The system of imperial units or the imperial system is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, refined and reduced. The Imperial units replaced the Winchester Standards, which were in effect from 1588 to 1825; the system came into official use across the British Empire. By the late 20th century, most nations of the former empire had adopted the metric system as their main system of measurement, although some imperial units are still used in the United Kingdom and other countries part of the British Empire; the imperial system developed from what were first known as English units, as did the related system of United States customary units. The Weights and Measures Act of 1824 was scheduled to go into effect on 1 May 1825. However, the Weights and Measures Act of 1825 pushed back the date to 1 January 1826; the 1824 Act allowed the continued use of pre-imperial units provided that they were customary known, marked with imperial equivalents. Apothecaries' units are mentioned neither in the act of 1824 nor 1825.
At the time, apothecaries' weights and measures were regulated "in England and Berwick-upon-Tweed" by the London College of Physicians, in Ireland by the Dublin College of Physicians. In Scotland, apothecaries' units were unofficially regulated by the Edinburgh College of Physicians; the three colleges published, at infrequent intervals, the London and Dublin editions having the force of law. Imperial apothecaries' measures, based on the imperial pint of 20 fluid ounces, were introduced by the publication of the London Pharmacopoeia of 1836, the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia of 1839, the Dublin Pharmacopoeia of 1850; the Medical Act of 1858 transferred to The Crown the right to publish the official pharmacopoeia and to regulate apothecaries' weights and measures. Metric equivalents in this article assume the latest official definition. Before this date, the most precise measurement of the imperial Standard Yard was 0.914398415 metres. In 1824, the various different gallons in use in the British Empire were replaced by the imperial gallon, a unit close in volume to the ale gallon.
It was defined as the volume of 10 pounds of distilled water weighed in air with brass weights with the barometer standing at 30 inches of mercury at a temperature of 62 °F. In 1963, the gallon was redefined as the volume of 10 pounds of distilled water of density 0.998859 g/mL weighed in air of density 0.001217 g/mL against weights of density 8.136 g/mL, which works out to 4.546096 l or 277.4198 cu in. The Weights and Measures Act of 1985 switched to a gallon of 4.54609 L. These measurements were in use from 1826, when the new imperial gallon was defined, but were abolished in the United Kingdom on 1 January 1971. In the US, though no longer recommended, the apothecaries' system is still used in medicine in prescriptions for older medications. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the UK used three different systems for weight. Troy weight, used for precious metals; the distinction between mass and weight is not always drawn. A pound is a unit of mass, although it is referred to as a weight; when a distinction is necessary, the term pound-force may be used to refer to a unit of force rather than mass.
The troy pound was made the primary unit of mass by the 1824 Act. The Weights and Measures Act 1855 made the avoirdupois pound the primary unit of mass. In all the systems, the fundamental unit is the pound, all other units are defined as fractions or multiples of it. Although the 1824 act defined the yard and pound by reference to the prototype standards, it defined the values of certain physical constants, to make provision for re-creation of the standards if they were to be damaged. For the yard, the length of a pendulum beating seconds at the latitude of Greenwich at Mean Sea Level in vacuo was defined as 39.01393 inches. For the pound, the mass of a cubic inch of distilled water at an atmospheric pressure of 30 inches of mercury and a temperature of 62° Fahrenheit was defined as 252.458 grains, with there being 7,000 grains per pound. However, following the destruction of the original prototypes in the 1834 Houses of Parliament fire, it proved impossible to recreate the standards from these definitions, a new Weights and Measures Act was passed in 1855 which permitted the recreation of the prototypes from recognized secondary standards.
