Glenwood is a city in and the county seat of Mills County, United States. The population was 5,269 in the 2010 census, a decline from 5,358 in the 2000 census. Located in a hollow of the Loess Hills on the east side of the Missouri River, Glenwood was established by Mormons in 1848 as Coonsville, it prospered during the California Gold Rush due to the grain mill on Keg Creek. Coonsville was the scene of anti-Mormon mob violence, it became the county seat of Mills County in 1851. In 1852, after most of Mormons left for Utah, it was renamed Glenwood after a Presbyterian minister, Glenn Wood; the community supported the creation of Nebraska Territory in 1854. Two Glenwood attorneys were elected to the Nebraska territorial legislature, they were run out of town for accepting shares in Scriptown. At the end of the Civil War, an Iowa Veteran's Orphans Home was founded here; the evangelist Billy Sunday lived at the orphanage as a child. The Burlington and Missouri River Railroad was completed through Glenwood in 1869.
During the late 19th century, the community was known as Iowa's center of fruit production of apples, it hosted an annual Apple Carnival. Early industries included an iron foundry, an expansive marble and stone works, the Glenwood Creamery, a large cannery that covered a city block on the east side of Locust Street, it distributed its products under the brand-name "The Glenwood." Darting & McGavern's "Sanitary" cannery on South Vine and Railroad Avenue canned tomatoes, pumpkin and beets into the 1920s. In 1876 the State Veteran's Orphan's Home at Glenwood was adapted for use as the Iowa Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children, the seventh such facility in the country and the first located west of the Mississippi River; the Glenwood facility expanded with increased acceptance of treatment and institutionalization for intellectual disability. The grounds and Administration Building were patterned on the Kirkbride Plan, as state funding permitted; the institution has long dominated Glenwood both economically and culturally, although the IIFMC was self-sufficient and intentionally isolated the residents from the rest of the town.
By 1925, the Glenwood IIFMC was the home of 1,555 inmates classified as idiots and morons, according to contemporary definitions. The IIFMC became the Glenwood State-Hospital School in 1941. By the early 1950s, the facility covered 1,185 acres. Under the influence of eugenics theory, the state had ordered sterilization of those defined as feeble-minded or worse, experimental treatments such as cold baths and electroshock were used to reduce symptoms of psychosis and depression; the de-institutionalization of Glenwood began in the late 1950s. A November 17, 1957 article in the Des Moines Register revealed that Mayo Buckner had spent 59 years confined to Glenwood, despite an IQ of 120, indicating above-average intelligence. National attention followed for Buckner and the Glenwood State-Hospital School, which were featured in the December 9, 1957 issue of Time and the March 25, 1958 issue of Life Magazine. During the 1970s, the facility completed a transformation from traditional ward buildings into group home-styled cottages.
It is now known as the Glenwood Resource Center and provides services and skills training to support people living in communities. After World War II, the town of Glenwood became a center of meat-packing. During the early 1950s, it had one of America's largest kosher packinghouses, with most of its product shipped to New York and the East Coast; the packinghouse was modified to process both cattle and pork. Meatpacking has moved to sites closer to ranching areas. Trajet, a whirlpool manufacturer, now occupies the former slaughterhouse. A large industrial laundry operated for most of the 20th century in the town until it was purchased and closed by Cintas. Transportation links include the BNSF. S. Route 34, U. S. Route 275 pass through Glenwood, Interstate 29 is located a few miles west on the floodplain of the Missouri River. Tourist destinations are the National Scenic Byway. Glenwood is located at 41°2′44″N 95°44′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.96 square miles, of which, 2.95 square miles of it is land and 0.01 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 5,269 people, 1,883 households, 1,243 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,786.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,045 housing units at an average density of 693.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.8% White, 0.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.7% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.7% of the population. There were 1,883 households of which 35.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.0% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.06. The median age in the city was 38.1 years. 25.8% of residents were under the age of 18.
The gender makeup o
Mills County, Iowa
Mills County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,059; the county seat is Glenwood. The county was formed in 1851 and named for Major Frederick Mills of Burlington, Iowa, killed at the Battle of Churubusco during the Mexican–American War. Mills County is included in the Omaha -- NE -- IA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the future county's first permanent settlement was Rushville, founded in 1846 by persecuted members of the Mormon Church as they were being driven out of Nauvoo, Illinois. This is not to be confused with the state's present-day Rushville in Jasper County. A nearby settlement founded by the Mormon settlers, was called Coonsville after Dr. Liberius Coons, one of the first arrivals; that settlement continued. In Glenwood, the first courthouse was a small frame building which served until 1857, it was replaced by a two-story building, enlarged in the 1900s and received a clock tower in 1910. In 1959 this building was replaced with the present building, dedicated on August 29, 1959.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 441 square miles, of which 437 square miles is land and 3.2 square miles is water. Interstate 29 U. S. Highway 34 U. S. Highway 59 U. S. Highway 275 Iowa Highway 370 Pottawattamie County Montgomery County Fremont County Cass County, Nebraska Sarpy County, Nebraska The 2010 census recorded a population of 15,059 in the county, with a population density of 34.4971/sq mi. There were 6,109 housing units, of which 5,605 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 14,547 people, 5,324 households, 3,939 families residing in the county. The population density was 33 people per square mile. There were 5,671 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.97% White, 0.28% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 1.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,324 households out of which 34.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.70% were married couples living together, 8.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.00% were non-families.
22.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.80% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 25.50% from 45 to 64, 12.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 100.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,428, the median income for a family was $49,592. Males had a median income of $31,721 versus $24,938 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,736. About 5.80% of families and 8.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.30% of those under age 18 and 7.60% of those age 65 or over. Rushville Mineola The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Mills County.† county seat National Register of Historic Places listings in Mills County, Iowa Official Mills County Government website Mills County Conservation Board website Mills County Public Health website Official Twitter Page
Interstate 80 in Iowa
Interstate 80 is a transcontinental Interstate Highway in the United States, stretching from San Francisco, California, to Teaneck, New Jersey. In Iowa, the highway travels west to east through the center of the state, it enters the state at the Missouri River in Council Bluffs and heads east through the southern Iowa drift plain. In the Des Moines area, I-80 meets up with the two routes bypass Des Moines together. On the northern side of Des Moines, the Interstates split and I-80 continues east. In eastern Iowa, it provides access to the University of Iowa in Iowa City. Northwest of the Quad Cities in Walcott is the world's largest truck stop. I-80 passes along the northern edge of Davenport and Bettendorf and leaves Iowa via the Fred Schwengel Memorial Bridge over the Mississippi River into Illinois. Before I-80 was planned, the route between Council Bluffs and Davenport, which passed through Des Moines, was vital to the state. Two competing auto trails, the Great White Way and the River-to-River Road, sought to be the best path to connect three of the state's major population centers.
The two trails combined in the 1920s and became U. S. Highway 32 in 1926. US 6, which had taken the place of US 32, became the busiest highway in the state. In the early 1950s, plans were drawn up to build an Iowa Turnpike, to be the first modern four-lane highway in the state, along the US 6 corridor. Plans for the turnpike were shelved when the Interstate Highway System was created in 1956. Construction of I-80 took place for over 14 years; the first section of the Interstate opened on September 21, 1958, in the western suburbs of Des Moines. New sections of the highway opened up over the next twelve years though construction in eastern Iowa was completed in 1966; the final piece of I-80 in Iowa, the Missouri River bridge to Omaha, opened on December 15, 1972. By the 1980s, I-80 had fallen across the country. Federal funding was freed up in 1985 to allow reconstruction of the highway. Interstate 80 is the longest Interstate Highway in Iowa, it extends from west to east across the central portion of the state through the population centers of Council Bluffs, Des Moines and the Quad Cities.
