A nature center is an organization with a visitor center or interpretive center designed to educate people about nature and the environment. Located within a protected open space, nature centers have trails through their property; some are located within a state or city park, some have special gardens or an arboretum. Their properties can be characterized as nature wildlife sanctuaries. Nature centers display small live animals, such as reptiles, insects, or fish. There are museum exhibits and displays about natural history, or preserved mounted animals or nature dioramas. Nature centers are staffed by paid or volunteer naturalists and most offer educational programs to the general public, as well as summer camp, after-school and school group programs; some nature centers allow free admission but collect voluntary donations in order to help offset expenses. They rely on support from dedicated volunteers. Environmental education centers differ from nature centers in that their museum exhibits and education programs are available by appointment, although casual visitors may be allowed to walk on their grounds.
Some city and national parks have facilities similar to nature centers, such as museum exhibits and trails, some offer park nature education programs presented by a park ranger. List of nature centers
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
A science museum is a museum devoted to science. Older science museums tended to concentrate on static displays of objects related to natural history, geology and industrial machinery, etc. Modern trends in museology have broadened the range of subject matter and introduced many interactive exhibits. Many if not most modern science museums – which refer to themselves as science centers or "discovery centers" – emphasize technology, are therefore technology museums; the mission statements of science centers and modern museums vary, but they are united in being places that make science accessible and encourage the excitement of discovery. They are an integral and dynamic part of the learning environment, promoting exploration from the first "Eureka!" Moment to today's cutting-edge research. As early as the Renaissance, many aristocrats collected curiosities for display to their family. Universities and medical schools maintained study collections of specimens for their students. Scientists and collectors displayed their finds in private cabinets of curiosities.
Such collections were the predecessors of modern natural history museums. The first purpose-built museum covering natural philosophy and open to the public from 1683 was the original Ashmolean museum in Oxford, although its scope was mixed; the first dedicated science museum was the Museo de Ciencias Naturales, in Spain. Opened in 1752, it disappeared during the Franco regime, but it recovered afterwards and today works with the CSIC; the Utrecht University Museum, among others, still displays an extensive collection of 18th-century animal and human "rarities" in its original setting. Another line in the genealogy of science museums came during the Industrial Revolution, with great national exhibits intended to showcase the triumphs of both science and industry. For example, the Great Exhibition in The Crystal Palace gave rise to London's Science Museum. In America, various Natural History Societies established collections in the early 19th century, which evolved into museums. Notable was the early New England Museum of Natural History, which opened in Boston in 1864.
The Academy of Science of Saint Louis was founded in 1856 as the first scientific organization west of the Mississippi. The modern interactive science museum appears to have been pioneered by Munich’s Deutsches Museum in the early 20th century; this museum had moving exhibits. The concept was taken to the US by Julius Rosenwald, chairman of Sears and Company, who visited the Deutsches Museum with his young son in 1911, he was so-captivated by the experience. Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry opened in phases between 1933 and 1940. In 1959 the Museum of Science and Natural History was formally created by the Academy of Science of Saint Louis, featuring many interactive science and history exhibits. In August 1969, Frank Oppenheimer dedicated his new Exploratorium in San Francisco completely to interactive science exhibits; the Exploratorium published the details of their own exhibits in "Cookbooks" that served as an inspiration to many other museums around the world. Opened in September 1969, the Ontario Science Centre continued the trend of featuring interactive exhibits rather than static displays.
In 1973, the first Omnimax theater opened as the Reuben H. Fleet Space Theater and Science Center in San Diego's Balboa Park; the tilted-dome Space Theater doubled as a planetarium. The Science Center was an Exploratorium-style museum included as a small part of the complex; this combination interactive science museum and Omnimax theater pioneered a configuration that many major science museums follow today. In 1973, the Association of Science-Technology Centers was founded as an international organization to provide a collective voice, professional support, programming opportunities for science centers and related institutions; as the flavor of interactivity spread worldwide, the massive Cite des Sciences et de l'Industrie opened in Paris in 1986, smaller but no less influential national centers soon followed in Spain and Denmark. In the UK, the first interactive centers opened in 1986 on a modest scale, but their real blossoming more than a decade was fuelled by Lottery funding for projects to celebrate the millennium.
