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Interpreter (computing)

In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them to have been compiled into a machine language program. An interpreter uses one of the following strategies for program execution: Parse the source code and perform its behavior directly. Early versions of Lisp programming language and Dartmouth BASIC would be examples of the first type. Perl, Python, MATLAB, Ruby are examples of the second, while UCSD Pascal is an example of the third type. Source programs are compiled ahead of time and stored as machine independent code, linked at run-time and executed by an interpreter and/or compiler; some systems, such as Smalltalk and contemporary versions of BASIC and Java may combine two and three. Interpreters of various types have been constructed for many languages traditionally associated with compilation, such as Algol, Cobol, C and C++. While interpretation and compilation are the two main means by which programming languages are implemented, they are not mutually exclusive, as most interpreting systems perform some translation work, just like compilers.

The terms "interpreted language" or "compiled language" signify that the canonical implementation of that language is an interpreter or a compiler, respectively. A high level language is ideally an abstraction independent of particular implementations. Interpreters were used as early as 1952 to ease programming within the limitations of computers at the time. Interpreters were used to translate between low-level machine languages, allowing code to be written for machines that were still under construction and tested on computers that existed; the first interpreted. Lisp was first implemented in 1958 by Steve Russell on an IBM 704 computer. Russell had read John McCarthy's paper, realized that the Lisp eval function could be implemented in machine code; the result was a working Lisp interpreter which could be used to run Lisp programs, or more properly, "evaluate Lisp expressions". Programs written in a high level language are either directly executed by some kind of interpreter or converted into machine code by a compiler for the CPU to execute.

While compilers produce machine code directly executable by computer hardware, they can produce an intermediate form called object code. This is the same machine specific code but augmented with a symbol table with names and tags to make executable blocks identifiable and relocatable. Compiled programs will use building blocks kept in a library of such object code modules. A linker is used to combine library files with the object file of the application to form a single executable file; the object files that are used to generate an executable file are thus produced at different times, sometimes by different languages. A simple interpreter written in a low level language may have similar machine code blocks implementing functions of the high level language stored, executed when a function's entry in a look up table points to that code. However, an interpreter written in a high level language uses another approach, such as generating and walking a parse tree, or by generating and executing intermediate software-defined instructions, or both.

Thus, both compilers and interpreters turn source code into tokens, both may generate a parse tree, both may generate immediate instructions. The basic difference is that a compiler system, including a linker, generates a stand-alone machine code program, while an interpreter system instead performs the actions described by the high level program. A compiler can thus make all the conversions from source code semantics to the machine level once and for all while an interpreter has to do some of this conversion work every time a statement or function is executed. However, in an efficient interpreter, much of the translation work is factored out and done only the first time a program, function, or statement, is run, thus quite akin to how a compiler works. However, a compiled program still runs much faster, under most circumstances, in part because compilers are designed to optimize code, may be given ample time for this; this is true for simpler high level languages without dynamic data structures, checks, or type-checks.

In traditional compilation, the executable output of the linkers is relocatable when run under a general operating system, much like the object code modules are but with the difference that this relocation is done dynamically at run time, i.e. when the program is loaded for execution. On the other hand and linked programs for small embedded systems are statically allocated hard coded in a NOR flash memory, as there is no secondary storage and no operating system in this sense. Most interpreter-systems have had a self-contained editor built in; this is becoming more common for compilers, althou

The Sienese Shredder

The Sienese Shredder was an annual journal of art, design and music, published between 2006 and 2010. In addition to written and visual content each issue contained an audio CD; the Sienese Shredder was launched in 2006 by New York City-based artists Brice Brown and Trevor Winkfield. They sought to bring attention to artists, art and writing, neglected or forgotten; this work was completed in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Mark Shortliffe took over as co-editor in 2009 for issue 4; each issue brings together poetry, critical writing, visual arts, unpublished rarities, oddball ephemera and other culturally significant material in a way, exciting and fresh. Contents can include writings by visual artists; as an archival project, each issue of The Sienese Shredder comes with a CD recording of a well-known poet reading or a musician presenting a retrospective sampling their work. #1 contained an audio CD of poet Harry Mathews reading selected poems he had written between 1955 and 2005. #2 contained an audio CD of poet Charles North reading selected poems he had written between 1970 and 2005.

# 3 contains an audio CD of music made between 2004 by Eric Moe. Official site

William Hobart Royce

William Hobart Royce was an American writer and bookseller, an expert on Honoré de Balzac. Royce published poetry under his pen name Willie Penmore. Born on March 20, 1878, in Springfield, Royce graduated from the Springfield High School in 1897 but did not attend college, he said that his "only university has been the New York Public Library." Royce lived his life in emulation of Balzac and was the founder and president of the Balzac Society of America. In 1935, Royce was awarded the Cross of the Legion of Honor and was made an honorary citizen of Issoudun, where Balzac's La Rabouilleuse was set. Royce worked first in a bookshop in Springfield, before moving to New York where he spent twelve years with the American News Company followed by seven years at Max Harzof's Lexington Book Shop. According to Harzof, Royce's "main virtue was that he could be implicitly trusted with bags of uncounted gold". In 1917 Royce joined the Gabriel Wells bookselling firm. In Wells, Royce met someone with a fascination with Balzac as great as his own and the shop became a centre for the sale of all types of Balzaciana.