The majority of the highway runs through farmland, yet one-third of Iowa's population live along the I-80 corridor. I-80 enters Iowa on a bridge over the Missouri River, where it leaves Omaha, Nebraska, to enter Council Bluffs. After landing on the Iowa side of the bridge, it meets I-29 and U. S. Highway 6 at a Y interchange. At the interchange, I-80 splits into a local-express lane configuration; the inner express lanes do not provide any connection to I-29 nor to any of the intermediate interchanges between the two junctions with I-29. The outer local lanes are concurrent with I-29 through southern Council Bluffs for three miles; the speed limit through this section is 55 miles per hour. The South 24th Street interchange serves a commercial area anchored by the Mid-America Center and Horseshoe Casino; the South Expressway exit, which marked the southern end of Iowa Highway 192, is adjacent to a big-box store commercial center. I-29 and I-80 diverge at another Y interchange. East of the I-29 split, I-80 travels northeast for the next 20 miles.
It passes through eastern Council Bluffs where it serves Mall of the Bluffs. Just after the Madison Avenue exit, the speed limit increases to 65 mph. At exit 8, US 6 heads west; the Interstate leaves Council Bluffs and speed limit increases to 70 mph. Here, I-80 follows the course of Mosquito Creek past Underwood and Neola, both of which are served by interchanges. About two miles of Neola, I-80 curves to the east as it meets the eastern end of I-680 at a directional T interchange. For the next 50 miles, I-80 runs in less a straight line. Interchanges occur at regular intervals. Near Avoca, it crosses the West Nishnabotna River and meets US 59. East of the interchange, the Interstate crosses the eastern branch of the West Nishnabotna; as I-80 approaches the area north of Atlantic, there are three interchanges, Iowa 173, County Road N16, US 71, which serve the western and eastern parts of the city, respectively. Iowa 173, which serves Atlantic by way of Iowa 83 connects to Elk Horn and Kimballton.
US 71, which continues north towards Carroll, carries US 6 traffic to the Interstate. At this point, US 6 begins the first of three instances when its traffic is routed along I-80. In the eastern part of Cass County, the two routes meet the northern end of Iowa 148; as I-80 and US 6 approach Adair, the highways curve to the south to bypass the community. There are two interchanges in Adair. CR G30, the White Pole Road, was the original alignment of US 6, while CR N54 has not carried US 6 since 1980. Further east is an interchange with Iowa 25. About one mile south of the interchange is Freedom Rock; each year for Memorial Day, the rock is repainted with a patriotic scene by local artist Ray "Bubba" Sorenson II. Near Dexter, I-80 and US 6 graze the northwestern corner of Madison County. After two miles, the routes enter Dallas County and meet CR F60, another former alignment of US 6. Continuing east, the two routes follow a due-east section of highway. Near the CR F90 / CR P58 interchange, they start heading northeast towards Des Moines.
At De Soto, US 6 splits away from I-80
Fremont County, Iowa
Fremont County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,441; the county seat is Sidney. The county was formed in 1847 and named for the military officer John C. Fremont. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 517 square miles, of which 511 square miles is land and 5.5 square miles is water. Interstate 29 U. S. Highway 59 U. S. Highway 275 Iowa Highway 2 Iowa Highway 333 Mills County Page County Atchison County, Missouri Otoe County, Nebraska Cass County, Nebraska The 2010 census recorded a population of 7,441 in the county, with a population density of 14.5599/sq mi. There were 3,431 housing units, of which 3,064 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 8,010 people, 3,199 households, 2,242 families residing in the county. The population density was 16 people per square mile. There were 3,514 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.01% White, 0.04% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.96% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races.
2.17% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,199 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 6.00% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 24.70% from 45 to 64, 19.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 95.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,345, the median income for a family was $46,547. Males had a median income of $30,822 versus $23,003 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,081.
About 6.50% of families and 9.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.40% of those under age 18 and 10.70% of those age 65 or over. Anderson Bartlett Percival McPaul Fremont County is divided into thirteen townships: The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Fremont County.† county seat Fremont County Courthouse National Register of Historic Places listings in Fremont County, Iowa Official website
U.S. Route 75 in Iowa
U. S. Highway 75 is a United States Highway in northwestern Iowa, it begins at the Missouri River on a bridge with Interstate 129 and US 20. Upon landing in Iowa from Nebraska, I-129 ends at an interchange with I-29. US 20 and US 75 continue around Sioux City on a four-lane expressway until US 20 exits to the east. US 75 heads to parallel to the Floyd River, until Le Mars. There, Iowa Highway 60 continues northeastward on the expressway. Near Hull, it is overlapped by US 18, it enters Minnesota north of Rock Rapids. US 75 was one of the original U. S. Highways to be created in 1926, though its roots trace back nine years prior to the creation of the King of Trails, a 2,000-mile-long auto trail that connected Winnipeg and Galveston, Texas. In the Upper Midwest, there were two branches of the King of Trails that converged at Sioux City, which continued south to Council Bluffs. In 1920, the Iowa State Highway Commission assigned route numbers to roads in order to improve wayfinding for travelers; the King of Trails was assigned Primary Road No. 12 from Council Bluffs to Sioux City and the western branch and No. 22 along the eastern branch.
