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Internet service provider

An Internet service provider is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers can be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise owned. Internet services provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, colocation; the Internet was developed as a network between government research laboratories and participating departments of universities. Other companies and organizations joined by direct connection to the backbone, or by arrangements through other connected companies, sometimes using dialup tools such as UUCP. By the late 1980s, a process was set in place towards commercial use of the Internet; some restrictions were removed by 1991, shortly after the introduction of the World Wide Web. During the 1980s, online service providers such as CompuServe and America On Line began to offer limited capabilities to access the Internet, such as e-mail interchange, but full access to the Internet was not available to the general public.

In 1989, the first Internet service providers, companies offering the public direct access to the Internet for a monthly fee, were established in Australia and the United States. In Brookline, The World became the first commercial ISP in the US, its first customer was served in November 1989. These companies offered dial-up connections, using the public telephone network to provide last-mile connections to their customers; the barriers to entry for dial-up ISPs were low and many providers emerged. However, cable television companies and the telephone carriers had wired connections to their customers and could offer Internet connections at much higher speeds than dial-up using broadband technology such as cable modems and digital subscriber line; as a result, these companies became the dominant ISPs in their service areas, what was once a competitive ISP market became a monopoly or duopoly in countries with a commercial telecommunications market, such as the United States. In 1995, NSFNET was decommissioned removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic and network access points were created to allow peering arrangements between commercial ISPs.

On 23 April 2014, the U. S. Federal Communications Commission was reported to be considering a new rule permitting ISPs to offer content providers a faster track to send content, thus reversing their earlier net neutrality position. A possible solution to net neutrality concerns may be municipal broadband, according to Professor Susan Crawford, a legal and technology expert at Harvard Law School. On 15 May 2014, the FCC decided to consider two options regarding Internet services: first, permit fast and slow broadband lanes, thereby compromising net neutrality. On 10 November 2014, President Barack Obama recommended that the FCC reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality. On 16 January 2015, Republicans presented legislation, in the form of a U. S. Congress H. R. discussion draft bill, that makes concessions to net neutrality but prohibits the FCC from accomplishing the goal or enacting any further regulation affecting Internet service providers.

On 31 January 2015, AP News reported that the FCC will present the notion of applying Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 to the Internet in a vote expected on 26 February 2015. Adoption of this notion would reclassify Internet service from one of information to one of the telecommunications and, according to Tom Wheeler, chairman of the FCC, ensure net neutrality; the FCC is expected to enforce net neutrality in its vote, according to The New York Times. On 26 February 2015, the FCC ruled in favor of net neutrality by adopting Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 and Section 706 in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 to the Internet; the FCC Chairman, Tom Wheeler, commented, "This is no more a plan to regulate the Internet than the First Amendment is a plan to regulate free speech. They both stand for the same concept." On 12 March 2015, the FCC released the specific details of the net neutrality rules. On 13 April 2015, the FCC published the final rule on its new "Net Neutrality" regulations.

These rules went into effect on 12 June 2015. Upon becoming FCC chairman in April 2017, Ajit Pai proposed an end to net neutrality, awaiting votes from the commission. On 21 November 2017, Pai announced that a vote will be held by FCC members on 14 December on whether to repeal the policy. On 11 June 2018, the repeal of the FCC's network neutrality rules took effect. Access provider ISPs provide Internet access, employing a range of technologies to connect users to their network. Available technologies have ranged from computer modems with acoustic couplers to telephone lines, to television cable, Wi-Fi, fiber optics. For users and small businesses, traditional options include copper wires to provide dial-up, DSL asymmetric digital subscriber line, cable modem or Integrated Services Digital Network. Using fiber-optics to end users is called Fiber To The Home or similar names. For customers with more demanding requirements can use higher-speed DSL, metropolitan Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN Primary Rate Interface, ATM and synchronous optical networking.

Wireless access is

2012 NAIA Football National Championship

The 2012 NAIA Football National Championship was played on December 13, 2012 as the 57th Annual Russell Athletic NAIA Football National Championship. The game matched the once-beaten and 5th-ranked Knights from Marian University against the undefeated and 3rd-ranked Mustangs from Morningside College; the game matched two teams making their first appearance in the championship game, assuring someone would win the title for the first time. The teams proved to be evenly matched, the outcome was not decided until the winning points were scored in the first round of overtime. With their winning field goal, the Marian Knights prevailed, 30-27 in the first overtime game in NAIA football championship history; the championship game was played at Barron Stadium in Georgia. A total of sixteen teams participated in the single-elimination tournament from across the country. Placement in the tournament was based on the final edition of the 2012 NAIA Coaches' Poll; this year's field included the top 15 teams from the final poll as well as #18 Bethel.

