Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
U.S. Route 40
U. S. Route 40 known as the Main Street of America, is an east–west United States Highway; as with most routes whose numbers end in a zero, US 40 once traversed the entire United States. It is one of the first U. S. Highways created in 1926 and its original termini were in San Francisco and Atlantic City, New Jersey. In the western United States, US 40 was functionally replaced by Interstate 80, resulting in the route being truncated multiple times. US 40 ends at a junction with I-80 in Silver Summit, just outside Park City. Starting at its western terminus in Utah, US 40 crosses a total of 12 states, including Colorado, Missouri, Indiana, West Virginia, Maryland and New Jersey. Three former and four current state capitals lie along the route. For much of its route, US 40 runs parallel to or concurrently with several major Interstate Highways: Interstate 70 from Colorado to Washington, Pennsylvania; the route was built on top of several older highways, most notably the National Road and the Victory Highway.
The National Road was created in 1806 by an act of Congress to serve as the first federally funded highway construction project. When completed it connected Cumberland, with Vandalia, Illinois; the Victory Highway was designated as a memorial to World War I veterans and ran from Kansas City, Missouri to San Francisco, California. Other important roads that have become part of US 40 include Zane's Trace in Ohio, Braddock Road in Maryland and Pennsylvania, the Black Horse Pike in New Jersey, part of the Oregon Trail in Kansas, the Lincoln Highway throughout most of California; the western terminus of US 40 is in Silver Summit, Utah at an interchange with Interstate 80, several miles north of Park City, at Silver Creek Junction. The road is concurrent with US 189. US 40 is a limited access highway from the I-80 junction to its intersection with Utah State Route 32, about 13 miles south of Park City. From there, the road takes a southerly course to Heber City. In Heber City, there is an intersection with SR-113.
One mile US 189 splits off. There would be no more major intersections until US 40 has reached Fruitland, as it meets SR-208. About 18 miles the road enters Duchesne. In Duchesne, it meets US 191 and SR-87. US 40 starts a concurrency; the concurrency continues into Fort Duchesne and Vernal. In Roosevelt, it meets SR-87 again in a 5-point intersection. There are two intersections with SR-121, in Vernal. In Fort Duchesne, there is an intersection with SR-88. After US 40 passes Vernal, US 191 splits off and the concurrency ends. After that, there are no more major intersections until US 40 reaches Naples, as it meets SR-45. About nine miles US 40 enters Jensen. In Jensen, there is an intersection with SR-149. About 18 miles the road enters Colorado. US 40 enters Colorado, 2 miles west of Dinosaur. In Dinosaur, there is an intersection with Colorado State Highway 64. After passing Dinosaur, there are no more major intersections until US 40 reaches Maybell, as it meets with Colorado State Highway 318. 30 miles the road enters Craig.
In Craig, US 40 starts a short concurrency with State Highway 13. After Craig, SH 3 splits off; the road passes through Hayden without major intersections. It exits Hayden and enters Steamboat Springs. There is an intersection with SH 131 and SH 14. US 40 continues southeast into Kremmling. In Kremmling, there is an intersection with SH 134 and SH 9, it exits Kremmling and enters Granby. There is an intersection with US 34; the road passes Fraser and Winter Park without major intersections. About 26 miles US 40 starts a concurrency with I-70. About 15 miles I-70 splits off. Four miles s it is concurrent again. Three miles I-70 splits off again. After the second concurrency with I-70, US 40 enters Denver; the road passes through downtown Denver, has intersections with SH 391, SH 121, SH 95, SH 2 and an interchange with US 287. The route through Denver serves as the business loop for I-70. East of Denver, US 40 becomes concurrent with I-70 once again. Seventy miles it enters Limon. In Limon, I-70 splits off, however the road is still concurrent with US 287.
There is an intersection with SH 71. US 40 passes Hugo without major intersections. In Wild Horse, it meets SH 94. About 20 miles the road enters Kit Carson. There is an intersection with SH 59. After Kit Carson, US 287 splits off and the concurrency ends. After that, there are no more major intersections until US 40 reaches Cheyenne Wells, as it meets US 385 in an interchange; the road passes Arapahoe without major intersections. Seven miles US 40 enters Kansas. US 40 enters Kansas near the unincorporated community of Weskan; the first sizable town it enters is Sharon Springs, where it intersects K-27. From there it goes northeast to Oakley and follows Eagle Eye Road before merging with I-70 east of town; the two routes remain merged until Topeka, although the prior alignment of US 40, named Old Highway 40, parallels I-70 for most of the way. From Ellsworth to Salina, the old alignment of US 40 is signed as K-140. In Topeka, US 40 leaves I-70 at exit 366, follows the Oakland Expressway concurrent with K-4 north to 6th Avenue heads east along 6th Avenue out of town.
Through Topeka, US 40 follows the route of the Oregon Trail. At t
West Memphis, Arkansas
West Memphis is the largest city in Crittenden County, United States. The population was 26,245 at the 2010 census, ranking it as the state's 18th largest city, behind Bella Vista, it is part of the Memphis metropolitan area, is located directly across the Mississippi River from Memphis, Tennessee. Native Americans lived in the Mississippi River Valley for at least 10,000 years, although much of the evidence of their presence has been buried or destroyed; the Indians of the Mississippian Period were the last native inhabitants of the West Memphis area. Mound City Road, located within the eastern portion of the West Memphis city limits, has a marker indicating that the villages of Aquixo or Pacaha were in the area. Several mounds are still visible. Explorers from both Spain and France visited the area near West Memphis. Among those explorers were Hernando de Soto and his men from Spain and Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet from France. By the time French hunters and explorers entered the region, the Mississippian towns and other settlements had been abandoned.