In 1926, the U. S. Highway 75 name was applied through Iowa to Primary Roads No. 12 and 22, the King of Trails route. In the 1950s, US 75's importance began to wane; as sections of the Interstate Highway opened up between Council Bluffs and Sioux City, US 75 were rerouted onto the new road. In 1984, the southern half of US 75 was rerouted into Nebraska. Today, the highway is still an important part of Iowa's highway system. In the late 1990s and throughout the 2000s, the highway along with Iowa 60 were improved into a continuous four-lane expressway between Sioux City and Minnesota. US 75 enters Iowa on the Sergeant Floyd Memorial Bridge, which carries I-129 and US 20 from Nebraska, over the Missouri River. Upon landing in Iowa, there is an interchange with I-29, at which I-129 ends. US 75's business loop of Sioux City begins at the I-29 interchange as well. Continuing east, US 20 and US 75 run together around the eastern sides of Sioux City; the two routes split and US 75 continues to the north.
In the northeastern corner of the city, two half interchanges complete the reconnection of the business loop to the mainline highway. The four-lane highway now heads to the north-northeast parallel to the meandering Floyd River. Between the road and the river lie two sets of railroad tracks, one track operated by BNSF Railway and the other Union Pacific. In Hinton, the highway and railroads separate the residential western half of the town from the eastern half's grain elevator operation. Through Merrill, the highway's divided highway configuration ends, though it remains a four-lane road. There is a level crossing with the BNSF Railway line. After crossing the western branch of the Floyd River, the four-lane, divided highway resumes. US 75 bypasses Le Mars to the north. Near the southwestern corner of the city, there is an interchange that marks the beginning of the business route through the city. On the western side, an interchange with Iowa 3 helps direct more traffic to the downtown area; the last Le Mars interchange takes US 75 off of the four-lane road.
At the end of the exit ramp, US 75 reconnects with the business loop and the highway heads north. Now on a two-lane road, US 75 heads due north; the BNSF Railway line and West Branch Floyd River, which split away from the course of the highway, rejoin the highway near Maurice. Two miles north of Maurice is an intersection with Iowa 10, which connects to Orange City and Alton to the east and Hawarden to the west. A curve in the railway forces the highway to deviate from its due-north path, though it shortly resumes that course; as the road enters Sioux Center, it becomes a undivided highway again. It passes through the city's downtown area and through the industrial district. North of the town, the road becomes three lanes for a short while, two lanes again as it approaches US 18 near Hull; the two highways overlap. North of US 18, US 75 continues on its due-north course, it is crossed twice by the BNSF Railway line. Near Doon, it crosses the Little Rock River followed by the Rock River four miles later.
It soon enters Rock Rapids and meets Iowa 9, the northernmost east–west highway in the state, west of the downtown area. The two highways head west out of US 75 turns to the north shortly thereafter; the road continues north toward the Minnesota state line still on a northerly path. At the state line, Iowa's section lines do not line up with Minnesota's section lines, so US 75 turns west to follow the boundary. After a short distance, the road turns north and enters the state completely. US 75 was created in 1926 with the U. S. Highway System, but its route dates back to 1917 when the King of Trails Association formed; the King of Trails entered Iowa at Council Bluffs and traveled north along the Missouri River to Sioux City, where it branched. The western branch traveled up into South Dakota while the eastern branch followed the Floyd River to Le Mars and north to Minnesota from Le Mars. In 1920, the Iowa State Highway Commission applied route numbers to the King of Trails — Primary Road No. 12 from Council Bluffs to Sioux City and the western branch and No. 22 along the eastern branch.
