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Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or in the future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions. While the term was defined for information technology or systems engineering services to allow for information exchange, a broader definition takes into account social and organizational factors that impact system to system performance. Task of building coherent services for users when the individual components are technically different and managed by different organizations If two or more systems use a common data formats and communication protocols and are capable of communicating with each other, they exhibit syntactic interoperability. XML and SQL are examples of common data protocols. Lower-level data formats contribute to syntactic interoperability, ensuring that alphabetical characters are stored in a same ASCII or a Unicode format in all the communicating systems.

Beyond the ability of two or more computer systems to exchange information, semantic interoperability is the ability to automatically interpret the information exchanged meaningfully and in order to produce useful results as defined by the end users of both systems. To achieve semantic interoperability, both sides must refer to a common information exchange reference model; the content of the information exchange requests are unambiguously defined: what is sent is the same as what is understood. The possibility of promoting this result by user-driven convergence of disparate interpretations of the same information has been object of study by research prototypes such as S3DB. Cross-domain interoperability involves multiple social, political, legal entities working together for a common interest and/or information exchange. Interoperability imply Open standards ab-initio, i.e. by definition. Interoperability implies exchanges between a range of products, or similar products from several different vendors, or between past and future revisions of the same product.

Interoperability may be developed post-facto, as a special measure between two products, while excluding the rest, by using Open standards. When a vendor is forced to adapt its system to a dominant system, not based on Open standards, it is not interoperability but only compatibility. Open standards rely on a broadly consultative and inclusive group including representatives from vendors and others holding a stake in the development that discusses and debates the technical and economic merits and feasibility of a proposed common protocol. After the doubts and reservations of all members are addressed, the resulting common document is endorsed as a common standard; this document is subsequently released to the public, henceforth becomes an open standard. It is published and is available or at a nominal cost to any and all comers, with no further encumbrances. Various vendors and individuals can use the standards document to make products that implement the common protocol defined in the standard, are thus interoperable by design, with no specific liability or advantage for any customer for choosing one product over another on the basis of standardised features.

The vendors' products compete on the quality of their implementation, user interface, ease of use, price, a host of other factors, while keeping the customers data intact and transferable if he chooses to switch to another competing product for business reasons. Post facto interoperability may be the result of the absolute market dominance of a particular product in contravention of any applicable standards, or if any effective standards were not present at the time of that product's introduction; the vendor behind that product can choose to ignore any forthcoming standards and not co-operate in any standardisation process at all, using its near-monopoly to insist that its product sets the de facto standard by its market dominance. This is not a problem if the product's implementation is open and minimally encumbered, but it may as well be both closed and encumbered; because of the network effect, achieving interoperability with such a product is both critical for any other vendor if it wishes to remain relevant in the market, difficult to accomplish because of lack of co-operation on equal terms with the original vendor, who may well see the new vendor as a potential competitor and threat.

The newer implementations rely on clean-room reverse engineering in the absence of technical data to achieve interoperability. The original vendors can provide such technical data to others in the name of'encouraging competition,' but such data is invariably encumbered, may be of limited use. Availability of such data is not equivalent to an open standard, because: The data is provided by the original vendor on a discretionary basis, who has every interest in blocking the effective implementation of competing solutions, may subtly alter or change its product in newer revisions, so that competitors' implementations are but not quite interoperable, leading customers to consider them unreliable or of a lower quality; these changes can either not be passed on to other vendors at all, or passed on after a strategic delay, maintaining the market dominance of the original vendor. The data itself may be encumbered, e.g. by patents or pricing, leading to a dependence of all competing solutions on the original vendor, leading a revenue stream from the competitors' customers back to the original vendor.

This revenue stream is only a result of the original product's market dominance and not a result of an

Gimbels Parking Pavilion

The Gimbels Parking Pavilion is an Art Moderne-style parking ramp built by Gimbels Department Store for its customers in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1947. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. In 1887 the Gimbel family from Vincennes, Indiana bought a four-story building in Milwaukee's premier shopping district and moved their retail operation, setting up a department store selling goods like cloaks and curtains, offering credit and free delivery - a new type of store at the time. Gimbel Brothers Department Store prospered over the years, one construction project after another expanded the building; when Gimbel's opened in 1887, people traveled by buggy, or by foot. After the turn of the century automobiles began appearing. Numbers of cars climbed through 1930s dropped during WWII. Starting in 1945 they began to rise again, from 131,963 vehicles registered in Milwaukee in 1945 to 158,812 in 1947; the city had been considering parking shortages for years. Gimbels acquired space for the parking pavilion across the street from their store.

