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International Maritime Organization

The International Maritime Organization, known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping. The IMO was established following agreement at a UN conference held in Geneva in 1948 and the IMO came into existence ten years meeting for the first time in 1959. Headquartered in London, United Kingdom, the IMO has 174 member states and three associate members; the IMO's primary purpose is to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping and its remit today includes safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical co-operation, maritime security and the efficiency of shipping. IMO is governed by an assembly of members and is financially administered by a council of members elected from the assembly; the work of IMO is conducted through five committees and these are supported by technical subcommittees. Other UN organisations may observe the proceedings of the IMO.

Observer status is granted to qualified non-governmental organisations. IMO is supported by a permanent secretariat of employees who are representative of the organisation's members; the secretariat is composed of a Secretary-General, periodically elected by the assembly, various divisions such as those for marine safety, environmental protection and a conference section. Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization was formed in order to bring the regulation of the safety of shipping into an international framework, for which the creation of the United Nations provided an opportunity. Hitherto such international conventions had been initiated piecemeal, notably the Safety of Life at Sea Convention, first adopted in 1914 following the Titanic disaster. IMCO's first task was to update that convention; when IMCO began its operations in 1959 certain other pre-existing conventions were brought under its aegis, most notable the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil 1954.

The first meetings of the newly formed IMCO were held in London in 1959. Throughout its existence IMCO renamed the IMO in 1982, has continued to produce new and updated conventions across a wide range of maritime issues covering not only safety of life and marine pollution but encompassing safe navigation and rescue, wreck removal, tonnage measurement and compensation, ship recycling, the training and certification of seafarers, piracy. More SOLAS has been amended to bring an increased focus on maritime security through the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code; the IMO has increased its focus on smoke emissions from ships. In January 1959, IMO began to promote the 1954 OILPOL Convention. Under the guidance of IMO, the convention was amended in 1962, 1969, 1971; as oil trade and industry developed, many people in the industry began to recognise a need for further improvements in regards to oil pollution prevention at sea. This became apparent in 1967, when the tanker Torrey Canyon spilled 120,000 tons of crude oil when it ran aground entering the English ChannelThe Torrey Canyon grounding was the largest oil pollution incident recorded up to that time.

This incident prompted a series of new conventions. IMO held an emergency session of its Council to deal with the need to readdress regulations pertaining to maritime pollution. In 1969, the IMO Assembly decided to host an international gathering in 1973 dedicated to this issue; the goal at hand was to develop an international agreement for controlling general environmental contamination by ships when out at sea. During the next few years IMO brought to the forefront a series of measures designed to prevent large ship accidents and to minimise their effects, it detailed how to deal with the environmental threat caused by routine ship duties such as the cleaning of oil cargo tanks or the disposal of engine room wastes. By tonnage, the aforementioned was a bigger problem than accidental pollution; the most significant thing to come out of this conference was the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973. It covers not only accidental and operational oil pollution but different types of pollution by chemicals, goods in packaged form, sewage and air pollution.

The original MARPOL was signed on 17 February 1973, but did not come into force due to lack of ratifications. The current convention is a combination of the 1978 Protocol, it entered into force on 2 October 1983. As of May 2013, 152 states, representing 99.2 per cent of the world's shipping tonnage, are involved in the convention. In 1983 the IMO established the World Maritime University in Sweden; the IMO headquarters are located in a large purpose-built building facing the River Thames on the Albert Embankment, in Lambeth, London. The organisation moved into its new headquarters in late 1982, with the building being opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 17 May 1983; the architects of the building were Douglass Worby & Robinson. The front of the building is dominated by a seven-metre high, ten-tonne bronze sculpture of the bow of a ship, with a lone seafarer maintaining a look-out; the previous headquarters of IMO were at 101 Piccadilly, prior to that at 22 Berners Street in Fitzrovia and in Chancery Lane.

