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Interstate 30

Interstate 30 is a 366.76-mile-long expressway in the southern states of Texas and Arkansas in the United States, part of the Interstate Highway System. I-30 travels from I-20 west of Fort Worth, northeast via Dallas, Texarkana, Texas, to I-40 in North Little Rock, Arkansas; the highway parallels U. S. Route 67 except for the portion west of downtown Dallas. Between the termini, I-30 has interchanges with I-35W, I-35E and I-45. I-30 is known as the Tom Landry Freeway between I-35W and I-35E, within the core of the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. I-30 is the shortest two-digit Interstate ending in zero in the Interstate system; the Interstates ending in zero are the longest east–west Interstates. It is the second-shortest major Interstate, behind I-45; the largest metropolitan areas that I-30 travels through include the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the Texarkana metropolitan area, the Little Rock metropolitan area. The section of I-30 between Dallas and Fort Worth is designated the Tom Landry Highway in honor of the long-time Dallas Cowboys coach.

Though I-30 passed well south of Texas Stadium, the Cowboys' former home, their new stadium in Arlington, Texas is near I-30. However, the freeway designation was made; this section was known as the Dallas–Fort Worth Turnpike, which preceded the Interstate System. Although tolls had not been collected for many years, it was still known locally as the Dallas–Fort Worth Turnpike until its renaming; the section from downtown Dallas to Arlington was widened to over 16 lanes in some sections, by 2010. From June 15, 2010, through February 6, 2011, this 30-mile section of I-30 was temporarily designated as the "Tom Landry Super Bowl Highway" in commemoration of Super Bowl XLV, played at Cowboys Stadium. In Dallas, I-30 is known as East R. L. Thornton Freeway between downtown Dallas and the eastern suburb of Mesquite. I-30 picks up the name from I-35E south at the Mixmaster interchange; the Mixmaster is scheduled to be reconstructed as part of the Horseshoe project, derived from the larger Pegasus Project.

The section from downtown Dallas to Loop 12 is eight lanes plus an HOV lane. This section will be reconstructed under the East Corridor project to 12 lanes by 2025/2030. From Rockwall to a point past Sulphur Springs, I-30 runs concurrent with US 67. Through the city of Greenville, I-30 is known as Martin Luther King Jr. Freeway. I-30 continues northeasterly through East Texas until a few miles from the Texas-Oklahoma border, when the route turns east, towards Arkansas. I-30 enters southwestern Arkansas at the twin city of Texarkana, Texas. I-30 intersects I-49, after which it travels northeast. I-30 passes through Hope, birthplace of former President Bill Clinton. I-30 serves Prescott, Gurdon and Malvern. At Malvern, drivers can use US 70 or US 270 to travel into historic Hot Springs or beyond into Ouachita National Forest. There, US 70 and US 67 stay with the interstate into the Little Rock city limits. Northeast of Malvern, I-30 passes before reaching the Little Rock city limits. From Benton to its end at I-40, I-30 is a six-lane highway with up to 85,000 vehicles per day.

As I-30 enters Little Rock, I-430 leaves its parent route to create a western bypass of the city. Just south of downtown, I-30 meets the western terminus of I-440 and the northern terminus of another auxiliary route in I-530. I-530 travels 46 miles south to Pine Bluff. At this three-way junction of interstates, I-30 turns due north for the final few miles of its route. Here I-30 passes through the capitol district of Little Rock. I-30 creates one final auxiliary route in I-630, or the Wilbur D. Mills Freeway, which splits downtown Little Rock in an east–west direction before coming to its other end at I-430 just west of downtown. After passing I-630, I-30 crosses the Arkansas River into North Little Rock and comes to its eastern terminus, despite facing north, at I-40. At its end, I-30 is joined by US 65, US 67, US 167. US 65 joins I-40 westbound, while US 167 join I-40 eastbound from I-30's eastern terminus; the Dallas–Fort Worth Turnpike was a 30-mile toll highway in the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex.

It operated between 1957 and 1977, afterward becoming a nondescript part of I-30. The road, three lanes in each direction but widened, is the only direct connection between downtown Fort Worth and downtown Dallas, Texas. In October 2001, the former turnpike was named the Tom Landry Highway, after the late Dallas Cowboys coach Tom Landry; the proposed expressway was studied as early as 1944, but was turned down by the state engineer due to the expense. However, in 1953, the state legislature created the Texas Turnpike Authority, which in 1955 raised $58.5 million to build the project. Construction started that year. On August 27, 1957, the highway was open to traffic, but the official opening came a week on September 5; the turnpike's presence stimulated growth in Arlington and Grand Prairie and facilitated construction of Six Flags Over Texas. At the end of 1977, the bonds were paid off and the freeway was handed over to the state Department of Transportation, toll collection ceased, the tollbooths were removed in the first week of 1978.