Two teams were bypassed as a result of the automatic berth granted to Bethel, champions of the Mid-South Conference West Division. * denotes OT. Missouri Valley finished the regular season with its third consecutive conference championship and an undefeated 10–0 record, while Ottawa entered into the game with its second consecutive conference championship and a record of 8–2. Missouri Valley earned the home field advantage for the first round. Missouri Valley scored 15 points in the first quarter and held Ottawa to zero, held that lead for the entire game. Missouri Valley averaged 6.9 yards per play while holding Ottawa to 2.7. Missouri Valley's 487 total yards was made up of 229 yards rushing and 258 passing. With 13:46 left in the second quarter, Ottawa scored and managed to bring the score within eight points, but Missouri Valley pulled further away to a victorious final score of 56–21. Bethel was a big underdog, favored to lose to Georgetown by 30 points. However, they came into the game and won on a fake PAT after a 47-yard Hail Mary that appeared to only bring the game to overtime.

The whole sequence in the final minute of the game was phenomenal. After Bethel was stopped on fourth down near mid-field, they still stopped Georgetown and forced a punt. However, Georgetown was able to run down the clock to 44 seconds left and downed the punt at the 6-yard line, leaving Bethel the other 94 yards to go and no timeouts; some fans started leaving and most assumed that the game was done. However, after two quick first down completions, Bethel had 31 seconds left on their 45, some hope started to show, it came down to 4th and 2 on the Georgetown 47-yard line with 7 seconds left, an obvious Hail Mary situation when you are down 7 points. The pass was aimed at the front of the right side of the endzone, it was knocked down. Instead of trying to charge for the endzone right in front of him, the receiver saw another receiver running to the middle part of the endzone, he went unnoticed by the defense, as they thought that all of the receivers would be where the ball was thrown. The receiver with the ball casually threw it back to the open receiver, who went into the endzone.

The Georgetown fan filled crowd was in stunned silence, besides the few Bethel fans. Bethel got their special teams on the field rather considering that most players were jumping around and celebrating the play before. Georgetown was out of timeouts and couldn't "ice the kicker" by calling a timeout and allowing the kicker to see the importance of the kick, making him nervous. However, there was no kick. In fact, there was a penalty on Georgetown for too many men on the field, which Bethel declined. After the game, Bethel coach Roger Diplomatie said that the lateral on the Hail Mary wasn't designed to happen, however it was planned for an extra receiver to be away from the pass for what happened; as for the PAT, Roger said that he only told the special teams players on the field that they were going to do the fake. He did this as to avoid the sideline going serious, knowing that it is a tough play to execute if the defense does a different scheme than he had thought. Most players admitted their surprise.

Coach Roger said that "Hadn't we gone for two, the crowd could have gotten loud again and would have beaten us in overtime... sometimes, things just can't last too long." The game set multiple records, being only the third time that an 18 seed beat a seed in the first round, it spoiled Georgetown's first postseason appearance as a 1 seed. It set a record for most safeties scored in a postseason game with one for each team and they were the first points scored, oddly enough, which caused the score of 2-2 to be held in a game for the first known time in college or professional history, it had the most combined touchdowns in a postseason game since 2001. Georgetown kick return specialist Anthony Henson became the first player to return two kicks 95+ yards in the same game, it was the first time that each team scored at least twice on offense and special teams. Scoring summary 1st quarter- G- Safety B- Safety B- 39-yard run, kick PAT G- 98-yard kick return, kick PAT 2nd quarter- G- 56-yard interception return, kick PAT B- 68-yard punt return, kick PAT B- 12-yard fumble reco

Eucalyptus distuberosa

Eucalyptus distuberosa is a species of mallet, endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It has smooth dark grey to tan-coloured or creamy white bark, glossy dark green, lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven, white flowers and cup-shaped to conical fruit. Eucalyptus distuberosa is a mallet that grows to a height of 5–14 m but does not form a lignotuber, it has smooth dark grey to tan-coloured or creamy-white bark, shed in long ribbons. Adult leaves are glossy dark green, lance-shaped, 60–100 mm long and 8–22 mm wide on a petiole 10–15 mm long; the flower buds are arranged in leaf axils in groups of seven on an unbranched peduncle 5–13 mm long, the individual buds on a pedicel 3–6 mm long. Mature buds are oval to pear-shaped, 8–10 mm long and 5–6 mm wide with a conical to turban-shaped operculum; the flowers are white and the fruit is a woody cup-shaped to conical capsule, 5–8 mm long and 6–8 mm wide with the valves near the level of the rim. Eucalyptus distuberosa was first formally described in 2009 by Dean Nicolle and the description was published in the journal Nuytsia from a specimen he collected in 2000 north-east of Yellowdine.

The specific epithet is derived from the Latin words dis meaning "without" or "not" and tuberosus meaning "full of lumps", referring to the lack of a lignotuber in this species. There are two subspecies recognised by the Australian Plant Census: Eucalyptus distuberosa subsp. Aerata that has prominently ribbed buds and fruit. Distuberosa that lacks ornamentation on fruit, although intermediates are known; this mallet grows in mallee between Yellowdine, the Frank Hann National Park and Norseman in the Avon Wheatbelt and Mallee biogeographic regions of Western Australia. Subspecies aerata is only known from the Bronzite Ridge between Lake Norseman. Eucalyptus distuberosa subsp. Distuberosa is classified as "not threatened" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife but subspecies aerata is classified as "Priority One" meaning that it is known from only one or a few locations which are at risk. List of Eucalyptus species

Indonesia–Nigeria relations

Indonesia–Nigeria relations refers to the bilateral relations of Republic of Indonesia and Nigeria. Diplomatic relations were established in 1965. Both countries are members of multilateral organizations such as the Non-Aligned Movement, World Trade Organization, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and Developing 8 Countries; the diplomatic relations between the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the Republic of Indonesia date back to 1965, when Indonesia opened its resident diplomatic mission in Lagos. In 1976 Nigeria reciprocated by opening its mission in Jakarta. Nigeria was the first Sub-Saharan African country. Indonesia recognizes the important role played by Nigeria in Sub-Saharan region and has made Nigeria as its gate to West and Central Africa. There have been an exchange of visits at the highest level, by former President Abdurrahman Wahid who visited Nigeria in 2001 and former President Olusegun Obasanjo who visited Indonesia three times in 2001, 2005 and 2006. President Umaru Musa Yar'Adua and President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of Indonesia met in New York in 2007 and agreed to strengthen further economic relations between the two countries by increasing trade and encouraging investment.

In February 2013, Yudhoyono visited Abuja accompanied by 99 businessmen to strengthen trade relations, met Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan. In 2001, Indonesia and Nigeria signed the Economic and Technical Cooperation Agreement, establish the Joint Commission; the two countries on February 2013 signed multi-billion long-term agreements on airlines and aircraft maintenance. The agreement and contracts are between Garuda Maintenance Facility Aeroasia, with its Nigerian counterparts, including Kabo Air, Silverback Africa, Hak Air, Max Air and Service Air Ltd. In March 2007, an MOU was signed between the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Corruption Eradication Commission of Indonesia. Other draft MOU/Agreements exchanged between the two countries include cooperation in trade, reciprocal promotion and protection of investment, agriculture and illicit drugs. Nigeria is Indonesia's second largest trade partner in Africa after South Africa, in 2011 the trade value reached US$2.09 billion accounted for 21.66 percent of Indonesia's total trade with Africa.

In 2013, the bilateral trade volume between the countries hits $2.2 billion. There are over 15 Indonesian companies operating in Nigeria such as Indorama, Kalbe Farma and Sayap Mas Utama. Indofood for example had established instant noodle factory in Nigeria since 1995 where Indomie has become a popular brand and have the largest instant noodles manufacturing plant in Africa; the two countries planning a US$2.5 billion gas methanol and fertilizer plant in Nigeria with Pertamina of Indonesia and NNPC of Nigeria in collaboration with Eurochem Indonesia and Viva Methanol of Nigeria. Embassy of Indonesia in Abuja, Nigeria Embassy of Nigeria in Jakarta, Indonesia

George William Tighe

George William Tighe was an Irish agricultural theorist who spent much of his life in Italy. Through his common-law marriage to Margaret King, he exerted an influence on the radical poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. A scholar of Claire Clairmont's life characterises Tighe as achieving "some degree of fame for his agricultural writings"; as an Irishman, he took his interest in potatoes abroad. While living in Italy, he had samples of the tubers sent to him from various regions, concluding gloomily that they were all of the same variety, he had a copy of Humphry Davy's Elements of Agricultural Chemicals which he lent to Percy Bysshe Shelley, captivating the young traveller's attention for a week of study. Tighe was living in Rome when he met the aristocrat, visiting the city with her husband, the 2nd Earl Mountcashell, accompanied by her friend the memoirist Katherine Wilmot, they began a passionate affair around 1803 which continued until her death at Pisa in January 1835. Lady Mountcashell remained with her husband, until 1805 when he left her in Germany.