It was Wells. Royce married Eda Maria Wallin in 1908, they had Eva Allen Qoyce and Abbie Anna Royce. Royce's papers, including those of the Balzac Society of America, are in the library of Syracuse University. BalzacBalzac, Immortal. 1926. A Balzac Bibliography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1929. Indexes to A Balzac Bibliography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1930. Balzac as he should be read. 1946. PoetryRemember Pearl Harbor! n.d. The Bookman's Lament. N.d. Balzac was A Sonnet Sequence. New York, A. Giraldi, 1943. William Hobart Royce Papers at Syracuse University

Flavescent bulbul

The flavescent bulbul is a species of songbird in the bulbul family of passerine birds. Its name comes from a yellowish colour, it is found in south-eastern Borneo. Alternate names for the flavescent bulbul include Blyth's bulbul, flavescent green bulbul and round-tailed green bulbul. Four subspecies are recognized: P. f. flavescens - Blyth, 1845: Found in north-eastern India, north-eastern Bangladesh and western Myanmar P. f. vividus -: Found in north-eastern Myanmar, southern China and northern Indochina P. f. sordidus -: Found in southern Indochina Pale-faced bulbul -: Originally described as a separate species. Endemic to Borneo The natural habitat of the flavescent bulbul is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. Images at ADW

Lightsview, South Australia

Lightsview is a suburb in the City of Port Adelaide Enfield. It was created in April 2016 from parts of Northgate and Northfield, it is in the inner northeast, bounded by Hampstead Road, Redward Avenue, Fosters Road and Folland Avenue. The bulk of the suburb of Lightsview began as a housing development in the southern part of what was the suburb of Northgate in 2006; the project was extended in October 2013 with the addition of the land from the former Ross Smith Secondary School. The suburb includes a row of houses along the north side of Redward Avenue, in Greenacres and are older than the main development, it includes land fronting Hampstead Road, in Northfield including the former high school site and the Hampstead Rehabilitation Centre. Housing development partnership between CIC Australia and RenewalSA

Kusala Rajendran

Kusala Rajendran is an Indian seismologist and a professor at the Centre for Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, India. She prefers to call herself an earth scientist, she has worked on earth quakes and their source mechanisms. She has worked extensively on earth quake patterns in India and is considered to be one of the pioneers in this field. Rajendran has been working in the following areas: Seismotectonics, Crustal Processes Role of Water in Faulting Process Paleoseismology, earthquake recurrence and active tectonics Tsunami recurrence and hazard evaluation Rajendran has completed her Master of Technology in the field of Applied Geophysics from the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee in 1979, she graduated from University of South Carolina, USA with a Doctor of Philosophy in Seismology in the year 1992. Owing to the growing demand for well qualified seismologists at the time, she returned to India after completing her PhD. Additionally, as her son had become old enough she could travel around the world studying earthquakes with greater ease.

She has worked extensively in Gujarat and the Himalayas. She believes that India is a great potential earth science destination, considering that the Himalayas constitute of one of the most active plate collision boundary in the world, she has published around forty research papers in collaboration with her husband C. P. Rajendran, a reputed Indian geologist, over the years, she has led several projects as the principal investigator. Most of her projects are funded by the seismicity program of the Ministry of Earth Sciences or the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services. Rajendran has been a professor at the Center for Earth Sciences, IISc Bengaluru, India since 2007, she develops her own teaching philosophy and methodology as there are hardly any prescribed textbooks in Geophysics for undergraduates. They work on earthquake recurrence, tsunami recurrence and hazard evaluations, her work combines field models developed in the lab. For field visits, she travels in groups to earthquake prone areas and places that have experienced an earthquake.

Rajendran grew up in a conservative family where the children were married off after a bachelor's degree. The only reason the young Kusala, fresh out of her chemistry degree, was sent all the way from Trivandrum, Kerala, to Roorkee, then-Uttar Pradesh, was that her sister was working there. Though she was sent there to do her masters in chemistry, a chance encounter with a professor at the IIT-Roorkee campus led Kusala to the field of science that she would come to master over the next thirty years, geophysics. Kusala is married to the renowned Indian geologist C. P. Rajendran, son of famed Malayalam writer Pavanan, her son Rahul Pavanan is married to the Tamil actress Abhirami. In 1993 she was awarded the Krishnan Gold Medal by the Indian Geophysical Union for her geophysics work, she received the Tabor award in 1992 from the Department of Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina. Ranked as one of the top ten young researchers in the country by the "Outlook" Magazine Rajendran is a member of various professional and scientific societies: Seismological Society of America American Association for the Advancement of Science American Geophysical Union Geological Society of America Geological Society of India Journal of Indian Geophysical Union Current Science