It served as I-20 between Dallas and Fort Worth until the current I-20 route to the south was opened in 1971. Afterwards, I-30 was extended from its end at the "Dallas Mixmaster" interchange with I-35E to follow the turnpike, the former I-20 in downtown Fort Worth, west to modern-day I-20; the existing US 67 route was in heavy use in the ea

Hemispherical resonator gyroscope

The Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope called wine-glass gyroscope or mushroom gyro, is a compact, low noise, high performance angular rate or rotation sensor. An HRG is made using a thin solid-state hemispherical shell, anchored by a thick stem; this shell is driven to a flexural resonance by electrostatic forces generated by electrodes which are deposited directly onto separate fused-quartz structures that surround the shell. The gyroscopic effect is obtained from the inertial property of the flexural standing waves. Although the HRG is a mechanical system, it has no moving parts, can be compact; the HRG makes use of a small thin solid-state hemispherical shell, anchored by a thick stem. This shell is driven to a flexural resonance by dedicated electrostatic forces generated by electrodes which are deposited directly onto separate fused quartz structures that surround the shell. For a single-piece design made from high-purity fused quartz, it is possible to reach a Q-factor of over 30-50 million in vacuum, thus the corresponding random walks are low.

The Q-factor is limited by fixture losses. Such resonators have to be fine-tuned by ion-beam micro-erosion of the glass or by laser ablation in order to be dynamically balanced; when coated and assembled within the housing, the Q-factor remains over 10 million. In application to the HRG shell, Coriolis forces cause a precession of vibration patterns around the axis of rotation, it causes a slow precession of a standing wave around this axis, with an angular rate that differs from input one. This is the wave inertia effect, discovered in 1890 by British scientist George Hartley Bryan. Therefore, when subject to rotation around the shell symmetry axis, the standing wave does not rotate with the shell, but the difference between both rotations is perfectly proportional to the input rotation; the device is able to sense rotation. The electronics which sense the standing waves are able to drive them. Therefore, the gyros can operate in either a “whole angle mode” that sense the standing waves' position or a “force rebalance mode” that holds the standing wave in a fixed orientation with respect to the gyro.

Used in space applications, HRG is now used in advanced Inertial navigation system, in Attitude and Heading Reference System and gyrocompass. The HRG is reliable because of its simple hardware, it has no moving parts. They demonstrated outstanding reliability since their initial use in 1996 on the NEAR_Shoemaker spacecraft; the HRG is accurate and is not sensitive to external environmental perturbations. The resonating shell weighs only a few grams and it is balanced which makes it insensitive to vibrations and shocks; the HRG exhibits superior SWAP characteristics compared to other gyroscope technologies. The HRG generates neither acoustic nor radiated noise because the resonating shell is balanced and operates under vacuum; the material of the resonator, the fused quartz, is radiation hard in any space environment. This confers intrinsic immunity to deleterious space radiation effects to the HRG resonator. Thanks to the high Q-factor of the resonating shell, the HRG has an ultra-low low angular random walk and low power dissipation.

The HRG, unlike optical gyros, has inertial memory: if the power is lost for a short period of time, the sensitive element integrates the input motion so that when the power returns, the HRG signals the angle turned in the interval of power loss. The HRG is a high-tech device which requires sophisticated manufacturing tools and process; the control electronics required to sense and drive the standing waves, is somewhat sophisticated. This high level of sophistication limits the dissemination of this technology and only few companies were able to develop it. Up to now, only three companies are manufacturing HRG in series: Northrop Grumman Corporation and Raytheon Anschutz. Classical HRG is expensive due to the cost of the precision ground and polished hollow quartz hemispheres; this manufacturing cost restricts its use to high added value applications such as satellite and spacecraft. Manufacturing costs can be reduced by design changes and engineering controls. Rather than depositing electrodes on an internal hemisphere that must match the shape of the outer resonating hemisphere, electrodes are deposited on a flat plate that matches the equatorial plan of the resonating hemisphere.