The imperial system is one of many systems of English units. Although most of the units are defined in more than one system, some subsidiary units were used to a much greater extent, or for different purposes, in one area rather than the other; the distinctions between these systems are not drawn precisely. One such distinction is that between these systems and older British/English units/systems or newer additions; the term imperial should not be applied to English units that were outlawed in the Weights and Measures Act 1824 or earlier, or which had fallen out of use by that time, nor to post-imperial inventions, such as the slug or poundal. The US customary system is derived from the English units that were in use at the time of settlement; because the United States was independent at the time, these units were unaffected b
Lloyd's Register Group Limited is a technical and business services organisation and a maritime classification society, wholly owned by the Lloyd’s Register Foundation, a UK charity dedicated to research and education in science and engineering. The organisation dates to 1760, its stated aims are to enhance the safety of life and the environment, by helping its clients to ensure the quality construction and operation of critical infrastructure. As Lloyd's Register of Shipping, it was a maritime organisation. During the late 20th century, it diversified into other industries including oil and gas, process industries and rail. Through its 100% subsidiary Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance Ltd, it is a major vendor of independent assessment services, including management systems certification for quality certification to ISO9001, ISO14001 and OSHAS18001. Lloyd's Register is unaffiliated with Lloyd's of London. In July 2012, the organisation converted from an industrial and provident society to a company limited by shares, named Lloyd’s Register Group Limited, with the new Lloyd’s Register Foundation as the sole shareholder.
At the same time the organisation gifted to the Foundation a substantial bond and equity portfolio to assist it with its charitable purposes. It will benefit from continued funding from the group’s operating arm, Lloyd’s Register Group Limited; the organisation was named after a 17th-century coffee house in London, frequented by merchants, marine underwriters, others, all men associated with shipping. The coffee house owner, Edward Lloyd, helped them to exchange information by circulating a printed sheet of all the news he heard. In 1760, the Register Society was formed by the customers of the coffee house who assembled the Register of Shipping, the first known register of its type. Between 1800 and 1833, a dispute between shipowners and underwriters resulted in each group publishing a list—the "Red Book" and the "Green Book". Both parties came to the verge of bankruptcy, they reached agreement in 1834 to unite and form Lloyd’s Register of British and Foreign Shipping, establishing a General Committee and charitable values.
In 1914, with an international outlook, the organisation changed its name to Lloyd's Register of Shipping. The Society printed the first Register of Ships in 1764 in order to give both underwriters and merchants an idea of the condition of the vessels they insured and chartered: ship hulls were graded by a lettered scale, ship's fittings were graded by number, thus the best classification "A1", from which the expression A1 or A1 at Lloyd's is derived, first appeared in the 1775–76 edition of the Register. The Register, with information on all seagoing, self-propelled merchant ships of 100 gross tonnes or greater, is published annually. A vessel remains registered with Lloyd's Register until she is sunk, hulked, or scrapped; the Register was published by the joint venture company of Lloyd's Register-Fairplay, formed in July 2001 by the merger of Lloyd's Register's Maritime Information Publishing Group and Prime Publications Limited. Lloyd's Register sold its share of the venture to IHS Markit in 2009.
Lloyd's Register provides quality assurance and certification for ships, offshore structures, shore-based installations such as power stations and railway infrastructure. However, Lloyd's Register is known best for the classification and certification of ships, inspects and approves important components and accessories, including life-saving appliances, marine pollution prevention, fire protection, radio communication equipment, deck gear, cables and anchors. LR's Rules for Ships are derived from principles of naval architecture and marine engineering, govern safety and operational standards for numerous merchant and owned vessels. LR's Rules govern a number of topics including: Materials used for construction of the vessel Ship structural requirements and minimum scantlings, depending on ship type Operation and maintenance of main and auxiliary machinery Operation and maintenance of emergency and control systemsSpecific editions of the rules are available to cater for merchant ships, naval ships, special purpose vessels and offshore structures.
A ship is known as being in class if she meets all the minimum requirements of LR's Rules, such a status affects the possibility of a ship getting insurance. Class can be withdrawn from a ship if she is in violation of any regulations and does not maintain the minimum requirements specified by the company. However, exceptional circumstances may warrant special dispensation from Lloyd's Register. Any alteration to the vessel, whether it is a structural alteration or machinery, must be approved by Lloyd's Register before it is implemented. Ships are inspected on a regular basis by a team of Lloyd's Register surveyors, one of the most important inspections being a ship's load line survey – due once every five years; such a survey includes an inspection of the hull to make sure that the load line has not been altered. Numerous other inspections such as the condition of hatch and door seals, safety barriers, guard rails are performed. Upon completion the ship is allowed to be operated for another year, is issued a load line certificate.