Since the 1990s, science museums and centers, such as Thailand's National Science Museum, have been created or expanded in East Asia, South Asia, other parts of the developing word. However, in many more institutionalized organizations the improvised, experimental nature of the Oppenheimer era has been diluted in favor of a standardized view of science dominated by governmental and commercial messages. Museums that brand themselves as science centers emphasize a hands-on approach, featuring interactive exhibits that encourage visitors to experiment and explore; the first science center was Urania founded in Berlin in 1888. The Academy of Science of Saint Louis created the Saint Louis Museum of Science and Natural History in 1959, but science centers are a product of the 1960s and later. In the United Kingdom, many of them were founded as Millennium projects, with funding from the National Lotteries Fund; the first "science center" in the United States was the Science Center of Pinellas
Communication is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are: The formation of communicative motivation or reason. Message composition. Message encoding. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium. Noise sources such as natural forces and in some cases human activity begin influencing the quality of signals propagating from the sender to one or more receivers. Reception of signals and reassembling of the encoded message from a sequence of received signals. Decoding of the reassembled encoded message. Interpretation and making sense of the presumed original message; the scientific study of communication can be divided into: Information theory which studies the quantification and communication of information in general. The channel of communication can be visual, auditory and haptic, electromagnetic, or biochemical.
Human communication is unique for its extensive use of abstract language. Development of civilization has been linked with progress in telecommunication. Nonverbal communication describes the processes of conveying a type of information in the form of non-linguistic representations. Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communication, chronemic communication, body language, facial expressions, eye contact, how one dresses. Nonverbal communication relates to the intent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, intentional movements like shaking a hand or winking, as well as involuntary, such as sweating. Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, e.g. rhythm, intonation and stress. It establishes trust. Written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, the spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotion. Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Paul Wazlawick's laws: you cannot not communicate. Once proximity has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting.
Some of the functions of nonverbal communication in humans are to complement and illustrate, to reinforce and emphasize, to replace and substitute, to control and regulate, to contradict the denovative message. Nonverbal cues are relied on to express communication and to interpret others' communication and can replace or substitute verbal messages. However, non-verbal communication is ambiguous; when verbal messages contradict non-verbal messages, observation of non-verbal behaviour is relied on to judge another's attitudes and feelings, rather than assuming the truth of the verbal message alone. There are several reasons as to why non-verbal communication plays a vital role in communication: "Non-verbal communication is omnipresent." They are included in every single communication act. To have total communication, all non-verbal channels such as the body, voice, touch, distance and other environmental forces must be engaged during face-to-face interaction. Written communication can have non-verbal attributes.
E-mails and web chats allow an individual's the option to change text font colours, stationary and capitalization in order to capture non-verbal cues into a verbal medium. "Non-verbal behaviours are multifunctional." Many different non-verbal channels are engaged at the same time in communication acts and allow the chance for simultaneous messages to be sent and received. "Non-verbal behaviours may form a universal language system." Smiling, pointing and glaring are non-verbal behaviours that are used and understood by people regardless of nationality. Such non-verbal signals allow the most basic form of communication when verbal communication is not effective due to language barriers. Verbal communication is the written conveyance of a message. Human language can be defined as a system of symbols and the grammars by which the symbols are manipulated; the word "language" refers to common properties of languages. Language learning occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them.
Languages tend to share certain properties. There is no defined line between a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, various mathematical formalism is not restricted to the properties shared by human languages; as mentioned, language can be characterized as symbolic. Charles Ogden and I. A Richards developed The Triangle of Meaning model to explain the symbol, the referent, the meaning; the properties of language are governed by rules. Language follows phonological rules, syntactic rules, semantic rules, pragmatic rules; the meanings that are attached to words can be otherwise known as denotative.
