International Ice Hockey Federation

The International Ice Hockey Federation is a worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey. It is based in Zurich and has 81 members, it maintains the IIHF World Ranking based on international ice hockey tournaments. Rules of play for IIHF events differ from hockey in North America and the rules of the National Hockey League. Decisions of the IIHF can be appealed through the Court of Arbitration for Sport in Lausanne, Switzerland; the IIHF maintains its own hall of fame for international ice hockey. The IIHF Hall of Fame was founded in 1997, has been located within the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1998; the main functions of the IIHF are to govern and organize hockey throughout the world. Another duty is to promote friendly relations among the member national associations and to operate in an organized manner for the good order of the sport; the federation may take the necessary measures in order to conduct itself and its affairs in accordance with its statutes and regulations as well as in holding a clear jurisdiction with regards to ice hockey and in-line hockey at the international level.

The IIHF is the body responsible with arranging the sponsorships, license rights and merchandising in connection with all IIHF competitions. Another purpose of the federation is to provide aid in the young players' development and in the development of coaches and game officials. On the other hand, all the events of IIHF are organized by the federation along with establishing and maintaining contact with any other sport federations or sport groups; the IIHF is responsible for processing the international players' transfers. It is the body that presides over ice hockey at the Olympic Games as well as over all levels of the IIHF World Championships; the federation works in collaboration with local committees when organizing its 25 World Championships, at five different categories. Though the IIHF runs the world championships, it is responsible for the organization of several European club competitions such as the Champions Hockey League or the Continental Cup; the federation is governed by the legislative body of the IIHF, the General Congress along with the executive body, the Council.

The Congress is entitled to make decisions with regard to the game's rules, the statutes and bylaws in the name of the federation. It is the body that elects the president and the council or otherwise known as board; the president of the IIHF is the representative of the federation. He represents the federation's interests in all external matters and he is responsible that the decisions are made according to the federation's statutes and regulations; the president is assisted by the General Secretary, the highest ranked employee of the IIHF. The International Ice Hockey Federation was founded on 15 May 1908 at 34 Rue de Provence in Paris, France, as Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace; the founders of the federation were representatives from Belgium, Great Britain and Bohemia. Louis Magnus, the French representative, was the fifth member to sign the founding document and the first president of the LIHG; the second congress was held from 22 -- 25 January 1909 in France. Playing and competitions rules were established, an agreement was reached for an annual European Championship to be contested, beginning in 1910.

The 1909 Coupe de Chamonix was contested during the congress. It was won by Princes Ice Hockey Club. Germany became the sixth LIHG member on 19 September 1909; the third LIHG Congress was held on 9 January 1910 in Switzerland. Louis Magnus was re-elected president and Peter Patton took on the position of vice-president; the first European Championship began in Les Avants a day after the conclusion of the congress. It was won by Great Britain. Russia was added as the seventh LIHG member and Herman Kleeberg replaced Peter Patton as vice president at the fourth LIHG Congress, held in Berlin from 16–17 February 1911, in conjunction with the 1911 European Championship. On 14 March 1911, the LIHG adopted Canadian rules of ice hockey; the fifth LIHG Congress took place in Brussels, Belgium. Unlike the two previous conferences, it was not held in conjunction with the European Championships, staged in Prague in early February. A verdict was reached regarding the fate of the past month's European Championship, the subject of a protest by Germany.

It was decided that the tournament would be annulled as Austria was not yet an LIHG member at the time of its playing. Austria, along with Luxembourg, were accepted as LIHG members at the congress. Henri van den Bulcke succeeded Louis Magnus as LIHG president, Max Sillig replaced Herman Kleeberg as vice-president; the first LIHG Championship was contested in Brussels from 20–24 March. It was held annually until 1914. At the 1913 congress in St. Moritz, Max Sillig resigned his position as vice-president and was replaced by Peter Patton, who had served in the position from 1910–1911. In February 1913, LIHG arranged the first European Bandy Championship tournament in Davos, Switzerland; the 1914 congress was held in the location of that year's European Championship. Louis Magnus replaced Van den Bulcke as president, but he resigned as the other delegates did not follow his program. Peter Patton, vice-president at the time became president and had new elections staged. Van den Bulcke was again elected as president, Patton was returned to his prior role of vice-president.

World War I interrupted

Keith Arbuthnott, 17th Viscount of Arbuthnott

John Keith Oxley Arbuthnott, 17th Viscount of Arbuthnott is a Scottish peer and businessman. He was educated at North Scotland College of Agriculture. Although entitled to live at the ancestral home in the family estate, Arbuthnott House at Laurencekirk, Inverbervie, he has given this to his son and his family to stay in. Instead, he and his wife lives in the former manse of Arbuthnott Parish Church. Arbuthnott married Jill Mary Farquharson in 1974 and they have three children and five grandchildren: The Hon. Clare Anne Arbuthnott she married Hugh Craigie-Halkett in March 2001 and they were divorced in 2010, they have two sons. She remarried Steve Small in January 2014. Archibald Robert Craigie Halkett Charles Frederick Craigie Halkett The Hon. Christopher Keith Arbuthnott, Master of Arbuthnott he married Emily Agg-Manning in April 2003, they have three children: Florence Mary-Jean Arbuthnott Alexander Nicholas Keith Arbuthnott Rosanagh Beatrice Arbuthnott The Hon. Rachel Sarah Arbuthnott Arbuthnott family tree at Arbuthnott family tree at Cracoft's Peerage

Gaita transmontana

The gaita transmontana or gaita de foles mirandesa is a type of bagpipe native to the Trás-os-Montes region of Portugal. The most ancient records of this instrument date from the 18th century written, its culture has been passed since from father to son until the 20th century, with some small differences from region to region. In Portugal, it can be found in Trás-os-Montes region, specially in Vinhais, Bragança, Miranda and Mogadouro, but in Guarda and Castelo Branco; some Portuguese regiments from Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Guarda used the bagpipes to mark the marching cadence, although the standard marching pattern of the Portuguese infantry regiments was the same as the French. Northern Portugal, specially above the Douro river, is a mountainous region, where the sound of bagpipes can be heard miles away due to the resonance effect created by the oppressive humidity and altitude; the gaita transmontana has a peculiarly grave tone. In fact, numerous written records of French commanders during the Peninsular War noted the intimidating effect the sound had on foot soldiers, specially at night, unfamiliar with such sound.

Only this type of bagpipe has been recovered through the gathering of repertoires, aided by the promotion of the instrument from several bagpipe associations from Portugal and Galicia in Spain. Many protest that the term gaita mirandesa is somewhat imprecise, given that the city of Miranda do Douro is only a small area within the territory comprised by Trás-os-montes, where the instrument is traditionally held to have originated in the comarcas of Vinhais, Bragança, Mogadouro, in addition to Miranda. For that reason it would be more correct to call it "gaita-de-fole transmontana" or just "gaita-de-fole", which it is still called by the oldest players of the instrument; the name "transmontana" serves only to distinguish it from other Iberian bagpipes, such as the Gallician and Asturian varieties. Sobre a gaita transmontana