Lloyd's Register provide a list of regulations to the public. List of regulations: The Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Ships January 2016 The Rules and Regulations For The Classification Of Special Service Craft The Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Naval Ships January 2015 The Rules for the Manufacture, Testing an
The International Ten Metre Class is a construction class, meaning that the boats are not identical but are all designed to meet specific measurement formula, in this case International Rule. At their heyday, Metre Classes were the most important group of international yacht racing classes, they are still raced around the world. "Ten" in class name does not, somewhat confusingly, refer to length of the boat, but product of the formula. The 10mR was used as an Olympic Class during the 1920 Olympics; the International Rule was set up in 1907 to replace earlier, simpler handicap system which were local or at best and also simple, producing extreme boats which were fast but constructed and impractical. The rule changes several times in history. About 20 boats were build. Used from 1907–1920 10.000 metres = L + B + 1 / 3 G + 3 d + 1 / 3 S − F 2 where L = waterline length B = beam G = chain girth d = difference between girth and chain S = sail area F = freeboard Used from 1920–1933 10.000 metres = L + 0.25 G + 2 d + S − F 2.5 where L = waterline length G = chain girth d = difference between girth and chain S = sail area F = freeboard
Skerry cruisers are yachts wooden, which are constructed according to the Square metre rule. Originating from Sweden, they were most popular in the Baltic Sea, though some classes saw popularity in other European countries and USA. Skerry cruisers are construction classes, meaning that though the boats are not identical with each other, they are all built according to same formula, making them broadly comparable in size and performance. Most skerry cruisers are slender boats, with tall rigs. In 1907, the Swedish Sailing Federation established a committee to design a national racing yacht class. Previous handicap rules had tended to be simple and boats had evolved to be fast and extreme racing machines, which were perceived as unsafe and impractical. Developed other options were the Universal rule and the International Metre rule, neither of which were seen as satisfactory by the Swedish Sailing Federation; the committee completed its proposal the following year. It was accepted as the first Square Metre Rule: yachts were to be classed by their sail area, fixed.
In addition, there were minimum requirements for cabin measurements. Four new classes were accepted: 22m², 30m², 45m² and 55m² classes. Soon, new classes were to follow: 38m² class in 1912; the new rule became popular within the Baltic region. During peak years, Skerry cruisers made up 95 percent of the yards' output, they were exported to other European countries and the USA. The Square Metre rule was much less restrictive than competing International Rules; the loose set of rules allowed built boats into the new classes if their rigging was modified to comply with the rules. They gave designers free hand, top designers like the Finns Gustaf Estlander and Zake Westin soon came up with extreme designs which pushed contemporary sailboat technology to its limits. Development was dramatic: for example, whilst early 40m² boats tended to be around 9 to 10 metres long, in 1923 Westin designed a 40m² boat, 15.2 metres long and had a beam of only 1.74m – a length to beam ratio of nearly 9 to 1. An cited example as some sort of pinnacle of the rule was the 150m² Singoalla, designed by Estlander in 1919 and claimed to have been the fastest boat in the Baltic: Uffa Fox had the dubious pleasure of surfing this boat at 14 knots and claimed afterward that it followed the waves "like a sea serpent".
This development led to diminishing popularity of the Square Metre rule as these extreme hulls were perceived as too weak and uncomfortable to ride. 30m² and 40m² classes were accepted to the 1920 Summer Olympics, but only a handful of boats participated. Meanwhile, International Rule had been revised in 1919 and in their new form became popular, soon supplanting the Square Metre rule boats in the international arena and Olympic regattas; as weaknesses of the original rule became apparent, the Swedish Sailing Federation enacted a number of modifications from 1916 onwards. Construction standards became much more strict and classes had minimum freeboard and maximum lengths defined; the Rule specified new minimum measurements for internal space, to ensure that boats would have adequate room for accommodations. This is in contrast to International Rule designs; the final revision of the rule was issued in 1925. It is still in effect with only minor changes; as with many other sailing handicap and construction rules, the Square Metre rule fell in popularity as its weaknesses were discovered.
However, in its revised form it has proved to be enduring and new boats following the rule are still built today. The internationally most active classes are the 22m² and 30m². Larger classes are boats built prior to the 1925 rule and only found in the Baltic, where they are dutifully cared for by enthusiasts. Although it was never quite as widespread as the International Rule, the Square Metre rule has a devoted following in many countries. Strongholds of the rule have traditionally been Sweden and Germany, which had national Square Metre rule boats, known as Seefahrtkreuzer. Many German square metre boats were confiscated by the British during and after World War II and transferred to Britain, where they became known as'Windfall' yachts. In addition, the Square Metre rule produced a number of related one-design and construction classes, which were an attempt to design a cheaper alternative to high-end yachts; these include Swedish Mälar boats, Finnish Nordic 22, ` B' class Skerry others. Some other early one-design classes, such as the Hai show obvious Skerry cruiser influence.
