James Beaumont Strachey was a British psychoanalyst, with his wife Alix, a translator of Sigmund Freud into English. He is best known as the general editor of The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud... the international authority". He was a son of Lt-Gen Sir Richard Strachey and Lady Strachey, called the enfant miracle as his father was 70 and his mother 47; some of his nieces and nephews, who were older than James, called him Jembeau or Uncle Baby. His parents had thirteen children, he was educated at Hillbrow preparatory school in Rugby and at Trinity College, where he took over the rooms used by his older brother Lytton Strachey, was known as "the Little Strachey". At Cambridge, Strachey fell in love with the poet Rupert Brooke, who did not return his affections, he was himself pursued by mountaineer George Mallory, by Harry Norton and by economist John Maynard Keynes, with whom he had an affair. His love of Brooke was a constant, until the latter's death in 1915, which left Strachey "shattered".
On the imposition of military conscription in 1916, during World War I, James became a conscientious objector. James was assistant editor of The Spectator, a member of the Bloomsbury Group or "Bloomsberries" when he became familiar with Alix Sargant Florence, though they first met in 1910, they moved in together in 1919 and married in 1920. Soon afterwards they moved to Vienna, where James began a psychoanalysis with Freud, of whom he was a great admirer, he would claim to Lytton that his analysis "provided'a complete undercurrent for life'". Freud asked the couple to translate some of his works into English, this became their lives' work: they became “my excellent English translators, Mr and Mrs James Strachey”. Looking back forty years at this turning-point, Strachey commented in a'disarming passage' to his fellow analysts on his qualifications as a psychoanalytic candidate, as compared to modern times:'A discreditable academic career with the barest of B. A. degrees, no medical qualifications...no experience of anything except third-rate journalism.
The only thing in my favour was that at the age of thirty I wrote a letter out of the blue to Freud, asking him if he would take me on as a student'. He continued by saying that, having spent a couple of years in Vienna, “I got back to London in the summer of 1922, in October, without any further ado, I was elected an associate member of the Society.... A year I was made a full member. So there I was, launched on the treatment of patients, with no experience, with no supervision, with nothing to help me but some two years of analysis with Freud", he concluded wryly. Whether it is possible for it to become over-institutionalized is an open question. Is it worthwhile to leave a loophole for an occasional maverick?... if the curriculum vitae had existed forty years ago, you wouldn't have had to listen to these remarks tonight". Freud had decided that "the Stracheys should become members of the Society.... To be sure their conflicts have not been decided, but we need not wait so long, we can only instigate the processus which has to be fed by the factors of life".
James and Alix thus both become practising analysts. Their translation of Freud's works, in twenty-four volumes, remains the standard edition of Freud's works to this day, according to Michael Holroyd a German publishing house considered retranslating their translation of the Master's works back into German, because they were a work of art and scholarship, with a maze of additional footnotes and introductions. While the Stracheys were instrumental in encouraging Melanie Klein to come to England to pursue her analytic discoveries, both remained loyal to Freud at the same time, stood as part of the Middle Group in the wartime Controversial discussions between the proponents of Melanie Klein and of Anna Freud.'James Strachey characterised the battle between the two women in his own wryly sensible way: "My own view is that Mrs K. has made some important contributions... but that it’s absurd to make out that they cover the whole subject or that their validity is axiomatic. On the other hand, I think it is ludicrous for Miss F. to maintain, a Game Preserve belonging to the F. family".