To become a member of the IMO, a state ratifies a multilateral treaty known as the Convention on the International Maritime Org

Jack Arena

Jack Arena is an American ice hockey coach. He has spent his career at Amherst College where he has amassed over 400 wins, several ECAC and NESCAC championships, multiple NCAA Tournament appearances, including two NCAA Final Four appearances. Arena has been dubbed NESCAC Coach of the Year, New England Hockey Writers ECAC East Coach of the Year, as well as the prestigious Edward Jeremiah Award for National Coach of the Year. Arena has served as a coach for football and baseball at Amherst, is the head coach of the golf team as well. Born in Randolph, Arena attended Milton Academy before heading off to Amherst College as a student. At Amherst, he was a four-year member of baseball teams. Arena was hired as head coach for the ice hockey team following his senior year. Arena still stands tied for fourth on Amherst's all-time scoring list. Arena now resides on the campus of the Northfield Mount Hermon School, where he lives with his wife and his four children, Patrick and Ellen. List of college men's ice hockey coaches with 400 wins

Monte Carlo localization

Monte Carlo localization known as particle filter localization, is an algorithm for robots to localize using a particle filter. Given a map of the environment, the algorithm estimates the position and orientation of a robot as it moves and senses the environment; the algorithm uses a particle filter to represent the distribution of states, with each particle representing a possible state, i.e. a hypothesis of where the robot is. The algorithm starts with a uniform random distribution of particles over the configuration space, meaning the robot has no information about where it is and assumes it is likely to be at any point in space. Whenever the robot moves, it shifts the particles to predict its new state after the movement. Whenever the robot senses something, the particles are resampled based on recursive Bayesian estimation, i.e. how well the actual sensed data correlate with the predicted state. The particles should converge towards the actual position of the robot. Consider a robot with an internal map of its environment.

When the robot moves around, it needs to know. Determining its location and rotation by using its sensor observations is known as robot localization; because the robot may not always behave in a predictable way, it generates many random guesses of where it is going to be next. These guesses are known as particles; each particle contains a full description of a possible future state. When the robot observes the environment, it discards particles inconsistent with this observation, generates more particles close to those that appear consistent. In the end most particles converge to where the robot is; the state of the robot depends on the design. For example, the state of a typical 2D robot may consist of a tuple for position x, y and orientation θ. For a robotic arm with 10 joints, it may be a tuple containing the angle at each joint:; the belief, the robot's estimate of its current state, is a probability density function distributed over the state space. In the MCL algorithm, the belief at a time t is represented by a set of M particles X t =.

Each particle contains a state, can thus be considered a hypothesis of the robot's state. Regions in the state space with many particles correspond to a greater probability that the robot will be there—and regions with few particles are unlikely to be where the robot is; the algorithm assumes the Markov property that the current state's probability distribution depends only on the previous state, i.e. X t depends only on X t − 1; this only works if the environment does not change with time. On start up, the robot has no information on its current pose so the particles are uniformly distributed over the configuration space. Given a map of the environment, the goal of the algorithm is for the robot to determine its pose within the environment. At every time t the algorithm takes as input the previous belief X t − 1 =, an actuation command u t, data received from sensors z t. Algorithm MCL: X t ¯ = X t = ∅ for m = 1 to M: x t = motion_update w t = sensor_update ( z t, x t [ m

Coffea arabica

Coffea arabica known as the Arabian coffee, "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee" or "arabica coffee", is a species of Coffea. It is believed to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated, is the dominant cultivar, representing about 60% of global production. Coffee produced from the robusta bean makes up most of the remaining coffee production. Arabica coffee was first documented by the 12th century. Coffea arabica is called būna in Arabic; the first written record of coffee made from roasted coffee beans comes from Arab scholars, who wrote that it was useful in prolonging their working hours. The Arab innovation in Yemen of making a brew from roasted beans, spread first among the Egyptians and Turks, on found its way around the world. Other scholars believe that the coffee plant was introduced from Yemen, based on a Yemeni tradition that slips of both coffee and qat were planted at'Udein' in Yemen in pre-Islamic times. Wild plants grow between 9 and 12 m tall, have an open branching system.