Swede 55 and Swede 41 yachts were based on Square Metre boats. The term "skerry cruiser" comes from the Swedish term skärgårdskryssare (German: Schärenkreuzer; the Swedish word "kryssare" has a different and broader meaning than the English term "cruiser" and as such, the English translation is somewhat misleading. International rule Ton class Universal rule Outline of Square Metre Rule Svenska Skärgårdskryssare Förbundet - Swedish Skerry Cruiser Federation Skerry Cruisers of North America ISBN 978-90-78440-23-9
Nathanael Greene Herreshoff
Nathanael Greene Herreshoff was an American naval architect, mechanical engineer, yacht design innovator. He produced a succession of undefeated America's Cup defenders between 1893-1920. Herreshoff was born on March 18, 1848 in Bristol, Rhode Island and was named after General Nathanael Greene, he was one of seven brothers, behind Lewis and John B. and the elder of John B. F. and Julian L. He graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1870 with a three-year degree in mechanical engineering. After graduation, he took a position with the Corliss Steam Engine Company in Providence, Rhode Island. At the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he oversaw operation of the Corliss Stationary Engine, a 40-foot-tall, 1,400-horsepower dynamo that powered the exhibition's machinery. In 1878 Herreshoff returned to Bristol where he and his older brother John B. formed the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company. Herreshoff provided the engineering expertise and his brother provided the business expertise, managing the firm's personnel and interacting with clients.
Together, they grew the business from about 20 employees to over 400. In 1888, a serious accident occurred while Herreshoff was supervising speed trials of a 138-foot, 875-horsepower steamboat named Say When. After a safety valve opened to release over-pressure, Herreshoff closed it so the boat could achieve its anticipated maximum speed, but a boiler exploded. Herreshoff lost his steam engineer's license. Herreshoff was an accomplished sailor. Two of Herreshoff's sons would become yacht designers: Sidney Dewolf Herreshoff and Lewis Francis Herreshoff, he died on June 1938 in Bristol, Rhode Island. While the firm's early work centered on steam-powered vessels, by the 1890s the Herreshoffs turned to the design and construction of yachts for wealthy American clients, including Jay Gould, William Randolph Hearst, John Pierpont Morgan, Cornelius Vanderbilt III, Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, William Kissam Vanderbilt II, Harry Payne Whitney and Alexander Smith Cochran. Herreshoff boat production incorporated power tools that increased productivity at a high level of quality, using craftsmen that received the highest boat-builder wages in the state of Rhode Island.
Herreshoff was noted as an innovative sailboat designer of his time. His designs ranged from the 12½, a 16-foot sailboat for training the children of yachtsmen, to the 144-foot America's Cup Reliance, with a sail area of 16,000 square feet, he received the first US patent for a sailing catamaran. The firm built the America's Cup winning Cup yachts Enterprise - 1930, Rainbow - 1934; every winning America's Cup Yacht from 1893 to 1934 was built by the Herreshoff yard. The 123-foot Defender featured steel-framing, bronze plating up to the waterline and aluminum topsides to achieve a lighter and faster boat; this combination of materials had been pioneered in the French fresh-water racing yacht Vendenesse, described in a New York Times article and caught the attention of the Vanderbilt Americacup syndicate. In salt water, Defender was subject to galvanic corrosion. Defender won the America's Cup in 1895 over Lord Dunraven's Valkyrie III, she was used as an effective trial-horse for Herreshoff's new Cup defender Columbia in 1899.