Architect Frank Drolshagen and engineer V. K. Boynton designed the pavilion in Art Moderne style, typified by smooth lines and curves suggested by airplane forms, a modern feel disconnected from historic styles. At the curved corner entrance was a store called Electric City where Gimbels sold electrical appliances in the early years. Valets at the store parked cars, sold gas, washed cars while customers shopped. Gimbels Pavilion was placed on the NRHP for several reasons, it stands as a surviving example of attendant-staffed parking designed to handle the popularity of the auto in Milwaukee's downtown. It is the only Art Moderne-styled parking garage in Milwaukee, though other buildings like the Exton Apartments Building at 1260 N. Prospect are in the same style

Skip Rutherford

James Luin "Skip" Rutherford III is an American non-profit executive and academic administrator. He served as the first president of the Clinton Foundation, is the Dean of the University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service, since 2006. James Luin Rutherford III was born on January 1950 in Memphis, Tennessee, he is the only child of James Luin Rutherford Jr, a banker and landowner, his wife Kathleen Rutherford. Rutherford was brought up in Batesville and educated at Batesville High School. Rutherford received a bachelor's degree from the University of Arkansas, where he was editor of their student newspaper, The Arkansas Traveler, in 1971-72. In 1992, he was a key advisor on Bill Clinton's presidential campaign. In 1997 he became the first president of the Clinton Foundation, was still heading the board at the end of 2004, when the other directors were Senator David Pryor, Ann Jordan, Terrence McAuliffe, Cheryl Mills. In 2006, Rutherford was chairman of the Clinton Foundation, executive vice president of Cranford Johnson Robinson Woods, a communications firm in Little Rock, a visiting professor at the University of Central Arkansas.

Rutherford has been the Dean of the University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service, since April 2006, when he succeeded Senator David Pryor. Rutherford and his wife Billie have three children

Terry Wollman

Terry Wollman is a Billboard charting American Jazz/Pop musician. He is a music director, guitarist and composer living in Los Angeles, California. By the end of 2012, he has released six albums, including "Bimini," "Say Yes," "Baila", "Sleep Suite," "Buddha's Ear," "A Joyful Noise," and "Silver Collection." Terry Wollman moved to Los Angeles in 1981 after graduating from Berklee College of Music with a degree in Arranging. He built a solid reputation as an in-demand music director, guitarist and composer. Terry has performed with an array of artists including Billy Preston, The 5th Dimension, Wilson Phillips, Al Jarreau, Joan Baez, Joe Walsh, Keb' Mo', Little Richard, Gerald Albright and Eartha Kitt. Terry’s TV credits include stints on “Scrubs," “The Tonight Show," “The Late Show," and “The Byron Allen Show." Terry's 1988 debut recording, “Bimini," a contemporary jazz collection with Joe Sample on piano, Ernie Watts on sax, received worldwide critical acclaim. His second album, “Say Yes," was released in 1998 and featured a well-known array of guest artists such as Joe Sample, Abraham Laboriel, John Robinson, Luis Conte and Michael McDonald.

Moving into the pop world, Terry co-wrote and produced a high-energy dance record for the supergroup Baila, entitled “Shall We Dance?”. Soon after, Terry produced and co-wrote the uniquely themed “Sleep Suite," a musical collaboration between the arts and sciences. “Buddha’s Ear," his fifth release, was influenced by his world travels. In his usual style, he once again brings together an all-star band, his single, "Mandela", spent 5 months on Billboard’s Top 20 and hit No. 1 on Smooth Jazz Top 20 and No. 4 on the Billboard charts. "A Joyful Noise," Terry's first Christmas album, reunites his longtime friends Ricky Lawson, Abraham Laboriel, Wally Minko, Lenny Castro to put his own unique spin on holiday classics. Special guests include Melissa Manchester, Melanie Taylor, Perla Batalla, Ellis Hall, Mindi Abair, Eric Marienthal, John Robinson. In 2013, he began working with Melissa Manchester on her first studio album in ten years as co-producer; the album "You Gotta Love the Life" was released January 10, 2015.