Strachey published three articles in the International Journal of Psychoanalysis between 1930 and 1935. In the first, on "Some Unconscious Factors in Reading", he explored the'oral ambitions... "taking in" words, by hearing or reading, both unconsciously meaning "eating"' – something of central significance'for reading addictions as well as for neurotic disturbances of reading'. In his 1931 article on the "Precipitating Factor in the Etiology of the Neuroses", Strachey examined those'experiences that disturb the equilibrium between warded-of impulses and warding-off forces, an equilibrium hitherto stable', his most important contribution, was that of 1934 on "The Nature of the Therapeutic Action of Psychoanalysis" – a seminal article arguing that "the fact that the pathogenic conflicts, revived in the transference, are now experienced in their full emotional content makes the transference interpretation so much more effective than any other interpretation". Half a century the role of "mutative transference interpre
Sabina Nikolayevna Spielrein was a Russian physician and one of the first female psychoanalysts. She was in succession the patient student colleague of Carl Gustav Jung, with whom she had an intimate relationship during 1908–1910, as is documented in their correspondence from the time and her diaries, she met and had a collegial relationship with Sigmund Freud. One of her more famous analysands was Jean Piaget, she worked as a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and paediatrician in Switzerland and Russia. In a thirty-year professional career, she published over 35 papers in three languages, covering psychoanalysis, developmental psychology, psycholinguistics and educational psychology, her best known and most influential published work in the field of psychoanalysis is the essay titled "Destruction as the Cause of Coming Into Being", written in German in 1912. Sabina was known as the pioneer of psychoanalysis and one of the first people to introduce the death instinct, she was one of the first people to conduct a case study on schizophrenia and have a dissertation appear in psychoanalytic journal.
Although Spielrein has been remembered on account of her relationship with Jung, has sometimes been the subject of lurid speculation, she is now recognized as an important and innovative thinker, marginalized in history because of her unusual eclecticism, refusal to join factions, feminist approach to psychology, her death in the Holocaust. She was born in 1885 into a wealthy Jewish family in Rostov-on-Don, Russian Empire, her mother Eva Lublinskaya was the granddaughter of rabbis from Yekaterinoslav. Eva trained as a dentist, but did not practise. Sabina's father Nikolai Spielrein was an agronomist. After moving from Warsaw to Rostov, he became a successful merchant. On her birth certificate, Sabina appeared as Sheyve Naftulovna, but throughout her life and on official documents she used the name Sabina Nikolayevna, she was the eldest of five children. All three of her brothers became eminent scientists. One of them, Isaac Spielrein, was a pioneer of work psychology. From her early childhood, Sabina was imaginative and believed that she had a'higher calling' to achieve greatness, she communicated about this with a'guardian spirit'.
However, her parents' marriage was turbulent and she experienced physical violence from both of them. She obsessions; some commentators believe. She attended a Froebel school followed by the Yekaterinskaya Gymnasium in Rostov, where she excelled in science and languages, she learned to speak three languages fluently. During her teens, she continued to be troubled and became infatuated first with her history teacher with a paternal uncle. While at school, she resolved to go abroad to train as a doctor, with the approval of her rabbinic grandfather. At the end of her schooling she was awarded a gold medal. Following the sudden death of her only sister Emilia from typhoid, Spielrein's mental health started to deteriorate, at the age of 18 she suffered a breakdown with severe hysteria including tics and uncontrollable laughing and crying. After an unsuccessful stay in a Swiss sanatorium, where she developed another infatuation with one of the doctors, she was admitted to the Burghölzli mental hospital near Zurich in August 1904.
Its director was Eugen Bleuler, who ran it as a therapeutic community with social activities for the patients including gardening and scientific lectures. One of Bleuler's assistants was Carl Jung, afterwards appointed as deputy director. In the days following her admission, Spielrein disclosed to Jung that her father had beaten her, that she was troubled by masochistic fantasies of being beaten. Bleuler ensured that she was separated from her family requiring her father and brothers to have no contact with her, she made a rapid recovery, by October was able to apply for medical school and to start assisting Jung with word association tests in his laboratory. Between October and January, Jung carried out word association tests on her, used some rudimentary psychoanalytic techniques, he referred to her twice in letters to Freud as his first analytic case, although in his publications he referred to two patients in these terms. During her admission, Spielrein fell in love with Jung. By her own choice, she continued as a resident in the hospital from January to June 1905, although she was no longer receiving treatment.