Sioux City, Iowa
Sioux City is a city in Woodbury and Plymouth counties in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Iowa. The population was 82,684 in the 2010 census; the bulk of the city is in Woodbury County, of which it is the county seat, though a small portion is in Plymouth County. Sioux City is located at the navigational head of the Missouri River; the city is home to several cultural points of interest including the Sioux City Public Museum, Sioux City Art Center and Sergeant Floyd Monument, a National Historic Landmark. The city is home to Chris Larsen Park referred to as “the Riverfront,” includes the Anderson Dance Pavilion, Sergeant Floyd Riverboat Museum and Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center. Sioux City is the primary city of the five-county Sioux City, IA–NE–SD Metropolitan Statistical Area, with a population of 168,825 in 2010 and a slight increase to an estimated 168,921 in 2012; the Sioux City–Vermillion, IA–NE–SD Combined Statistical Area had a population of 182,675 as of 2010 and has grown to an estimated population of 183,052 as of 2012.
Sioux City is at the navigational head, or the most upstream point to which general cargo ships can travel, of the Missouri River, about 95 miles north of the Omaha–Council Bluffs metropolitan area. Sioux City and the surrounding areas of northwestern Iowa, northeastern Nebraska and southeastern South Dakota are sometimes referred to as Siouxland by local media and residents It is a part of the -Sioux City Designated Market Area, a larger media market region that covers parts of four states and has a population of 1,043,450. Iowa is in the tallgrass prairie of the North American Great Plains inhabited by speakers of Siouan languages; the area of Sioux City was inhabited by Yankton Sioux when it was first reached by Spanish and French furtrappers in the 18th century. The first documented US citizens to record their travels through this area were Meriwether Lewis and William Clark during the summer of 1804. Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, died here on August 20, 1804, the only death during the two and a half-year expedition.
Sioux City was laid out in the winter of 1854-55. It became a major Entrepôt to the western Plains, including Mormons heading to Salt Lake City and speculators heading to Wyoming gold fields. In 1891, the Sioux City Elevated Railway was opened and became the third steam powered elevated rapid transit system in the world, the first electric-powered elevated railway in the world after a conversion in 1892. However, the system closed within a decade; the city gained the nickname "Little Chicago" during the Prohibition era due to its reputation for being a purveyor of alcoholic beverages. On July 19, 1989, United Airlines Flight 232 crash landed at Sioux Gateway Airport, killing 111 people, but 184 survived the crash and ensuing fire due to outstandingly quick performances by fire and emergency local teams that earned them several National Congress Medals, given by President George H. W. Bush in 1990. Sioux City is located at 42°29′53″N 96°23′45″W. Sioux City is at an altitude of 1,135 feet above sea level.
Sioux City borders South Dakota to the West-Northwest and Nebraska to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 58.49 square miles, of which, 57.35 square miles is land and 1.14 square miles is water. Typical of Iowa, Sioux City has a humid continental climate, with warm, humid summers, dry winters, wide temperature extremes; the normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 20.4 °F in January to 74.3 °F in July. On average, there are 25 days that reach 90 °F or higher, 52 days that do not climb above freezing, 17 days with a low of 0 °F or below annually; the average window for freezing temperatures is October 1 thru April 26, allowing a growing season of 157 days. Extreme temperatures range from −35 °F on January 12, 1912 up to 111 °F on July 4 and 17, 1936 as well as July 11, 1939. Precipitation is greatest in May and June and averages 27.7 in annually, but has ranged from 14.33 in in 1976 to 41.10 in in 1903. Snowfall averages 34.8 in per season, has ranged from 6.9 in in 1895–96 to 65.9 in in 1961–62.
On May 14, 2013, the high temperature reached 106 °F, setting a new all-time May record high, along with a 77 °F rise from the morning of the 12th. As of the census of 2010, there were 82,684 people, 31,571 households, 20,144 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,441.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 33,425 housing units at an average density of 582.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 80.6% White, 2.9% African American, 2.6% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.4% from other races, 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.4% of the population. There were 31,571 households of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.2% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 1
South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive