International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization is a United Nations agency whose mandate is to advance social justice and promote decent work by setting international labour standards. It was the first specialised agency of the UN; the ILO has 187 member states: 186 of the 193 UN member states plus the Cook Islands are members of the ILO. The tripartite structure is unique to the ILO where representatives from the government and employees debate and create labour standards; the International Labour Office is the permanent secretariat of the International Labour Organization. It is the focal point for International Labour Organization's overall activities, which it prepares under the scrutiny of the Governing Body and under the leadership of the Director-General; the ILO employs some 2,700 officials from over 150 nations at its headquarters in Geneva, in around 40 field offices around the world. Among these officials, 900 work in technical cooperation projects. In 1969, the ILO received the Nobel Peace Prize for improving fraternity and peace among nations, pursuing decent work and justice for workers, providing technical assistance to other developing nations.

Fifty years to mark the organization's centenary, it convened a Global Commission on the Future of Work, whose report, published in January 2019, made ten recommendations for governments to meet the unprecedented challenges of a changing world of work. Those included a universal labour guarantee, social protection from birth to old age and an entitlement to lifelong learning; the International Labour Organization has developed a system of international labour standards aimed at promoting opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity and dignity. Unlike other United Nations specialized agencies, the International Labour Organization has a tripartite governing structure that brings together governments and workers of 187 member States, to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men; the structure is intended to ensure the views of all three groups are reflected in ILO labour standards and programmes, though governments have twice as many representatives as the other two groups.

The Governing Body is the executive body of the International Labour Organization. It meets three times a year, in March and November, it takes decisions on ILO policy, decides the agenda of the International Labour Conference, adopts the draft Programme and Budget of the Organization for submission to the Conference, elects the Director-General, requests information from the member states concerning labour matters, appoints commissions of inquiry and supervises the work of the International Labour Office. Juan Somavía was the ILO's Director-General from 1999 until October 2012; the ILO Governing Body re-elected Guy Rider as Director-General for a second five year-term in November 2016. This governing body is composed of 66 deputy members. Ten of the titular government seats are permanently held by States of chief industrial importance: Brazil, France, India, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States; the other Government members are elected by the Conference every three years.

The Employer and Worker members are elected in their individual capacity. The ILO organises once a year the International Labour Conference in Geneva to set the broad policies of the ILO, including conventions and recommendations. Known as the "international parliament of labour", the conference makes decisions about the ILO's general policy, work programme and budget and elects the Governing Body; each member state is represented by a delegation: two government delegates, an employer delegate, a worker delegate and their respective advisers. All of them have individual voting rights and all votes are equal, regardless the population of the delegate's member State; the employer and worker delegates are chosen in agreement with the most representative national organizations of employers and workers. The workers and employers' delegates coordinate their voting. All delegates are not required to vote in blocs. Delegate have the same rights, they can express themselves and vote as they wish; this diversity of viewpoints does not prevent decisions being adopted by large majorities or unanimously.

Heads of State and prime ministers participate in the Conference. International organizations, both governmental and others attend but as observers; the ILO has 187 state members. 186 of the 193 member states of the United Nations plus the Cook Islands are members of the ILO. The UN member states which are not members of the ILO are Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco and North Korea; the ILO constitution permits any member of the UN to become a member of the ILO. To gain membership, a nation must inform the director-general that it accepts all the obligations of the ILO constitution. Other states can be admitted by a two-thirds vote of all delegates, including a two-thirds vote of government delegates, at any ILO General Conference; the Cook Islands, a non-UN state, joined in June 2015. Members of the ILO under the League of Nations automatically became members when the organization's new constitution came into effect after World War II; the ILO is a specialized agency of the United Nations. As with other UN specialized agencies working on international development, the ILO is a member of the Un


Odontostomidae is a taxonomic family of medium-sized to large, air-breathing and sub-tropical land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs in the superfamily Orthalicoidea. This taxon was placed as the tribe Odontostomini, in the subfamily Bulimulinae, within the family Orthalicidae, according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda. Breure et al. elevated Odontostomini to Odontostomidae. Genera in the family Odontostomidae include: Anostoma Fischer von Waldheim, 1807 - synonym: Ringicella Gray, 1847 cf. Bahiensis Jousseaume, 1877 Biotocus Salgado & Leme, 1990 Bonnanius Jousseaume, 1900 Clessinia Doering, 1874 Cyclodontina Beck, 1837 Digerus Haas, 1937 cf. Hyperaulax Pilsbry, 1897 Moricandia Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1898 Odontostomus Beck, 1837 - type genus of the tribe Odontostomini Plagiodontes Doering, 1876 Spixia Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1898 Tomigerus Spix, 1827 Species in tribe Odontostomini have the aperture obstructed by internal lamellae, folds or teeth. Jaw either plaited or solid. Odontostomini is a natural group of genera, confined to South America east of the Andes, with the exception of some species, south of the Amazon.

That the whole series had its inception in a form in which the characteristic apertural teeth had been developed, is demonstrated by the fact that these lamella and folds are homologous throughout the species of the several genera. It follows from this that the toothless forms, such as Moricandia, are secondarily so, by degeneration of the teeth of their ancestors. Many species show the various stages of tooth degeneration; this article incorporates public domain text from the reference

Lyuboslav Penev

Lyuboslav Mladenov Penev is a Bulgarian football manager and former player. Penev's first professional team was CSKA Sofia of the Bulgarian capital, he made his first team debut in 1984. CSKA of the late 1980s was the football "alma mater" to several Bulgarian players like Hristo Stoichkov who made it to the international top in the 1990s. During those days Lubo's teammates included defender Trifon Ivanov, winger Emil Kostadinov, striker Hristo Stoichkov. With CSKA Penev won the Bulgarian Cup three times, he was voted as the Bulgarian Footballer of the Year in 1988. In 1989, after reaching stardom in the Bulgarian football, he took an important step in his career by moving to the Spanish League. In Primera Penev played for four different clubs: Valencia CF, Atlético Madrid, SD Compostela and Celta Vigo; the highlight of the Spanish years was the 1995–1996 season with Atlético, when the club conquered both the league championship and the Spanish Cup. Penev was the most efficient player of the "double squad" by scoring 22 goals in 44 games.

Penev represented Bulgaria in 1996 European Football Championship in England and in the 1998 World Cup in France. He could not take part in the 1994 World Cup, as he had been diagnosed with testicular cancer since the beginning of 1994. For the same reason he was replaced by Nasko Sirakov during the match Bulgaria vs Romania at UEFA Euro 1996 in England. In March 2009, he succeeded his uncle Dimitar Penev as manager of CSKA Sofia and under his guidance the team qualified for the group stages of the UEFA Europa League, defeating FC Dynamo Moscow – 2–1 on aggregate. On 6 November 2009, he gave his resignation, after a 1–3 loss to Swiss side FC Basel due to a conflict with the club's owners. CSKA finished 4th in the group behind Roma and Fulham. CSKA won its single point in the opening game against the future finalist Fulham. However, Penev's resignation was not accepted; the club was leader in the Bulgarian championship before the last round, when Litex Lovech took the leadership. On 13 January 2010, after another clash with the owners, he was fired.

After the lost game against Minyor Pernik he withdrew nine players from training sessions for breaking the club's rules, this led to the conflict with the owners. During the summer many rumours connected him with a transfer to a Spanish clubs, but he remained a free agent. On 2 September 2010, he became manager of Litex Lovech and won the 2010–2011 A PFG Group championship. On 23 October 2011, he resigned as Litex Lovech coach and was appointed manager of the national team. In his first game in charge, on 29 February 2012, Bulgaria earned a 1–1 draw away to Hungary. On 26 May 2012 his team defeated the runners-up of the 2010 FIFA World Cup Netherlands in Amsterdam by a score of 2–1. Under his management, Bulgaria's fortunes picked up and the team put in credible performances against Italy and the Czech Republic in the qualifications for the 2014 FIFA World Cup; as a result, Bulgaria climbed from 96th in the FIFA World rankings when Penev took over, to 40th in November 2012. Bulgaria stand second in Group B on 13 points.

Their next game was against the Czech Republic in Sofia on 15 October 2013, a match which Bulgaria lost 0–1. On 1 November 2013, Lyuboslav Penev extended his contract with the national team of Bulgaria for two years. During this period, he will be able to qualify the team for the UEFA Euro 2016 in France. On 6 June 2014, Penev was unveiled as the new manager of Botev Plovdiv, emphasizing that his new duties will not in any way affect his commitment to the national team; the sudden financial troubles of the club, led to the quick termination of his contract in early July after only one game. On 8 July 2014, Penev left Botev Plovdiv after just one game to focus on the Bulgaria National Team. On 20 November 2014, Penev was sacked by Bulgaria National Team following a run of poor results that culminated in a frustrating 1–1 home draw with Malta. In late April 2015, Penev took over as coach of former club CSKA Sofia until the end of the season, replacing Galin Ivanov after the club had found itself in a difficult situation due to a string of unsuccessful performances that had started at the beginning of 2015.

On 22 January 2016 it was announced. The team was expelled from A Group, but had matches for the Bulgarian Cup until end of the season. In late September 2016, national team coach Ivaylo Petev agreed to a managerial contract with Dinamo Zagreb and therefore resigned. Many of the top national team players have spoken out in favour of Penev being reappointed as a national team coach - this is due to his tough and successful coaching. Many players such as Stanislav Manolev have stated that Bulgaria has been at their best in many recent years under coach Penev, as he is tough and tactically mindful of the game and knows what to do to bring the Bulgarian national team back to its original status as a side competitive with the European powerhouses in football; as of 3 May 2019 CSKA SofiaBulgarian League: 1987, 1989 Bulgarian Cup: 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989 Cup of the Soviet Army: 1985, 1986, 1989 Bulgarian Super Cup: 1989Valencia CFLa Liga 1989–90 Runners-upAtlético MadridLa Liga: 1995–96 Copa del Rey: 1995–96 Bulgarian Footballer of the Year - 1988 Litex LovechBulgarian Le