Internet protocol suite

The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks. It is known as TCP/IP because the foundational protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol. During its development, versions of it were known as the Department of Defense model because the development of the networking method was funded by the United States Department of Defense through DARPA, its implementation is a protocol stack. The Internet protocol suite provides end-to-end data communication specifying how data should be packetized, transmitted and received; this functionality is organized into four abstraction layers, which classify all related protocols according to the scope of networking involved. From lowest to highest, the layers are the link layer, containing communication methods for data that remains within a single network segment; the technical standards underlying the Internet protocol suite and its constituent protocols are maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force.

The Internet protocol suite predates the OSI model, a more comprehensive reference framework for general networking systems. The Internet protocol suite resulted from research and development conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in the late 1960s. After initiating the pioneering ARPANET in 1969, DARPA started work on a number of other data transmission technologies. In 1972, Robert E. Kahn joined the DARPA Information Processing Technology Office, where he worked on both satellite packet networks and ground-based radio packet networks, recognized the value of being able to communicate across both. In the spring of 1973, Vinton Cerf, who helped develop the existing ARPANET Network Control Program protocol, joined Kahn to work on open-architecture interconnection models with the goal of designing the next protocol generation for the ARPANET, they drew on the experience from the ARPANET research community and the International Networking Working Group, which Cerf chaired.

By the summer of 1973, Kahn and Cerf had worked out a fundamental reformulation, in which the differences between local network protocols were hidden by using a common internetwork protocol, instead of the network being responsible for reliability, as in the existing ARPANET protocols, this function was delegated to the hosts. Cerf credits Hubert Zimmermann and Louis Pouzin, designer of the CYCLADES network, with important influences on this design; the new protocol was implemented as the Transmission Control Program in 1974. The Transmission Control Program managed both datagram transmissions and routing, but as experience with the protocol grew, collaborators recommended division of functionality into layers of distinct protocols. Advocates included Jonathan Postel of the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute, who edited the Request for Comments, the technical and strategic document series that has both documented and catalyzed Internet development, the research group of Robert Metcalfe at Xerox PARC.

Postel stated, "We are screwing up in our design of Internet protocols by violating the principle of layering." Encapsulation of different mechanisms was intended to create an environment where the upper layers could access only what was needed from the lower layers. A monolithic design would lead to scalability issues. In version 3 of TCP, written in 1978, the Transmission Control Program was split into two distinct protocols, the Internet Protocol as connectionless layer and the Transmission Control Protocol as a reliable connection-oriented service; the design of the network included the recognition that it should provide only the functions of efficiently transmitting and routing traffic between end nodes and that all other intelligence should be located at the edge of the network, in the end nodes. This design is known as the end-to-end principle. Using this design, it became possible to connect other networks to the ARPANET that used the same principle, irrespective of other local characteristics, thereby solving Kahn's initial internetworking problem.

A popular expression is that TCP/IP, the eventual product of Cerf and Kahn's work, can run over "two tin cans and a string." Years as a joke, the IP over Avian Carriers formal protocol specification was created and tested. DARPA contracted with BBN Technologies, Stanford University, the University College London to develop operational versions of the protocol on several hardware platforms. During development of the protocol the version number of the packet routing layer progressed from version 1 to version 4, the latter of, installed in the ARPANET in 1983, it became known as Internet Protocol version 4 as the protocol, still in use in the Internet, alongside its current successor, Internet Protocol version 6. In 1975, a two-network TCP/IP communications test was performed between Stanford and University College London. In November 1977, a three-network TCP/IP test was conducted between sites in the US, the UK, Norway. Several other TCP/IP prototypes were developed at multiple research centers between 1978 and 1983.

A computer called. It forwards network packets forth between them. A router was called gateway, but the term was changed to avoid confusion with other types of gateways. In March 1982, the US Department of Defense declared TCP/IP as the standard for all military computer net

Ray Allan

Raymond George Kyle Allan is a retired Scottish football goalkeeper who made over 420 appearances in the Scottish League for Cowdenbeath. He was capped by Scotland at junior level. Allan is the grandson of footballer George Kyle. Brechin City Scottish League Second Division second-place promotion: 1992–93 Scottish League Third Division second-place promotion: 1995–96Glenrothes Fife Regional League: 1970–71, 1975–76, 1977–78 Fife Regional League East Division: 1978–79 Fife & Lothians Cup: 1971–72 Fife Junior Cup: 1971–72, 1975–76, 1976–77, 1978–79 Cowdenbeath Cup: 1971–72, 1976–77, 1977–78 East Fife Cup: 1971–72 Caledonian Cup: 1975–76 Fife Drybrough Cup: 1978–79 Montrave Cup: 1971–72Individual Cowdenbeath Hall of Fame Ray Allan at Soccerbase

Laki Peak

Laki Peak is the ice-covered peak rising to 1250 m in the southeast foothills of Detroit Plateau on Nordenskjöld Coast in Graham Land, situated between the upper courses of Eliason and Polaris Glaciers. The peak is named after the town of Laki in Southern Bulgaria and the homonymous settlement in Southwestern Bulgaria. Laki Peak is located at 64°12′05″S 59°31′38″W, 8.85 km west of Mount Hornsby, 14.3 km north-northeast of Dolen Peak, 4.82 km east-southeast of Zasele Peak, 31.1 km southeast of Volov Peak on Davis Coast. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 upgraded and updated. Laki Peak. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer. Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission. Laki Peak. Copernix satellite imageThis article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission