Glen Wilton was owned by three families: namely, Reynolds and Wood. Archelius Reynolds died in 1863, Joseph B. Wood died in 1816, John Lewis Circle, Sr. died in 1875.

An act approved by the General Assembly of Virginia, March 27, 1876, entitled Buchannan and Clifton Forge Railway Company to incorporate and enabled James River and Kanawha Canal Company to subscribe to the capital stock. It was proposed to construct a railway from the James River and Kanawha Canal at or near Buchannan to the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad at or near Clifton Forge. By 1884,it had become the Alleghany and Richmond Railroad, shortly afterward, the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway Company, is now known as CSX. In May 1932, telegraph service was discontinued. Service from the four passenger/mail trains, No. 9 and No. 10 which went to and from Richmond daily and No. 32 and No. 33 which went to and from Lynchburg daily, was discontinued October 1957. Subsequently, the Glen Wilton combination station was closed and removed October 1962; the Princess Iron Company operated in Ashland, Boyd County and experienced many explosions during the period of its beginnings in 1876. Company houses were built to accommodate the increasing population.

Iron ore mining was the chief industry until the furnace closed in 1923, having been forced out of business by the more economical Great Lakes iron ore operations. Ore was hauled from the mines to the furnace by rail. Between Glen Wilton and Iron Gate is the Callie Furnace, the first furnace erected in Botetourt County after the Civil War, it was abandoned in the early 1880s. The Princess Furnace abandoned in the 1920s, it was the only modern blast furnace in Botetourt County. In 1974, the Callie Furnace was placed on the National Register of Historic Places; the town, at one time, was said to have had its own school system, as indicated in The Methodist Church Quarterly Conference Minutes, dated January 31, 1880, mentions an afternoon school at Laurel Hill schoolhouse, about one mile from the parsonage. Arranged to meet the needs of individuals on this side of the river who could not attend classes at New Bethel, located on the other side David Wood was superintendent of Laurel Hill. In 1888, Joseph E, Circle sold land to Fincastle District School Board and was the site for the school attended by black students.

In 1902, W. E. Circle, executor for the estate of John L. Circle, Jr.also sold land to the Fincastle District School Board, where a frame school building was erected and was attended by white students. This building was closed in 1919 and a brick school building was constructed for grades up to the tenth grade, however no school was held in the fall of 1919, due to the construction being not yet completed; the new school opened in January 1920. Anyone seeking to receive a diploma had to leave the area to do so. Public transportation was not provided until the 1930-31 school year for those going to Eagle Rock for their final year of high school. From March 1941 until September 1943 the Glen Wilton school was closed due to the School Board selling the property to Triton Chemical Company. After a legal battle, the school was reopened in September 1943 for the first three grades and it remained open, for a short time, for the lower grades only, up to the fifth grade. In Spring of 1959, the Glen Wilton School was closed for good.

By Fall of 1959, all elementary students were attending Eagle Rock Elementary and all high school students were bused 26 miles down Route 43 to James River Hig