She worked as an intern alongside other Russian students there including Max Eitingon, as well as expatriate psychiatrists who were studying with Bleuler, including Karl Abraham. She attended medical school at the University of Zurich from June 1905 to January 1911, excelling there academically, her diaries show a broad range of interests and reading including philosophy, Russian literature and evolutionary biology. She lived in a number of different apartments, mixing in a social circle that included fellow Russian Jewish women medical students. Many of these, together with Spielrein, became fascinated with the emerging movement of psychoanalysis in western Europe, studied with Bleuler and Jung. Spielrein's main focus while in medical school was on psychiatry. A number of them, like Spielrein, subsequently became psychiatrists, spent time with Freud in Vienna, published in psychoanalytic journals; these included Esther Aptekman, Fanya Chalevsky, Sheina Grebelska
Wilfred Ruprecht Bion DSO was an influential British psychoanalyst, who became president of the British Psychoanalytical Society from 1962 to 1965. Wilfred Bion was a original contributor to psychoanalysis, he was one of the first to analyze patients in psychotic states using an unmodified analytic technique. The degree of collaboration between Hanna Segal, Wilfred Bion and Herbert Rosenfeld in their work with psychotic patients during the late 1950s, their discussions with Melanie Klein at the time, means that it is not always possible to distinguish their exact individual contributions to the developing theory of splitting, projective identification, unconscious phantasy and the use of countertransference; as Donald Meltzer, Denis Carpy, Michael Feldman have pointed out, these three pioneering analysts not only sustained Klein’s clinical and theoretical approach, but through an extension of the concept of projective identification and countertransference they deepened and expanded it. In Bion’s clinical work and supervision the goal remains insightful understanding of psychic reality through a disciplined experiencing of the transference–countertransference, in a way that promotes the growth of the whole personality.'Bion's ideas are unique', so that he'remained larger than life to all who encountered him'.
He has been considered by Neville Symington as "the greatest psychoanalytic thinker...after Freud". Bion was born in Mathura, North-Western Provinces and educated at Bishop's Stortford College in England. After the outbreak of the First World War, he served in the Tank Corps as a tank commander in France, was awarded both the Distinguished Service Order, the Croix de Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur, he first entered the war zone on 26 June 1917, was promoted to temporary lieutenant on 10 June 1918, to acting captain on 22 March 1918, when he took command of a tank section, he retained the rank when he became second-in-command of a tank company on 19 October 1918, relinquished it on 7 January 1919. He was demobilised on 1 September 1921, was granted the rank of captain; the full citation for his DSO reads: Awarded the Distinguished Service Order. T./2nd Lt, Wilfred Ruprecht Bion, Tank Corps. For conspicuous gallantry, devotion to duty; when in command of his tank in an attack he engaged a large number of enemy machine guns in strong positions, thus assisting the infantry to advance.
When his tank was put out of action by a direct hit he occupied a section of trench with his men and machine guns and opened fire on the enemy. He moved about in the open, giving directions to other tanks when they arrived, at one period fired a Lewis gun with great effect from the top of his tank, he got a captured machine gun into action against the enemy, when reinforcements arrived he took command of a company of infantry whose commander was killed. He showed magnificent initiative in a most difficult situation. "Bion's daughter, Parthenope...raises the question of just how her father was shaped as an analyst by his wartime experiences...underinning Bion's concern with the coexistence of regressed or primitive proto-mental states alongside more sophisticated one". After World War I, Bion studied history at The Queen's College, earning a bachelor of arts degree in 1922 studying medicine at University College London. Attracted to London by the "strange new subject called psychoanalysis", he met and was impressed by Wilfred Trotter, an outstanding brain surgeon who published the famous Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War in 1916, based on the horrors of the First World War.
This was to prove an important influence on Bion's interest in group behavior. Having qualified in medicine by means of the Conjoint Diploma in 1930 Bion spent seven years in psychotherapeutic training at the Tavistock Clinic, an experience he regarded, in retrospect, as having had some limitations, it did, bring him into fruitful contact with Samuel Beckett. He wanted to train in Psychoanalysis and in 1938 he began a training analysis with John Rickman, but this was brought to an end by the Second World War, he was recommissioned in the Royal Army Medical Corps as a lieutenant on 1 April 1940, worked in a number of military hospitals including Northfield Military Hospital where he initiated the first Northfield Experiment. These ideas on the psychoanalysis of groups were taken up and developed by others such as S. H. Foulkes, Bridger and Patrick De Mare; the entire group at Tavistock had in fact been taken into the army, were working on new methods of treatment for psychiatric casualties Out of this his pioneering work in group dynamics, associated with the "Tavistock group", Bion's papers describing his work of the 1940s were compiled much and appeared together in 1961 in his influential book, Experiences in Groups and other papers.