Heritage interpretation refers to all the ways in which information is communicated to visitors to an educational, natural or recreational site, such as a museum, park or science centre. More it is the communication of information about, or the explanation of, the nature and purpose of historical, natural, or cultural resources, objects and phenomena using personal or non-personal methods; some international authorities in museology prefer the term mediation for the same concept, following usage in other European languages. Heritage interpretation may be performed at dedicated interpretation centres or at museums, historic sites, art galleries, nature centres, aquaria, botanical gardens, nature reserves and a host of other heritage sites, its modalities can be varied and may include guided walks, drama, staffed stations, signs, artwork, interactives, audio-guides and audio-visual media. The process of developing a structured approach to interpreting these stories and information is called interpretive planning.
The thematic approach to heritage interpretation advocated by University of Idaho professor Sam Ham, the National Association for Interpretation, the US National Park Service, others, is considered best practice. Those who practice this form of interpretation may include rangers, naturalists, museum curators and cultural interpretive specialists, interpretation officers, heritage communicators, educators, visitor services staff, interpreters or a host of other titles; the interpretive process is assisted by new technologies such as visualizing techniques. The goal of interpretation is to improve and enrich the visitor experience by helping site visitors understand the significance of the place they are visiting, connecting those meanings to visitors' own personal lives. By weaving compelling, thematic stories about environmental phenomena and historical events, interpreters aim to provoke visitors to learn and think about their experiences. Effective interpretation enables the visitors to make associations between the information given and their previous perceptions.
According to Moscardo interpretation can produce'Mindful Visitors' who are processing information and negotiating the meanings of the observed object or intangible element. Interpretation is used by landowning government agencies and NGOs to promote environmental stewardship of the lands they manage. Heritage interpretation is an educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships through the use of original objects, by firsthand experience, by illustrative media, rather than to communicate factual information. Any communication process designed to reveal meanings and relationships of cultural and natural heritage to the public, through first-hand involvement with an object, landscape or site. Interpretation is a mission-based communication process that forges emotional and intellectual connections between the interests of the audience and the meanings inherent in the resource. Interpretation enriches our lives through engaging emotions, enhancing experiences and deepening understanding of people, places and objects from past and present.
Interpretation refers to the full range of potential activities intended to heighten public awareness and enhance understanding of cultural heritage site. These can include print and electronic publications, public lectures, on-site and directly related off-site installations, educational programs, community activities, ongoing research and evaluation of the interpretation process itself. Mediation is the translation of the French médiation, which has the same general museum meaning as'interpretation'. Mediation is defined as an action aimed at bringing them to agreement. In the context of the museum, it is the mediation between the museum public and what the museum gives its public to see. In his 1957 book, "Interpreting Our Heritage", Freeman Tilden defined six principles of interpretation: Any interpretation that does not somehow relate what is being displayed or described to something within the personality or experience of the visitor will be sterile. Information, as such, is not Interpretation.
Interpretation is revelation based upon information. But they are different things; however all interpretation includes information. Interpretation is an art, which combines many arts, whether the materials presented are scientific, historical or architectural. Any art is in some degree teachable; the chief aim of Interpretation is not provocation. Interpretation should aim to present a whole rather than a part, must address itself to the whole man rather than any phase. Interpretation addressed to children should not be a dilution of the presentation to adults, but should follow a fundamentally different approach. To be at its best it will require a separate program. For the past 50 years, Tilden's principles have remained relevant to interpreters across the world. In 2002 Larry Beck and Ted Cable published "Interpretation for the 21st Century - Fifteen Guiding Principles for Interpreting Nature and Culture", which elaborated upon Tilden's original principles. In 2011, Beck and Cable released a new version of their principles in "The Gift of Interpretation".