She was broken up in 1901. Those of the 2,000-plus designs by Herreshoff that survive are sought by connoisseurs of classic yachts. Herreshoff S-Class sailboats, designed in 1919 and built until 1941, are still raced in Narragansett Bay, Buzzards Bay and Western Long Island Sound, his 12 1/2 design of 1914 raced in New England as well. The New York 30 is well regarded as a one-design racer/cruiser; the Herreshoff Marine Museum preserves Herreshoff's legacy at the former site of the Herreshoff Manufacturing Co. Lightning—the US Navy's first purpose-built torpedo boat—a speed record breaking steam launch with a spar torpedo, 1876. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Herreshoff constructed a double-hulled sailing boat of his own design; the craft, raced at her maiden regatta on June 22, 1876 and performed exceedingly well. Her debut demonstrated the distinct performance advantages afforded by catamarans over the standard monohulls, it was as a result of this event, the Centennial Regatta of the New York Yacht Club, that catamarans were barred from regular sailing classes, this remained the case until the 1970s.
Amaryllis—Herreshoff sailing catamaran, 1876 Duplex catamaran, 1877 Helianthus III, 1924 Herreshoff designed and built the following America's Cup contenders. All won the series against their challengers. Herreshoff was the helmsman of Vigilant. Vigilant, 1893 Defender, 1895 Columbia, 1899 & 1901 Reliance, 1903 Resolute, 1920 According to his son's biography of Herreshoff's career of 72 years, Herreshoff achieved the following: Designed and built five winning America's Cup yachts. Designed well over 2000 craft and produced more than 18,000 drawings. Between 1890 and 1938, the number of yachts he designed that won the Astor Cup, Puritan Cup and Kings Cup outnumbered the winning yachts of all rival yacht designers combined. Built the first torpedo boats for the U. S. Navy. Developed the first handicapping formula to allow yachts of different sizes and types to race together. Developed yacht scantlings based on scientific load calculations. Invented streamlined bulb and fin keels. Invented the sail track and slide in it
Langham Hotel, London
The Langham, London, is one of the largest and best known traditional style grand hotels in London. It is in the district of Marylebone on Langham Place and faces up Portland Place towards Regent's Park, it is a member of the Leading Hotels of the World marketing consortium. The Langham was designed by John Giles and built between 1863 and 1865 at a cost of £300,000, it was the largest and most modern hotel in the city, featuring a hundred water closets, thirty-six bathrooms and the first hydraulic lifts in England. The opening ceremony on 16 June was performed by the Prince of Wales. After the original company was liquidated during an economic slump, new management acquired the hotel for little more than half of its construction cost, it soon became a commercial success. In 1867, a former Union officer named James Sanderson was appointed general manager and the hotel developed an extensive American clientele, which included Mark Twain and the miserly multi-millionairess, Hetty Green, it was patronised by Napoleone III, Oscar Wilde, Antonín Dvořák, Arturo Toscanini, Jean Sibelius.
Electric light was installed in the entrance and courtyard at the exceptionally early date of 1879, Arthur Conan Doyle set the Sherlock Holmes stories "A Scandal in Bohemia" and The Sign of Four at the Langham. The Langham continued throughout the 20th century to be a favoured spot with members of the royal family, such as Diana, Princess of Wales, many high-profile politicians including Winston Churchill and Charles de Gaulle. Other guests included Noël Coward, Wallis Simpson, Don Bradman, Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia and Ayumi Hamasaki; the Langham was hard hit by the Great Depression and the owners attempted to sell the site to the BBC, but Broadcasting House was built across Portland Place instead. During World War II, the hotel was used in part by the Army until it was damaged by bombs and forced to close. After the war, it was occupied by the BBC as ancillary accommodation to Broadcasting House, the corporation purchased it outright in 1965. One BBC employee who stayed at the Langham was Guy Burgess, one of the'Cambridge Five', a spying ring who fed official secrets to the Soviets during the Cold War.
A BBC internal memo reveals that upon being unable to access his room in the hotel late one night, Burgess attempted to break down the door with a fire extinguisher. The Palm Court became the reference library, the restaurant a staff bar and refreshment room. In 1980, the BBC unsuccessfully applied for planning permission to demolish the building and replace it with an office development designed by Norman Foster. In 1986, the BBC sold the property to the Ladbroke Group, who purchased the non-US Hilton Hotels, for £26 million and reopened the hotel as the Langham Hilton in 1991 after a £100 million refurbishment; the Langham was sold to Hong Kong-based Great Eagle Holdings in 1995. The new owners extended the hotel and carried out other refurbishments between 1998 and 2000. Further renovation took place between 2004 and 2009, at an estimated cost of £80 million, restoring the hotel to its original form. Great Eagle subsequently rebadged a number of hotels within its portfolio using the "Langham" brand, creating subsidiary Langham Hotels International.