It was less a guide for the therapy of individuals within or by the group, than an exploration of the processes set off by the complex experience of being in a group. The book became a touchstone work for applications of group theory in a wide variety of fields. During the war Bion's wife, Betty Jardine, gave birth to a daughter, tragically, she died soon afterwards in 1945, his daughter, became a regarded psychoanalyst In Italy. She died prematurely, in a car crash in Italy in 1998. Retu
The Interpretation of Dreams
The Interpretation of Dreams is an 1899 book by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in which the author introduces his theory of the unconscious with respect to dream interpretation, discusses what would become the theory of the Oedipus complex. Freud revised the book at least eight times and, in the third edition, added an extensive section which treated dream symbolism literally, following the influence of Wilhelm Stekel. Freud said of this work, "Insight such as this falls to one's lot but once in a lifetime."Dated 1900, the book was first published in an edition of 600 copies, which did not sell out for eight years. The Interpretation of Dreams gained in popularity, seven more editions were published in Freud's lifetime; because of the book's length and complexity, Freud wrote an abridged version called On Dreams. The original text is regarded as one of Freud's most significant works. Freud spent the summer of 1895 at Schloss BelleVue near Grinzing in Austria, where he began the inception of The Interpretation of Dreams.
In a 1900 letter to Wilhelm Fliess, he wrote in commemoration of the place: "Do you suppose that some day a marble tablet will be placed on the house, inscribed with these words:'In this house on July 24, 1895, the secret of dreams was revealed to Dr. Sigm. Freud'? At the moment I see little prospect of it." — Freud in a letter to Wilhelm Fliess, June 12, 1900 While staying at Schloss Bellevue, Freud dreamed his famous dream of'Irma's injection'. His reading and analysis of the dream allowed him to be exonerated from his mishandling of the treatment of a patient in 1895. In 1963, Belle Vue manor was demolished, but today a memorial plaque with just that inscription has been erected at the site by the Austrian Sigmund Freud Society. Dreams, in Freud's view, are formed as the result of two mental processes; the first process involves unconscious forces that construct a wish, expressed by the dream, the second is the process of censorship that forcibly distorts the expression of the wish. In Freud's view, all dreams are forms of "wish fulfillment".
Freud states: "My presumption that dreams can be interpreted at once puts me in opposition to the ruling theory of dreams and in fact to every theory of dreams..."Freud advanced the idea that an analyst can differentiate between the manifest content and latent content of a dream. The manifest content refers to the remembered narrative; the latent content refers to the underlying meaning of the dream. During sleep, the unconscious condenses and forms representations of the dream content, the latent content of, unrecognizable to the individual upon waking. Critics have argued. Freud, contested this criticism, noting that "the assertion that all dreams require a sexual interpretation, against which critics rage so incessantly, occurs nowhere in my Interpretation of Dreams, it is not to be found in any of the numerous editions of this book and is in obvious contradiction to other views expressed in it." Freud acknowledged that the interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind."
Freud claimed. Though, the connection may be minor, as the dream content can be selected from any part of the dreamer's life, he described four possible sources of dreams: a) mentally significant experiences represented directly, b) several recent and significant experiences combined into a single unity by the dream, c) one or more recent and significant experiences which are represented in the content by the mention of a contemporary but indifferent experience, d) an internal significant experience, such as a memory or train of thought, invariably represented in the dream by a mention of a recent but indifferent impression. Oftentimes people experience external stimuli, such as an alarm clock or music, being distorted and incorporated into their dreams. Freud explained that this is because "the mind is withdrawn from the external world during sleep, it is unable to give it a correct interpretation..." He further explained that our mind wishes to continue sleeping, therefore will try to suppress external stimuli, weave the stimuli into the dream, compel a person to wake up, or encourage him or her to overcome it.
Freud believed that dreams were picture-puzzles, though they may appear nonsensical and worthless on the surface, through the process of interpretation they can form a "poetical phrase of the greatest beauty and significance." Dreams are brief compared to the abundance of dream thoughts. Through condensation or compression, dream content can be presented in one dream. Oftentimes, people may recall having more than one dream in a night. Freud explained that the content of all dreams occurring on the same night represents part of the same whole, he believed. The first dream is more distorted and the latter is more distinct. Displacement of dream content occurs when manifest content does not resemble the actual meaning of the dream. Displacement comes through the influence of a censorship agent. Representation in dreams is the causal relation between two things. Freud argues that objects can be combined into a single representation in a dream. An abridged version called On Dreams was published in 1901 as part of Lowenfeld and Kurella's Grenzfragen des Nerven und Seelenlebens.
It was re-published in 1911 in larger form as a book. On Dreams is also
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness or of being aware of an external object or something within oneself. It has been defined variously in terms of sentience, qualia, the ability to experience or to feel, having a sense of selfhood or soul, the fact that there is something "that it is like" to "have" or "be" it, the executive control system of the mind. Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe that there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is; as Max Velmans and Susan Schneider wrote in The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness: "Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our consciousness, making conscious experience at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives."Western philosophers, since the time of Descartes and Locke, have struggled to comprehend the nature of consciousness and identify its essential properties. Issues of concern in the philosophy of consciousness include whether the concept is fundamentally coherent.
Thanks to developments in technology over the past few decades, consciousness has become a significant topic of interdisciplinary research in cognitive science, with significant contributions from fields such as psychology, anthropology and neuroscience. The primary focus is on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in consciousness—that is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness; the majority of experimental studies assess consciousness in humans by asking subjects for a verbal report of their experiences. Issues of interest include phenomena such as subliminal perception, denial of impairment, altered states of consciousness produced by alcohol and other drugs, or spiritual or meditative techniques. In medicine, consciousness is assessed by observing a patient's arousal and responsiveness, can be seen as a continuum of states ranging from full alertness and comprehension, through disorientation, loss of meaningful communication, loss of movement in response to painful stimuli.
Issues of practical concern include how the presence of consciousness can be assessed in ill, comatose, or anesthetized people, how to treat conditions in which consciousness is impaired or disrupted. The degree of consciousness is measured by standardized behavior observation scales such as the Glasgow Coma Scale; the origin of the modern concept of consciousness is attributed to John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, published in 1690. Locke defined consciousness as "the perception of what passes in a man's own mind", his essay influenced the 18th-century view of consciousness, his definition appeared in Samuel Johnson's celebrated Dictionary. "Consciousness" is defined in the 1753 volume of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie, as "the opinion or internal feeling that we ourselves have from what we do." The earliest English language uses of "conscious" and "consciousness" date back, however, to the 1500s. The English word "conscious" derived from the Latin conscius, but the Latin word did not have the same meaning as our word—it meant "knowing with", in other words "having joint or common knowledge with another".
There were, many occurrences in Latin writings of the phrase conscius sibi, which translates as "knowing with oneself", or in other words "sharing knowledge with oneself about something". This phrase had the figurative meaning of "knowing that one knows", as the modern English word "conscious" does. In its earliest uses in the 1500s, the English word "conscious" retained the meaning of the Latin conscius. For example, Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan wrote: "Where two, or more men, know of one and the same fact, they are said to be Conscious of it one to another." The Latin phrase conscius sibi, whose meaning was more related to the current concept of consciousness, was rendered in English as "conscious to oneself" or "conscious unto oneself". For example, Archbishop Ussher wrote in 1613 of "being so conscious unto myself of my great weakness". Locke's definition from 1690 illustrates. A related word was conscientia, which means moral conscience. In the literal sense, "conscientia" means knowledge-with, that is, shared knowledge.
The word first appears in Latin juridical texts by writers such as Cicero. Here, conscientia is the knowledge. René Descartes is taken to be the first philosopher to use conscientia in a way that does not fit this traditional meaning. Descartes used conscientia the way modern speakers would use "conscience". In Search after Truth he says "conscience or internal testimony"; the dictionary meanings of the word consciousness extend through several centuries and several associated related meanings. These have ranged from formal definitions to definitions attempting to capture the less captured and more debated meanings and usage of the wor
The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
Psychopathology of Everyday Life is a 1901 work by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. Based on Freud's researches into slips and parapraxes from 1897 onwards, it became the best-known of all Freud's writings; the Psychopathology was published in the Monograph for Psychiatry and Neurology in 1901, before appearing in book form in 1904. It would receive twelve foreign translations during Freud's lifetime, as well as numerous new German editions, with fresh material being added in every one. James Strachey objected that "Almost the whole of the basic explanations and theories were present in the earliest edition...the wealth of new examples interrupts and confuses the mainstream of the underlying argument". However, in such a popular and theory-light text, the sheer wealth of examples helped make Freud's point for him in an accessible way. A new English-language translation by Anthea Bell was published in 2003. Among the most overtly autobiographical of Freud's works, the Psychopathology was linked by Freud to his relationship with Wilhelm Fliess.
Studying the various deviations from the stereotypes of everyday behavior, strange defects and malfunctions, as well as random errors, the author concludes that they indicate the underlying pathology of the psyche, the symptoms of psychoneurosis. Freud writes in his introduction: During the year 1898 I published a short essay on the Psychic Mechanism of Forgetfulness. I shall now take it as a starting-point for further discussion. I have there undertaken a psychologic analysis of a common case of temporary forgetfulness of proper names, from a pregnant example of my own observation I have reached the conclusion that this frequent and unimportant occurrence of a failure of a psychic function – of memory – admits an explanation which goes beyond the customary utilization of this phenomenon. If an average psychologist should be asked to explain how it happens that we fail to recall a name which we are sure we know, he would content himself with the answer that proper names are more apt to be forgotten than any other content of memory.
He might give plausible reasons for this "forgetting preference" for proper names, but he would not assume any deep determinant for the process. Freud believed that various deviations from the stereotypes of everyday conduct - unintended reservation, forgetting words, random movements and actions - are a manifestation of unconscious thoughts and impulses. Explaining "wrong actions" with the help of psychoanalysis, just as the interpretation of dreams, can be used for diagnosis and therapy. Considering the numerous cases of such deviations, he concludes that the boundary between the normal and abnormal human psyche is unstable and that we are all a bit neurotic; such symptoms are able to disrupt eating, sexual relations, regular work, communication with others. Freud's conclusion is that: The unconscious, at all events, knows no time limit; the most important as well as the most peculiar character of psychic fixation consists in the fact that all impressions are on the one hand retained in the same form as they were received, in the forms that they have assumed in their further development.
This state of affairs cannot be elucidated by any comparison from any other sphere. By virtue of this theory every former state of the memory content may thus be restored though all original relations have long been replaced by newer ones. Sometimes called the Mistake Book, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life became one of the scientific classics of the 20th century. Freud realised he was becoming a celebrity when he found his cabin-steward reading the Mistake Book on his 1909 visit to the States; the Rat Man came to Freud for analysis as a result of reading the Psychopathology of Everyday Life. The psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan considered The Psychopathology of Everyday Life one of the three key texts for an understanding of the unconscious, alongside The Interpretation of Dreams, Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious. Through its stress on what Freud called "switch words" and "verbal bridges", The Psychopathology of Everyday Life is considered important for psychopathology. Strachey's English translation is criticized by the psychologist Louis Breger, who writes that Strachey translates the word for slips or mistakes as "parapraxis" when the English "blunder" or "faulty action" would have been more appropriate, uses the Latinisms "id" and "ego" where "it" and "I" would have better captured Freud's language.
The philosopher Michel Onfray argues. Jacques Bénesteau writes; the philosopher Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen and the psychologist Sonu Shamdasani write that Freud's coupling of an analysis of his dreams and childhood memories had a precedent in Belgian psychologist Joseph Delboeuf's Sleep and Dreams, one of the major themes of, the capacity of dreams to recall forgotten memories. Sigmund Freud, Richard Wollheim, Publisher: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-28385-4 Sebastiano Timpanaro, The Freudian Slip Full text in archive.org