Lord and Lady Mountcashell did not separate until 1821, by which time she had been living with Tighe for 20 years. Around 1806, Tighe and Lady Mountcashell moved to Jena where she was to assume the guise of a man to study medicine. Sometime they moved to live in Pisa where she studied under Andrea Vaccá Berlinghieri, at the University of Pisa; the couple remained at Pisa until their deaths. Tighe and Lady Mountcashell lived together at Casa Silva, Pisa under the name of "Mr and Mrs Mason"; the name comes from the only children's book written by the pioneer educator and proto-feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, who served as Margaret King's governess and inspired great devotion. Some of Wollstonecraft's experiences during this year made their way into Original Stories from Real Life; the maternal teacher who frames these stories is called Mrs Mason. The Masons lived in Pisa with their daughters Nerina, they were visited in 1820 by a young threesome: the poet Percy Shelley, his wife the writer Mary Shelley, their translator her stepsister Claire Clairmont.

"Mrs Mason" felt maternal towards the women, as they were both in a sense daughters of her life-changing motherly governess. She offered "sage advice" to Clairmont about her career, she introduced them all to a new intellectual and social circle in Pisa, helped Mary set up her household, finding them pleasant lodgings and advising on servants. Tighe provided Percy Shelley with a great deal of material on chemistry and statistics; the Masons inspired the Shelleys with "a new-found sense of radicalism". In 1821, Tighe became involved in the attempts of Clairmont to remove Allegra, her daughter by Lord Byron, from a convent in Ravenna. Tighe made a "secret trip to Ravenna and Bagnacavallo to find out what he could about the convent and Allegra's treatment there". Byron scholar Leslie A. Marchand mentions that around the same time, an "orphan girl named Elizabeth Parker", living in the Masons' household, living with them " seems to have shared Tighe's poor opinion of Lord Byron. Tighe outlived his wife by two years before dying at Pisa in March 1837.

They are both buried in Livorno. A copy of Tighe's will is held in The National Archives at Kew; this received English probate on 22 August 1837. Lady Mount Cashell left her husband, Stephen Moore, 2nd Earl Mountcashell, for Tighe circa 1803. Although it is suggested that Tighe and Lady Mountcashell were married circa 1822, her grave inscription refers to her as "Margaret Jane MOUNTCASHELL, née KING". Tighe and Margaret King had two daughters: Anna Laura Georgina "Laurette", Catherine Elizabeth Raniera "Nerina"

Reuben R. Springer

Reuben R. Springer was an American businessman and philanthropist in Cincinnati, Ohio, he was a major contributor to the construction of the city's Music Hall, a major musical venue, where a life-size marble statue of him by Preston Powers can be seen. Springer was born into a large family in Frankfort, Kentucky on November 16, 1800, he was the son of the local postmaster from Virginia and a veteran of the American Revolution, who had fought under Mad Anthony Wayne, his mother, a native of New Jersey. At age 13 he left school to become a clerk under his father's supervision. In time, he found himself disenchanted by the work. Drawn to life on the Ohio River, he got a position with the firm of Taylor, Kilgour & Company, who were wholesale grocers, as a store clerk on one of their steamboats, the George Madison, which transported food between Louisville and New Orleans. In 1826, he obtained a transfer to a better position on another of the company's boats, the George Washington. In 1830, Springer married Jane Kilgour, the daughter of one of the firm's founders, became a partner in the company.

Within ten years, he had worked so hard that he had become wealthy, not only in the grocery trade, but through investments in real estate and the railroads. However, he had destroyed his health in the process. Living in semi-retirement the rest of his life, Springer would travel to Europe, where he acquired a major art collection, he became a patron of the arts, contributing hugely to the construction of the Cincinnati Music Hall, built through his own initiative. He became a convert to Catholicism, contributed to the Catholic Saint Peter in Chains Cathedral, located near his home. After his death, his bequest enabled the building of St. Francis Hospital for the indigent and children, the only hospital west of the Alleghenies with facilities to treat cancer. Springer died childless in 1884 at his home, located at the northeast corner of Seventh and Plum Streets