In 2017, Terry was the music director for the acclaimed 2017 documentary "If You're Not in the Obit, Eat Breakfast", narrated by Carl Reiner. He produced the songs in the film which include the original composition "Just Getting Started." In February 2018, Terry released a new single, "No Problem", which reached #1 most added on Billboard's Smooth Jazz chart,, Radio Wave Internet Airplay. When not in the studio or on the road, Terry is the host of the radio show "Making it With Terry Wollman" on Entertalk Radio. Bimini Say Yes Baila Sleep Suite Buddha's Ear A Joyful Noise Silver Collection Official website Terry Wollman on IMDb Terry Wollman at AllMusic Terry Wollman discography at Discogs Terry Wollman at AllRovi


Yagul is an archaeological site and former city-state associated with the Zapotec civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, located in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. The site was declared one of the country's four Natural Monuments on 13 October 1998; the site is known locally as Pueblo Viejo and was occupied at the time of the Spanish Conquest. After the Conquest the population was relocated to the nearby modern town of Tlacolula where their descendants still live. Yagul was first occupied around 500-100 BC. Around 500-700 AD, residential and ceremonial structures were built at the site. However, most of the visible remains date to 1250-1521 AD, when the site functioned as the capital of a Postclassic city-state; the site was excavated in the 60s by archaeologists Ignacio Bernal and John Paddock. Vestiges of human habitation in the area, namely cliff paintings at Caballito Blanco, date to at least 3000 BC. After the abandonment of Monte Albán about 800 AD, the region's inhabitants established themselves in various small centers such as Lambityeco and Yagul.

Yagul comes from the Zapotec language, it is formed from ya and gul, hence "old tree". Yagul is located just off Highway 190 between the city of Oaxaca and Mitla, about 36 km from the former; the site is situated on a volcanic outcrop surrounded by fertile alluvial land, in the Tlacolula arm of the Valley of Oaxaca. The Salado river flows to the south. Occupation at Yagul dates as far back as the Middle to Late Preclassic. Elaborate Preclassic period burials have been excavated at Yagul, accompanied by ceramic effigy vessels that indicate the increasing influence of Monte Albán upon the local elite. In the Late Postclassic prior to the Spanish Conquest, Yagul had a population of more than 6000 people. Yagul is one of the most studied archaeological sites in the Valley of Oaxaca; this important prehispanic centers name means "Old Stick" or "Old Tree", The site is set around a hill, can be divided into three principal areas. The construction stone at Yagul is river cobbles formed from volcanic rock such as basalt.

About 30 tombs have been found at Yagul, sometimes located in pairs. A few of these bear hieroglyphic inscriptions. Situated atop the cliffs to the northeast of the site and protected by natural and artificial walls, it has an excellent vantage point over the whole Tlacolula Valley, it has several lookout points, including one reached by a narrow bridge. Unexcavated residential areas lie on terraces to the south and west of the hill. Classic Period residences are to the northwest of the excavated ceremonial centre and lower class Postclassic residences are presumed to lie around the site core; the ceremonial center was excavated in 1974 by Gamio. It composes the vast majority of what has been excavated, what can be seen today; the ceremonial center consists of a number of large patios bordered by monumental architecture, includes a ballcourt and an elite residential complex. Some of the structures in this area are: Ballcourt; the restored ballcourt is the largest in the Valley of Oaxaca. A carved serpent's head, now in the Regional Museum in Oaxaca, was found fixed to the top of the south wall.

The ballcourt was built in the Classic Period between 500 and 700 AD, widened between 700 and 900 AD. It has a total length of 47 meters and a central field length of 30 meters, is 6 meters wide. Palace of the Six Patios; this is a labyrinthine structure formed of an intricate complex of many rooms. It is formed of three elite complexes, each with two patios surrounded by rooms. In each pair of patios, the northern was a residence and the southern was the administrative area. A tomb entrance is found in each patio; the same layout is found at the nearby site of Mitla although the two sites were independent. The walls are faced with dressed stones and stucco over a rough stone and clay core, the floors were of red stucco. Patio F is somewhat different from the others in the complex in that it opened out onto the ballcourt and lower patio complexes and appears to have had a more public function, it had a low bench situated within a room that would have been visible to the areas below and may have been intended for the reception of visitors.

The palace complex included a temple. Patio 1 is a large open area southeast of the Palace of the Six Patios, it has rooms on all sides except the south side. To the south of Patio 1 is a temple. Patio 4 lies to the southeast of the ballcourt and is part of a temple-patio-altar complex formed from four mounds around a central altar, it was in use from at least the Classic Period through to the Postclassic. A sculpture of a frog-effigy lies at the base of the eastern mound. Tomb 30; this Postclassic tomb lies underneath Patio 4. It is formed of three chambers with decorated panels, the principal chamber has a facade decorated with two human heads carved in stone; the door to the tomb is a stone slab with hieroglyphic inscriptions on both sides. Council Chamber; this is a long, narrow chamber with an east–west orientation, lying to the south of a narrow "street". It was once decorated with stone mosaics and was entered via steps from Patio 1, which lies to the south; the entrance is divided into 3 sections by two 2-meter wide pillars.