The flowers grow in axillary clusters. The seeds are contained in a drupe 10–15 mm in diameter, maturing bright red to purple and contains two seeds, the actual coffee beans. Coffea arabica is the only polyploid species of the genus Coffea, as it carries 4 copies of the 11 chromosomes instead of the 2 copies of diploid species. Coffea arabica is itself the result of a hybridization between the diploids Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides, thus making it an allotetraploid, with two copies of two different genomes. Arabica coffee production in Indonesia began in 1699 through the spread of Yemen's trade. Indonesian coffees, such as Sumatran and Java, are known for low acidity; this makes them ideal for blending with the higher acidity coffees from Central America and East Africa. Endemic to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Coffea arabica is now rare in Ethiopia, while many populations appear to be of mixed native and planted trees, it is used as an understorey shrub. It has been recovered from the Boma Plateau in South Sudan.

Coffea arabica is found on Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya, but it is unclear whether this is a native or naturalised occurrence. The species is naturalised in areas outside its native land, in many parts of Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and assorted islands in the Caribbean and in the Pacific; the conservation of the genetic variation of C. arabica relies on conserving healthy populations of wild coffee in the Afromontane rainforests of Yemen. Genetic research has shown coffee cultivation is threatening the genetic integrity of wild coffee because it exposes wild genotypes to cultivars. Nearly all of the coffee, cultivated over the past few centuries originated with just a handful of wild plants from Yemen, today the coffee growing on plantations around the world contains less than 1% of the diversity contained in the wild in Yemen alone. Coffea arabica accounts for 60% of the world's coffee production. C. Arabica takes seven years to mature and it does best with 1.0–1.5 meters of rain, evenly distributed throughout the year.

It is cultivated between 1,300 and 1,500 m altitude, but there are plantations that grow it as low as sea level and as high as 2,800 m. The plant can tolerate low temperatures, but not frost, it does best with an average temperature between 15 and 24 °C. Commercial cultivars only grow to about 5 m, are trimmed as low as 2 m to facilitate harvesting. Unlike Coffea canephora, C. arabica prefers to be grown in light shade. Two to four years after planting, C. arabica produces small, white fragrant flowers. The sweet fragrance resembles the sweet smell of jasmine flowers. Flowers opening on sunny days result in the greatest numbers of berries; this can deleterious, however, as coffee plants tend to produce too many berries. On well-kept plantations, overflowering is prevented by pruning the tree; the flowers only last a few days, leaving behind only the dark-green leaves. The berries begin to appear; these are as dark green as the foliage, until they begin to ripen, at first to yellow and light red and darkening to a glossy, deep red.

At this point, they are called "cherries", which fruit they resemble, are ready for picking. The berries are about 1 cm long. Inferior coffee results from picking them too early or too late, so many are picked by hand to be able to better select them, as they do not all ripen at the same time, they are sometimes shaken off the tree onto mats, which means ripe and unripe berries are collected together. The trees are difficult to cultivate and each tree can produce from 0.5 to 5.0 kg of dried beans, depending on the tree's individual character and the climate that season. The most valuable part of this cash crop are the beans inside; each berry holds two locules containing the beans. The coffee beans are two seeds within the fruit; these seeds are covered in two membranes. On Java, trees are planted at all times of the year and are harvested year