In such configuration, HRG becomes cost effective and is well suitable for high grade but cost sensitive applications. Space — Inside the Spacecraft Bus in the James Webb Space Telescope and other satellites and spacecraft Sea: Marine maintenance-free gyrocompasses as well as Attitude and Heading Reference Systems Naval navigation systems for both surface vessels and submarines Land — Target locators, land navigation systems and artillery pointing Air — HRG are poised to be used in Commercial Air Transport navigation systems Ring laser gyroscope HRG gyrocompass Fiber optic gyroscope Gyroscope Vibrating structure gyroscope Quantum gyroscope Inertial measurement unit Lynch D. D. HRG Development at Delco and Northrop Grumman //Proceedings of Anniversary Workshop on Solid-State Gyroscopy. - Kyiv-Kharkiv. ATS of Ukraine. 2009. L. Rosellini, JM Caron - REG

Microsoft Expression Studio

Microsoft Expression Studio is a discontinued suite of tools for designing and building Web and Windows client applications and rich digital media content. Microsoft introduced Microsoft Expression on September 16, 2005, at Microsoft's Professional Developers Conference in Los Angeles. Microsoft Expression Encoder was introduced at NAB 2007. Microsoft Expression Studio was released to manufacturing on April 30, 2007; the RTM news was announced at Microsoft's MIX 07 conference for web designers. Microsoft Expression Studio 2 was released on May 1, 2008, which included a graphical makeover for the suite to an inverse of the previous black-on-white theme; this release brings all products in the suite to version 2, now includes Visual Studio Standard 2008. Microsoft Expression Studio is available to students as downloads via Microsoft's DreamSpark program. Microsoft Expression Studio 3 was released on July 22, 2009; this release brings all products in the suite to version 3, with significant improvements targeting Silverlight 3.

Expression Media is no longer a part of package, while all other products have been improved and enriched. On June 7, 2010, Expression Studio 4 was released. Expression Studio 4 is a free upgrade version for licensed Expression Studio 3 users, but only for retail copies. On December 20, 2012, Microsoft announced that the Expression products would be discontinued, with Blend becoming a standalone tool with Visual Studio 2012 Update 2, Expression Studio 4 Ultimate and Expression Studio 4 Web Professional no longer available for sale but supported through their support lifecycle, Expression Design 4 and Expression Web 4 available as unsupported free editions, Expression Encoder 4 Pro available for purchase through 2013, Expression Encoder 4 remains available for download at no charge; as of version 4, there are two editions of Expression Studio available to general public: Web Professional and Ultimate Expression Studio Web Professional consists of: Expression Web, HTML editor and web design program Expression Design, vector graphics editor Expression Encoder Pro, video editing tool for authoring VC-1 and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC contentsExpression Studio Ultimate consist of all previous components, as well as: Expression Blend, graphical user interface builder for XAML or HTML applications SuperPreview, complementary web design program for testing compatibility and performance SketchFlow, complementary user interface tool that facilitate workflow designExpression Encoder and SuperPreview are the only components that can be obtained individually.

Expression Encoder consists of two editions: a commercial Pro edition. Prior to version 3, the suite consisted of Microsoft Expression Media, a digital asset management application sold to Phase One; until version 2, Expression Web was the only application in the Expression Studio suite based on Microsoft Office code and dependencies. With version 3, Expression Web was rewritten in Windows Presentation Foundation, in line with the rest of the Expression Suite, without Microsoft Office dependencies making it a new managed code program. A result of the complete rewrite was features like customizable toolbars and menus, standard Windows color scheme, spell check, DLL addins, file menu export feature, drag-and-drop between remote sites, comparing sites by timestamp were removed in this version. Other features are incomplete, like Undo for instance. Version 3 introduced Expression Web 3 SuperPreview tool for comparing and rendering webpage in various browsers. Noted was the lack of support for root relative links, links that start with a "/" to refer to the root of a web server.

This feature was added with Expression 3 Service Pack 1. The version of Expression Encoder Pro 4 available as part of Expression Studio in programs like DreamSpark, BizSpark, WebsiteSpark and through MSDN Ultimate does not include royalty incurring codec and standards support for exporting in MP4 format, it does not include import filters for TS, M2TS, AVCHD, MPEG-2, AC-3 although if third party DirectShow filters are installed, it is able to import these formats as is the free version. Expression Encoder Pro version available in retail does not have these limitations; the free version available to everyone and included in MSDN Premium lacks IIS Live Smooth Streaming and unlimited screen capture. With the release of Expression Studio 4, three editions of Expression Studio were introduced: Expression Studio 4 Web Professional, Expression Studio 4 Premium and Expression Studio 4 Ultimate. MSDN subscribers receive only the SKU of Expression Studio 4 that corresponds to their Visual Studio 2010 license.