Due to its non-residential nature and its lack of a shrine or temple, this room is presumed to have been administrative in function. Decorated Street; this narrow "street" runs in an east–west direction between the Palace of the Six Patios to the north and the Council Chamber to the south. Its southern wall is over 40 meters long and was decorated with geometric stone


KHKS is a Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex radio station broadcasting a Top 40 format, licensed to Denton, is under ownership of iHeartMedia, Inc.. It is known as "Kiss FM"; the station's studios are located along Dallas Parkway in Farmers Branch, their transmitter site is located in Cedar Hill. KDNT-FM was established in June 1948 at 106.3 on the FM dial and moved to the current 106.1 frequency in 1962. The station was a simulcast of KDNT-AM during its early years. KDNT-FM went through a number of different formats during the late 1970s and early 1980s, including a Top 40/oldies hybrid, disco and country; the station's calls changed to KDDC in 1980, to KIXK at the start of 1981. KIXK's format remained country until changing to oldies/classic hits in December 1982. In September 1984, KIXK flipped to CHR/Top 40 as Kiss 106 FM, KTKS. At this time, 106.1 was owned by ABC Broadcasting until being purchased by Capital Cities in 1985. At Midnight on September 30, 1987, KTKS began stunting with birds nature sounds.

At Noon the same day, the station flipped to New age/Smooth jazz as KOAI "106.1 The Oasis". Gannett Broadcasting acquired KOAI in 1989. In October 1992, Gannett reached a deal with Granum Communications to move the Smooth Jazz format to 107.5, where they remained until the fall of 2006. On November 1, 1992, at 1:11 a.m. the CHR/Top 40 format and "Kiss FM" branding were revived as 106.1 Kiss FM with the current KHKS calls. The first song on the revived "Kiss FM" was Wilson Phillips' version of "The Star-Spangled Banner." Gannett would sell the station to Chancellor Broadcasting in April 1997. Since its launch, KHKS has been the flagship station of The Kidd Kraddick Morning Show, which began nationwide syndication in 2001. From September 7 to 10, 2010, the station was rebranded to "06.1 Kiss FM" as part of its $5,000 contest. That same year, KHKS ran a new initiative. However, during that time, they've been known to stretch a song out a little by repeating the chorus of a song twice. From 2005 to 2009, KHKS was the only top 40 station in Dallas/Fort Worth, although it had always been leaning rhythmic since then.

Former rivals KRBV Wild 100.3, 106.7 KDL/Casa 106.7, Movin 107.5. KHKS could serve as the de facto rhythmic station for Dallas, although KBFB is the actual rhythmic station for Dallas, KBFB is more urban-leaning. KESS-FM Hot 107.9 was a rhythmic competitor for 3 months from May to late July 2013, but it has switched to a Regional Mexican format. From 2009 to 2014, it was competing head-on with Cumulus-owned KLIF-FM, which leaned more adult CHR, but sometime in November, KLIF-FM flipped to an old school hip-hop format for the holiday season. And after over 2 weeks, KLIF-FM Hot 93.3 flipped to urban contemporary full-time, leaving KHKS as the sole Top 40/CHR station in the metroplex once again. KHKS, regained KLIF-FM as its competitor as Hot 93.3 has returned to their previous Top 40/CHR format. It competed with CBS Radio-owned 103.7 KVIL from October 2016 to November 2017. 106.1 HD-2 first launched in 2004 as "Kiss FM En Espanol", targeting a Hispanic audience with Hispanic Rhythmic format. It was jettisoned in favor of Pride Radio in late 2006 with a format intended for the LGBT community.

"Pride Radio" was moved to its sister station KDMX on 102.9 HD-2 in favor of "Wild Radio" in early 2008, running "Party Mix" music similar to the "Kiss FM" playlist. However, since March 28, 2011, it has been replaced by Pride Radio, marking the format's return to that particular frequency; the Kidd Kraddick Morning Show Raven Billy the Kidd Junior Priscilla Official website DFW Radio/TV History's Tribute to KDNT DFW Radio Archives Kiss FM Playlist Query the FCC's FM station database for KHKS Radio-Locator information on KHKS Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KHKSFCC History Cards for KHKS