The Ultimate Anthology

The Ultimate Anthology is a compilation album by pop group Bucks Fizz. Released in 2005, this album was significant in that it was the first release that contained all of Bucks Fizz's 20 hit singles together on one disc; the album was released by Sony/BMG in conjunction with Fat Dog Productions - who were a fan-based team of producers who went on to produce The Lost Masters collections. Many of the tracks on the album differed from the original 7" versions in that they featured a'dead-end' rather than a fade-out; these recordings were produced at the time for television promotional appearances by the group. The album came with a Bonus disc of rare tracks and unreleased remixes. In a review, Music Week said that among a number of Bucks Fizz compilations, this was "undeniably the best". Disc one"Making Your Mind Up" "Piece of the Action" "One of Those Nights" "The Land of Make Believe" "My Camera Never Lies" "Now Those Days Are Gone" "If You Can't Stand the Heat" "Run for Your Life" "When We Were Young" "London Town" "Rules of the Game" "Talking in Your Sleep" "Golden Days" "I Hear Talk" "You and Your Heart so Blue" "Magical" "New Beginning" "Love the One You're With" "Keep Each Other Warm" "Heart of Stone"Bonus disc"Oh Suzanne" "When We Were Young" "Rules of the Game" "What's Love Got to Do with It?"

"You and Your Heart So Blue" "New Beginning" "Keep Each Other Warm" "Give a Little Love" "If Paradise is Half as Nice" "This Fragile Heart" "My Camera Never Lies" "The Land of Make Believe" + Hidden track

Amboina Serenaders

The Amboina Serenaders were a successful and popular group that did well in the Netherlands in the 1950s. Its members included the ex wife of George de Fretes, they had a top ten hit in the Netherlands with "Klappermelk Met Suiker". The Amboina Serenaders evolved out of the Mena Muria Minstrels, a group founded by Rudi Wairata in 1950; the line up included George de Fretes's ex wife Joyce Aubrey. Another member of the group was Miing Luhulima. In addition to Wairata and Aubrey, their 1953 line up included Jack Salakory and Joop Sahanaya. In that year, there was a disagreement of sorts within the group which caused founder Wairata to leave. From onwards, the group was led by Luhulima. In 1958, Aubrey left the band to join the Royal Hawaiian Minstrels, a band led by her former husband George; the group broke up some time after that. In 1955, they did well with "Goro Goro Me’"; the following year their single "Klappermelk Met Suiker", composed by Pierre Wijnnobel peaked at #9, spending 5 weeks in the charts.

The title of the song translates. In 1981, founding member Rudi Wairata died. Joyce Aubrey aka Joyce de Fretes - Vocals Charlie Kuipers - Steel Guitar Ming Luhulima - Ukulele David Nanuru - Steel Guitar Joop Sahanaya - Guitar Tjak Salakory - Bass Rudi Wairata - Steel Guitar Pariury Patty The Amboina Serenaders O.l.v. Rudi Wairata – "Ja Hoera" / "Hela Arombai" - RCA – 18154 Rudi Wairata En Zijn Amboina Serenaders - "Nona Pédédé" / "Hoera Hoera Tjintjin" - RCA 28105 - Rudi Wairata En Zijn Amboina Serenaders - "Ik wil klappermelk met suiker" / "Soerabaja" - RCA 28117 - Rudi Wairata And His Amboina Serenaders – "É-Tanasé" / "Waktoe-Potong-Padi" - RCA – 28119 Rudi Wairata And His Amboina Serenaders – "Goodbye To You Nona Manis" / "Kota Ambon" - RCA – 28129 - The Amboina Serenaders - "Panggajo E Panggajo" / "Sarinandé" - RCA 48102 - The Amboina Serenaders - "Waktoe Potong Padi" / "E Tanase" - Omega 35.357 - The Amboina Serenaders - "Goodbye To You Nona Manis" / "Kota Ambon" - Omega 35.359 - The Amboina Serenaders - "Ouw-Ulat Ee", "Pantai Waijamé" / "Ladju-Ladju", " Hoehaté" - CID 75.875 - Rudi Wairata And His Amboina Serenaders – Amboina - RCA 130.153 L.

P Amboina Serenaders – Goodbye To You, Nona Manis - Dureco 51.054 The Amboina Serenaders* o.l.v. Ming Luhulima - The Amboina Serenaders - GIP – 2L 51.015/16 - Ming Luhulima And His Amboina Serenaders - Ming Luhulima And His Amboina Serenaders - Dureco 51.005