As such, MSDN Premium users do not get SketchFlow. Some editions of Expression Studio include product activation. RelativesMicrosoft FrontPage, the predecessor to Expression Web Creature House Expression, the predecessor to Expression Design iView Media, the predecessor to Expression MediaListsList of vector graphics editors Comparison of vector graphics editors Comparison of office suites Official website Expression Blend and Design on MSDN Blogs Expression Encoder on MSDN Blogs

Buzz Lightyear of Star Command (video game)

Buzz Lightyear of Star Command is an action platform video game developed by Traveller's Tales, published by Disney Interactive and Activision in 2000. It is based on the animated series of the same name, a spin off of Toy Story, it was released for Dreamcast, PlayStation, Microsoft Windows, Game Boy Color. Buzz Lightyear of Star Command is an action platform game played from a third-person perspective; the game takes place on various fictional planets. The player controls Buzz Lightyear, who must race a villain to the end of each level, where a battle occurs between the two. During the race, the player must defend against various enemies. Throughout each level, the player can collect coins and use them to purchase weapon upgrades as well as vehicles, such as a hoverboard, a jet bike, a jet pack; the player can pay for level shortcuts, such as teleportation machines and boost pads, which launches Buzz further into the level. At a certain point in each level, Buzz can summon his partner Booster, who stomps the ground to kill all nearby enemies.

If the main villain reaches the end of the level before Buzz the player has 15 seconds to reach the end before the villain escapes. If the player beats the villain to the end of the level Buzz's partner Mira arrives to drain some of the villain's health, making the battle easier for the player; the player's final battle is with Evil Emperor Zurg. Medals are required to advance to levels, can be earned by collecting Little Green Men scattered around levels. After winning a level, the player can replay it through two game modes, which award medals if won. In one game mode, the player goes through the level to retrieve pieces of Buzz's robotic partner, XR; the home console and Windows versions of the game have 14 levels and include clips from the television series, while the Game Boy Color version features 12 levels. The Game Boy Color version is an action game viewed from a top-down perspective, includes the same vehicles as the other versions; the Dreamcast and PlayStation versions received "mixed or average reviews" according to Metacritic, were criticized for the camera perspective, with GamePro writing that it "swoops around like a roller coaster gone mad.

Some reviewers criticized the inclusion of clips from the television series, stating that they had little relevance to the game's story and levels. Some critics believed that Buzz's dialogue was lacking the character's bravado and wit from the Toy Story films, others stated that the game would appeal to younger children. Kristian Brogger of Game Informer reviewed the PlayStation version and was critical of its graphics and gameplay. Adam Cleveland of IGN praised the PlayStation version for its graphics and the inclusion of Bobcat Goldthwait as a voice actor, but he criticized the "forgettable" music. Cleveland called the racing portions "downright pointless" and considered the game's genre difficult to pinpoint "because it tries to paste itself together with elements from other games." Cleveland questioned why each boss enemy cannot be harmed until the end of the race, stated that he was not satisfied with the game. Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine considered the game a "muddy mix of platformer and arcade racer" that "doesn't quite work," due to the controls the lack of a lock-on aiming feature.

The magazine considered the levels to be uninspired. Reviewing the Dreamcast version, Jon Thompson of AllGame found the game's concept to be repetitive, but stated that the sound and music were good. In comparison to the PlayStation version, Electronic Gaming Monthly believed that the Dreamcast version was graphically superior its frame rate, while Miguel Lopez of GameSpot believed that the PlayStation version had a superior frame rate. GamePro praised the PlayStation version's frame rate, its cartoon-style graphics, but was critical of enemies that respawn "very quickly". Tom Bramwell of Eurogamer mentioned graphical issues with the Dreamcast version and stated that its only redeeming feature was its array of power-ups. Michael J. Steinhart of PC Magazine praised the Windows version for its "crisp graphics and smooth, absorbing action". IGN's Marc Nix criticized the Game Boy Color version for poor weapon arsenal. Nix was disappointed by the inability to perform hoverboard tricks as in the home game console versions, was critical of the controls, writing that Buzz moves too heavily.