Association for Heritage Interpretation, UK Association for Living History and Agricultural Museums, USA Interpretation Australia Interpretation Canada Interpret Europe Interpret Scotland Interpretation Network New Zealand ICOMOS Charter for the Inte
Historic site or Heritage site is an official location where pieces of political, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to their cultural heritage value. Historic sites are protected by law, many have been recognized with the official national historic site status. A historic site may be any building, site or structure, of local, regional, or national significance. Historic sites and heritage sites are maintained for members of the public to be able to visit. Visitors may come out of a sense of nostalgia for bygone eras, out of wishing to learn about their cultural heritage, or general interest in learning about the historical context of the site. Many sites offer guided tours for visitors, conducted by site staff who have been trained to offer an interpretation of life at the time the site represents. A site may have a visitor center with more modern architecture and facilities, which serves as a gateway between the outside world and the historic site, allows visitors to learn some of the historical aspects of the site without excessively exposing locations that may require delicate treatment.
Cultural property Heritage centre List of heritage registers Memory space National heritage site World Heritage Site National Historic Site of Canada Listed building National Historic Sites Revolutionary Sites Chitty, Gill. Managing Historic Sites and Buildings: Reconciling Presentation and Preservation. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415208147
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, images, animations and interactive content. Multimedia contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia can be recorded and played, interacted with or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can be part of a live performance. Multimedia devices are electronic media devices used to experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art. In the early years of multimedia the term "rich media" was synonymous with interactive multimedia, "hypermedia" was an application of multimedia; the term multimedia was coined by singer and artist Bob Goldstein to promote the July 1966 opening of his "LightWorks at L'Oursin" show at Southampton, Long Island. Goldstein was aware of an American artist named Dick Higgins, who had two years discussed a new approach to art-making he called "intermedia".
On August 10, 1966, Richard Albarino of Variety borrowed the terminology, reporting: "Brainchild of songscribe-comic Bob Goldstein, the'Lightworks' is the latest multi-media music-cum-visuals to debut as discothèque fare." Two years in 1968, the term "multimedia" was re-appropriated to describe the work of a political consultant, David Sawyer, the husband of Iris Sawyer—one of Goldstein's producers at L'Oursin. In the intervening forty years, the word has taken on different meanings. In the late 1970s, the term referred to presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed to an audio track. However, by the 1990s'multimedia' took on its current meaning. In the 1993 first edition of Multimedia: Making It Work, Tay Vaughan declared "Multimedia is any combination of text, graphic art, sound and video, delivered by computer; when you allow the user – the viewer of the project – to control what and when these elements are delivered, it is interactive multimedia. When you provide a structure of linked elements through which the user can navigate, interactive multimedia becomes hypermedia."The German language society Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache recognized the word's significance and ubiquitousness in the 1990s by awarding it the title of German'Word of the Year' in 1995.
The institute summed up its rationale by stating " has become a central word in the wonderful new media world". In common usage, multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images and text in such a way that can be accessed interactively. Much of the content on the web today falls within this definition; some computers which were marketed in the 1990s were called "multimedia" computers because they incorporated a CD-ROM drive, which allowed for the delivery of several hundred megabytes of video and audio data. That era saw a boost in the production of educational multimedia CD-ROMs; the term "video", if not used to describe motion photography, is ambiguous in multimedia terminology. Video is used to describe the file format, delivery format, or presentation format instead of "footage", used to distinguish motion photography from "animation" of rendered motion imagery. Multiple forms of information content are not considered modern forms of presentation such as audio or video.
Single forms of information content with single methods of information processing are called multimedia to distinguish static media from active media. In the fine arts, for example, Leda Luss Luyken's ModulArt brings two key elements of musical composition and film into the world of painting: variation of a theme and movement of and within a picture, making ModulArt an interactive multimedia form of art. Performing arts may be considered multimedia considering that performers and props are multiple forms of both content and media. Multimedia presentations may be viewed by person on stage, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia streamed. Streaming multimedia may be on-demand. Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.
The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users' experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or in entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience. Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images and title user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficients, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia "experience" to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, haptic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may enhance the multimedia experience. Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories: Linea