The hotel featured in the James Bond film GoldenEye, its entryway doubling in an exterior shot for St Petersburg's Grand Hotel Europe. Only the exterior was filmed at the hotel, the interior was filmed in a studio; the Langham is featured in Michael Winterbottom's film Wonderland, in external shots for Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen's made-for-TV movie Winning London, Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties The Langham's restaurant is the primary setting for the culinary drama film Burnt starring Bradley Cooper. The hotel was used in Season 5 episode 1 of the British show Hustle; the hotel has a five star classification. A further round of refurbishment, costing £80m was completed in April 2009; the reconfigured Langham now has 380 rooms, down from 425, a restored Palm Court which has served afternoon tea since 1865, a new business centre and 15 function rooms including The Grand Ballroom which can accommodate 375 guests for a reception. The new spaces join Roux at The Landau restaurant, The Wigmore British tavern, Artesian bar and the private dining room, created by designer David Collins.
Starting in late 2017, the Artesian bar is overseen by Anna Sebastian. On 19 March 2010, writer and former M. P. Gyles Brandreth unveiled a City of Westminster Green Plaque commemorating the August 1889 meeting at the Langham between Oscar Wilde, Arthur Conan Doyle and Joseph Marshall Stoddart. Stoddart commissioned the two other men to write stories for his magazine Lippincott's Monthly Magazine. Arthur Conan Doyle wrote The Sign of Four, published in the magazine in February 1890. Oscar Wilde wrote The Picture of Dorian Gray, published in July that same year. To celebrate the hotel's 146th anniversary in June 2011, the restaurant offered afternoon tea for the original 1865-price of seven pence. Many guests at the hotel, including the English cricketers Stuart Broad and Joe Root, have reported sighting mysterious phenomena during their stay; the Langham, London official website Palm Court, where afternoon tea is served Roux at The Landau, fine dining restaurant Review of the Roux at the Landau restaurant at the Langham Artesian, cocktail bar A detailed history of The Langham in cosmopolis.ch Afternoon Tea at The Langham
Ton classes are categories used to identify classes of yachts. Early attempts at creating rating rules were based on the British "old tonnage measurement" system to calculate the volume of the hold of large commercial ships, it gave the vessel's carrying capacity in tons or, in tuns. Sail area was not included, of course, nor were any credits given for less efficient rigs so in the yacht-racing field the cutters predominated; this rule was modified in 1854 as the Thames Measurement Rule: Thames tonnage = × beam 2 188 where the length is in feet, from the stempost to sternpost. The Godinet rule was adopted in 1892 by the "Union des yachts français", was adopted by other nations from the European continental, it allowed the classifications of yachts by tons, with a formula established by Auguste Godinet which considers displacement and the total sail area. T = ⋅ P ⋅ S 130 where: L = LWL P = girth of the hull S = Sail area T = Rule in tonsThe Société Nautique de Genève, an early adopter of the rule, amended it in 1901 to include the skin girth instead of the chain girth.
This new French rule was adopted in December 1892 by Switzerland followed by Germany, Denmark and Sweden in March 1893. Belgium and Spain completed the list. In March 1894 the Godinet rule is first noted in the United States, at the construction of the Vendenesse, the world's first aluminium yacht; some yacht in existence that were designed to the Godinet rule: Bona Fide: designed by Charles Sibbick in 1898 to rate as a 5-tonner. It was built at the Albert Yard, for J. Howard Taylor, who laterwon the Gold medal in the category 3 to 10 tons at the 1900 Olympics; this yacht was authentically restored between 1999 and 2003 by the Cantiere Navale dell'Argentario, in Tuscany and is the last 19th century Godinet rater. Calypso: designed and built in 1911 to rate as a 3-tonner The Ton classes where Olympic classes 1900 and also on that of 1896. Due to weather conditions the yacht races in 1896 where cancelled and much information of that event is no longer available. For the 1900 events, sailing categories are established based on the Godinet rule: 0.5 Ton 0.5–1 Ton 1–2 Ton 2–3 Ton 3–10 Ton 10–20 Ton Open Class Metre Rule Square Metre Rule Universal Rule ISBN 978-90-78440-23-9