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International Society for Krishna Consciousness

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness, known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organisation. ISKCON was founded in 1966 in New York City by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, its core beliefs are based on the Hindu scriptures the Bhagavad Gita and the Bhagavata Purana, the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition, which has had adherents in India since the late 15th century and American and European devotees since the early 1900s. The organization was formed to spread the practice of the practice of love of God, its most rapid expansion in membership as of 2007 have been within India and in Russia and other ex-Soviet aligned states of Eastern Europe. The movement has been the subject of controversies, it has been labelled a cult by anti-cult organizations. In the 1990s ISKCON faced accusations of child abuse, its leaders acknowledged physical and sexual abuse of children who were sent to live in the movement's boarding schools in the United States and India in the 1970s and 1980s.

ISKCON devotees follow a disciplic line of Gaudiya Bhagavata Vaishnavas and are the largest branch of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. Vaishnavism means'worship of Vishnu', Gauḍa refers to the area where this particular branch of Vaishnavism originated, in the Gauda region of West Bengal. Gaudiya Vaishnavism has had a following in India West Bengal and Odisha, for the past five hundred years. Gaudiya Vaishnavism was founded by the saint Chaitanya Mahaprabhu who spread his form of ecstatic bhakti throughout Bengal, he established Sankirtan, the practice of publicly expressing devotion to Lord Krishna, the Supreme God, through dance and song. This form of communal worship responded to rigid caste structures by engaging all people in worship regardless of caste and creed. Chaitanya emphasized chanting the Hare Krishna Mahamantra, he is considered by Gaudiya Vaishnavas to be an incarnation of Krishna himself. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada brought Chaitanya's Gaudiya Vaishnavism to the West in 1965. At 69 years old, he landed in New York without any money.

Instead of preaching to New York's elite, he tapped into the 1960s countercultural spirit by preaching and chanting in public parks and attracting hippies and the youth. His movement known as the "Hare Krishna Movement", grew larger when he relocated to San Francisco a year later; when it spread to England, it gained publicity and financial backing from the Beatle George Harrison. He recorded several tracks with the Hare Krishnas and included the Mahamantra in his hit track "My Sweet Lord"; the first Hare Krishna commune, New Vrindavan, was established by Prabhupada in 1968. Since ISKCON has established more than 600 centers all over the world and has millions of followers. Key to the spread of Gaudiya Vaishnava theology in the Western world was Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's extensive writings and translations, including the Bhagavad Gita As It Is, Srimad Bhagavatam, Chaitanya Charitamrita, other scriptures; these works are now available in more than seventy languages and serve as the scriptures of ISKCON.

ISKCON describes Krishna as the source of all the avatars of God. Thus ISKCON devotees worship Krishna as the highest form of God, svayam bhagavan, refer to him as the Supreme Personality of Godhead in writing, a phrase coined by Prabhupada in his books on the subject. To devotees, Radha represents Krishna's divine female counterpart, the original spiritual potency, the embodiment of divine love; the individual soul is an eternal personal identity which does not merge into a non-dual consciousness as believed by the monistic schools of Hinduism. Prabhupada most offers Sanatana-dharma and Varnashrama dharma as more accurate names for the religious system which accepts Vedic authority, it is a monotheistic tradition. The most famous and publicly recognizable ISKCON practice is kirtan, or sankirtan, a congregational chanting or singing of the Hare Krishna mantra. It's both a way to express devotion to a way to attract newcomers to the movement. Devotees gather in public, in streets and parks, to sing the mantra accompanied by instruments like the mridanga, hand cymbals, the harmonium.

During the 1970s ISKCON entered the public eye because of this practice. Devotees would sing, distribute books, proselytize in airports and other public areas obtrusively. Sankirtan continues in a less confrontational manner. Other important religious practice within ISKCON and Gaudiya Vaishnavism is japa, or the meditative practice of chanting the names of Krishna on a rosary. It's considered the only way for salvation for people in the current age. Prabhupada established a standard for initiated devotees to chant sixteen rounds of the Hare Krishna a day; each round requires chanting the mahamantra 108 times on prayer beads, with sixteen rounds being 1728 repetitions and taking around two hours. Another important practice in ISKCON is arati. In arati, devotees offer water, incense, a fire lamp, flowers to a murti, a sacred statue or image of Krishna; this is accompanied by prayers and devotional songs called bhajans. Practitioners may perform aarti at their own congregate at a temple to join in the ceremony.

Along with this worship, devotees will bathe the murti, dress it, offer it food, put it to sleep. By doing arati and serving the murti, devotees aim to deepen their relationship with Krishna. During initiation ISKCON devotees vow to follow four basic rules and regulations, They vow to follow lacto-vegetarian diet.

Masjedlu, East Azerbaijan

Masjedlu is a village in Minjavan-e Gharbi Rural District, Minjavan District, Khoda Afarin County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 45, in 14 families; the online edition of the Dehkhoda Dictionary, quoting Iranian Army files, reports a population of 639 people in late 1940s. According to a more recent statistics the population is 45 people in 14 families. According to P. Oberling, the inhabitants belonged to Mohammad Khanlu tribe; the affiliation, could not be ethnic as people of Masjedlu are followers of Yarsan religion. Until 1990, Habib Soltani was one of the elites of Yarsan religion in Arasbaran region, his younger son, Asghar Soltani, was a prominent poet

Industrial techno

Industrial techno is a subgenre of techno and industrial dance music that originated in the 1990s. Characteristically, it incorporates influences from the bleak, noisy sound and aesthetics of early industrial music acts Cabaret Voltaire and Throbbing Gristle. American industrial music label Wax Trax! had a profound influence over the genre's development. The genre has seen a resurgence in the 2010s, spearheaded by acts such as Adam X, Ancient Methods, others like Blawan and Karenn; as a result, it has gained a significant fanbase from the post-dubstep audience. It is not to be mistaken with Techno Industrial, in essence similar to the power noise/rhythmic noise subgenre; the different terminology is used depending if one is coming from a techno perspective or industrial perspective, with Industrial Techno having more techno-inspired rhythmic section with lots of reverb and wall-of-noise or sci-fi effects, while Techno Industrial is closer to rythmic noise in composition, with a distorted rhythmic section.

Other artists associated with industrial techno include Cut Hands, Helena Hauff, Forward Strategy Group, Michael Forshaw, Jeff Mills, Dominick Fernow and Mike Banks. Perc Trax record label has been credited with the revival of the genre in the UK, with artists such as Perc and Ansome. Post-industrial music