The International Space Station is a space station in low Earth orbit. The ISS programme is a joint project between five participating space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, CSA; the ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, astronomy and other fields; the station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars. The ISS maintains an orbit with an average altitude of 400 kilometres by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda module or visiting spacecraft, it circles the Earth in 92 minutes and completes 15.5 orbits per day. The station is divided into two sections, the Russian Orbital Segment, operated by Russia, the United States Orbital Segment, shared by many nations. Roscosmos has endorsed the continued operation of ISS through 2024, but had proposed using elements of the Russian segment to construct a new Russian space station called OPSEK.
As of December 2018, the station is expected to operate until 2030. The first ISS component was launched in 1998, with the first long-term residents arriving on 2 November 2000. Since the station has been continuously occupied for 19 years and 122 days; this is the longest continuous human presence in low Earth orbit, having surpassed the previous record of 9 years and 357 days held by Mir. The latest major pressurised module was fitted in 2011, with an experimental inflatable space habitat added in 2016. Development and assembly of the station continues, with several major new Russian elements scheduled for launch starting in 2020; the ISS is the largest human-made body in low Earth orbit and can be seen with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of pressurised habitation modules, structural trusses, solar arrays, docking ports, experiment bays and robotic arms. Major ISS modules have been launched by US Space Shuttles; the ISS is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and Russian Salyut and Mir stations as well as Skylab from the US.
The station is serviced by a variety of visiting spacecraft: the Russian Soyuz and Progress, the US Dragon and Cygnus, the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle, the European Automated Transfer Vehicle. The Dragon spacecraft allows the return of pressurised cargo to Earth, used for example to repatriate scientific experiments for further analysis; the Soyuz return capsule has minimal downmass capability next to the astronauts. The ISS has been visited by astronauts and space tourists from 19 different nations; as of September 2019, 239 people from 19 countries had visited the space station, many of them multiple times. The United States sent 151 people, Russia sent 47, nine were Japanese, eight Canadian, five Italian, four French, three German, one each from Belgium, Denmark, Malaysia, the Netherlands, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom; the ISS was intended to be a laboratory and factory while providing transportation, a low Earth orbit staging base for possible future missions to the Moon and asteroids.
However, not all of the uses envisioned in the initial Memorandum of Understanding between NASA and Roskosmos have come to fruition. In the 2010 United States National Space Policy, the ISS was given additional roles of serving commercial and educational purposes; the ISS provides a platform to conduct scientific research, with power, data and crew available to support experiments. Small uncrewed spacecraft can provide platforms for experiments those involving zero gravity and exposure to space, but space stations offer a long-term environment where studies can be performed for decades, combined with ready access by human researchers; the ISS simplifies individual experiments by allowing groups of experiments to share the same launches and crew time. Research is conducted in a wide variety of fields, including astrobiology, physical sciences, materials science, space weather and human research including space medicine and the life sciences. Scientists on Earth have timely access to the data and can suggest experimental modifications to the crew.
If follow-on experiments are necessary, the scheduled launches of resupply craft allows new hardware to be launched with relative ease. Crews fly expeditions of several months' duration, providing 160 person-hours per week of labour with a crew of 6. However, a considerable amount of crew time is taken up by station maintenance; the most notable ISS experiment is the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, intended to detect dark matter and answer other fundamental questions about our universe and is as important as the Hubble Space Telescope according to NASA. Docked on station, it could not have been accommodated on a free flying satellite platform because of its power and bandwidth needs. On 3 April 2013, scientists reported that hints of dark matter may have been detected by the AMS. According to the scientists, "The first results from the space-borne Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer confirm an unexplained excess of high-energy positrons in Earth-bound cosmic rays." The space environment is hostile to life.
Unprotected presence in space is characterised by an intense radiation field (consisting of protons and other su
Sandi Bowen was an Australian female volleyball player. She was part of the Australia women's national volleyball team, she competed with the national team at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, finishing 9th. She played at the 2002 FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship in Germany. On club level she played with Monbulk VC. Monbulk VC Australia at the 2000 Summer Olympics Evans, Hilary. "Sandi Bowen". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. "Sandi Bowen and Sean Smith: AIS: Australian Sports Commission". Ausport.gov.au. Retrieved 7 March 2017. "Australian Olympic Committee: Sandi Bowen". Corporate.olympics.com.au. Retrieved 7 March 2017
The Count of Champagne was the ruler of the County of Champagne from 950 to 1316. Champagne evolved from the county of Troyes in the late eleventh century and Hugh I was the first to use the title "Count of Champagne"; when Sancho VII of Navarre died childless in 1234, his nephew Count Theobald IV of Champagne became King of Navarre. The latter's greatgrandaughter Joan married King Philip IV of France. Upon Joan's death in 1305, her son Louis became the last independent count of Champagne, with the title merging into the royal domain upon his accession to the French throne in 1314; the titular counts of Champagne inherited the post of seneschal of France. In Merovingian and Carolingian times, several dukes of Champagne are known; the duchy appears to have been created by joining together the civitates of Rheims, Châlons-sur-Marne and Troyes. In the late seventh and early eighth centuries, Champagne was controlled by the Pippinids. Lupus Vintronus Drogo Arnulf Hugh Theobald II Henry I Henry II Theobald III Theobald IV King Theobald I of Navarre Theobald V Theobald II of Navarre Henry III Henry I of Navarre Joan Joan I of Navarre Louis Louis I of Navarre, became Louis X of France, in 1314, after which the title merged into the royal domain Timeline of Troyes Evergates, Theodore.
Feudal Society in the Baillage of Troyes under the Counts of Champagne, 1152-1284. ISBN 0-8018-1663-7 Evergates, Theodore. Feudal Society in Medieval France: Documents from the County of Champagne. ISBN 0-8122-1441-2, ISBN 0-8122-3225-9 Evergates, Theodore. "The Aristocracy of Champagne in the Mid-Thirteenth Century: A Quantitative Description." Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 5. Pp 1–18. Sánchez-Marco, Carlos, "Casa de Champagne", La Historia Medieval del Reyno de Navarra, retrieved 24 August 2010