Nix noted that it was possible for the player to pass up the villain being chased, resulting in the player having to wait at the end of the course for the villain to arrive in order to apprehend them, as they cannot be stopped prior to the end of the course. Buzz Lightyear of Star Command at MobyGames Buzz Lightyear of Star Command at MobyGames

Barcombe railway station

Barcombe was a railway station serving the village of Barcombe in East Sussex. It was part of the East Grinstead to Lewes line, more popularly known as the Bluebell Railway; the station was opened as "New Barcombe" to distinguish it from the nearby station of Barcombe Mills and was changed to its more usual name on 1 January 1885. In 1897 goods sidings were installed at a cost of £1450, it was planned to close the line and the station on 13 June 1955, although they closed on 29 May due to a railway strike. The line closure was found to be illegal under the original acts authorising construction of the railway and British Railways were forced to reopen it in August 1956; however the station was not reopened. After Parliament repealed the sections in question, the line was closed in March 1958 under the British Railways Branch-Line Report and the track was lifted in 1960 from south of Sheffield Park to Culver Junction. Subsequently, Barcombe station building was converted into a private house; the platform edge is still visible but the trackbed has been infilled up to about one foot below platform level.

Despite the re-opening of part of the East Grinstead-Lewes line by the Bluebell Railway, an extension south from its headquarters at Sheffield Park seems improbable in the short term as the intermediate station and Chailey is now covered by housing, several overbridges would have to be rebuilt. Bernard Holden, former president of the Bluebell Railway, was born in Barcombe Station in 1908, his father was the station master at the time. Barcombe station at Subterranea Britannica


Sophrosyne is an ancient Greek concept of an ideal of excellence of character and soundness of mind, which when combined in one well-balanced individual leads to other qualities, such as temperance, prudence, purity and self-control. It is similar to the concepts of zhōngyōng of Chinese sattva of Indian thought. In Greek literature sophrosyne is considered an important quality, is sometimes expressed in opposition to the concept of hubris. A noted example of this occurs in Homer's The Iliad; when Agamemnon decides to take the queen, away from Achilles, it is seen as Agamemnon behaving with hubris and lacking sophrosyne. In Homer's Odyssey, Odysseus avoids being turned by Circe the enchantress into an animal by means of a magical herb, given to him by Athena and Hermes. Heraclitus's fragment 112 states: "Sophrosyne is the greatest virtue, wisdom is speaking and acting the truth, paying heed to the nature of things." Themes connected with sophrosyne and hubris figure prominently in plays of Aeschylus and Euripides.

Sophrosyne is a theme in the play Hippolytus by Euripides, where sophrosyne is represented by the goddess Artemis and is personified by the character Hippolytus. The 6th-century BCE poet Theognis of Megara mentions Sophrosyne as among the daimona that were released from Pandora's box; the De Astronomica lists Continentia among the daughters of Erebus and Nyx, thought to be the Roman equivalent of Sophrosyne. Sophrosyne is an important topic for Plato, it is the main subject of the dialogue Charmides, wherein several definitions are proposed but no conclusion reached. An etymological meaning of sophrosyne as "moral sanity" is proposed in Cratylus 411e. Plato's view of sophrosyne is related to Pythagorean harmonia and linked with Plato’s tripartite division of the soul: sophrosyne is the harmonious moderation of the appetitive and spirited parts of the soul by the rational part. For the Stoic, Zeno of Citium, sophrosyne is one of the four chief virtues. Stoics like Musonius Rufus, Seneca and Marcus Aurelius took a practical view of sophrosyne and share a definition of it as the restraint of the appetites.

Demophilus, a Pythagorean philosopher of uncertain date, wrote: "The vigor of the soul is sophrosyne, the light of a soul free of disturbing passions." Cicero considered four Latin terms to translate sophrosyne: temperantia, moderatio and frugalitas. Through the writings of Lactantius, St. Ambrose and St. Augustine, the virtue's meaning as temperance or "proper mixture" became the dominant view in subsequent Western European thought. Sophrosyne, according to St. Thomas Aquinas, is the fourth and final cardinal virtue. An adjectival form is "sophron". Cardinal virtues Seven virtues Temperance North, Helen F. “A period of opposition to sôphrosynê in Greek thought.” Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, vol. 78, 1947, pp. 1–17. North, Helen. Sophrosyne: Self-knowledge and self-restraint in Greek literature. Vol. 35. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1966. Rademaker, Adriaan. Sophrosyne and the rhetoric of self-restraint: polysemy & persuasive use of an ancient Greek value term.

Brill, 2004. Van Tongeren, Paul. "Nietzsche's revaluation of the cardinal virtues: the case of Sophrosyne". Phronimon: Journal of the South African Society for Greek Philosophy and the Humanities, vol. 3, 2001, pp. 128–149