The original site of West Memphis came from Spanish land grants issued during the 1790s. Grants were given to Benjamin Fooy, John Henry Fooy, Isaac Fooy in the Hopefield area and to William McKenney in the Bridgeport-West Memphis area. In the summer of 1541, Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto crossed the Mississippi River into what is now Crittenden County with an army of over 300 conquistadors and as many captured Native American slaves; the Spanish found the land to be the most densely populated that they had seen since starting their journey on the Florida coast, two years earlier. The Spanish expedition departed Arkansas two years leaving behind numerous Old World diseases, it was 130 years. The French expedition of Joliet and Marquette in 1673 found none of the towns or people that the Spanish had documented; the original inhabitants, like the settlers, were drawn to this region because of its fertile river bottom soil, abundant game, thick forest. The earliest recorded immigrant to the area was Benjamin Fooy, a native of Holland, sent in 1795 by the Spanish governor of the large area claimed by Spain to establish a settlement on the Mississippi River.
He chose a location across the river from present-day Memphis. In 1797, the Spanish established Campo de la Esperanza, a small fort along the Mississippi River; the Spanish abandoned the fort in 1802 and the area took its English translation "Field of Hope" which became known as Hopefield shortly after the United States took possession of the Louisiana Territory. Crittenden County is bounded on the east by the Mississippi River and was established in 1825, eleven years before Arkansas became a state. Named after Robert Crittenden, the first secretary of the Arkansas Territory, the county had a population of 1,272 in 1830. Hopefield became the eastern terminal for the Memphis and Little Rock Railroad in 1857. However, the Civil War forced a halt to track construction just east of the St. Francis River in 1861. During the summer of 1862 Memphis fell into the hands of the Union forces. Most Confederate soldiers were ferried across the river to Hopefield and surrounding farms. Many of these soldiers were moved on to other battle fronts, but some remained to harass the Union forces and disrupt river traffic.
This became such a problem that on February 19, 1863, four companies of Federal forces burned down the entire town. The town of Hopefield was rebuilt after the war but never regained the prominence it once held in Crittenden County. After the St. Francis Levee District began the levee system in the Arkansas Delta during the 1890s, what little remained of Hopefield became part of the Mississippi River flood plain and was washed away. An early settlement, established for ferry operations between Memphis and Arkansas in the early 1880s was given the name West Memphis; this small settlement, located directly south of the present day Memphis & Arkansas Bridge, never incorporated and died out shortly after ferry traffic ceased due to the completion of the Frisco Bridge across the Mississippi River in 1892. In addition to its lost ferry operations, this area, in the same fashion as its northern neighbor Hopefield, became part of the Mississippi River flood plain in the 1890s; the entire area flooded in the spring until the St. Francis Levee District was established in 1893.
However, private landowners along the Mississippi River built levees that were only three or four feet high. In 1912 and 1913, the St. Francis main levee broke, flooding the area from the Mississippi River to Forrest City in St. Francis County; the flood of 1913 was the last time. After the levee system was built and strengthened, Zack T. Bragg, a lumberman, logging in St. Francis County since 1905, purchased 300 acres of virgin timber and established a sawmill in 1914; the mill was located along a railroad spur and a dirt path that would become Missouri Street in West Memphis. Bragg acquired the timbering rights to thousands of acres of adjacent land clearing the area that gave way to fertile farmland and to the future West Memphis; the area around Bragg's Mill was known for the first few years as Arkansas. The small community consisted of the mill, a commissary and boarding house, a few dozen dwellings for workers. In 1914, another operation began two miles south of Bragg's Mill when William H. Hundhausen began plans for the Bolz Slack Barrell Cooperage plant located at the southern end of present-day 8th Street in West Memphis.
The Bolz Cooperage, a sta
Interstate 10 is the southernmost cross-country Interstate Highway in the American Interstate Highway System. It stretches from the Pacific Ocean at California State Route 1 in Santa Monica, California, to I-95 in Jacksonville, Florida. Major cities connected by I-10 include Los Angeles, Tucson, El Paso, San Antonio, Baton Rouge, New Orleans, Mobile and Jacksonville; this freeway is part of the planned Interstate Highway network, laid out in 1956, its last section was completed in 1990. I-10 is the fourth-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, following I-90, I-80, I-40. About one-third of its length is within the state of Texas, where the freeway spans the state at its widest breadth. Between its west terminus in Santa Monica and the major East Los Angeles Interchange, I-10 is known as the Santa Monica Freeway; the Santa Monica Freeway is called the Rosa Parks Freeway for the segment beginning at I-405, ending at I-110/SR 110. The segment between the East Los Angeles Interchange and the city of San Bernardino, 63 miles long, is called the San Bernardino Freeway.
Other names exist for I-10. For example, a sign near the western terminus of the highway in Santa Monica proclaims this highway the Christopher Columbus Transcontinental Highway. I-10 is known to a lesser degree as the Veterans Memorial Highway, it is listed as a Blue Star Memorial Highway. In Palm Springs, I-10 is named the Sonny Bono Memorial Freeway as a tribute to the late entertainer who served both as the mayor and as a U. S. Congressman. Another stretch a short distance east in Indio is proclaimed the Doctor June McCarroll Memorial Freeway. In Arizona, the highway is designated the Pearl Harbor Memorial Highway; the portion through Phoenix is named the Papago Freeway, it is a vital piece of the metropolitan Phoenix freeway system. This designation starts at Loop 101, near 99th Avenue, it continues eastward to the interchange southeast of downtown, the terminus of I-17. Near Buckeye, the freeway has mile markers posted every 0.2 miles from 112.2 to 110.8 with the interstate shield and direction of travel posted on the westbound lanes.
On the eastbound lanes, mile markers from 110.8 to 112.2 do not include the I‑10 shield and direction of travel. From the southern terminus of I-17 to the southernmost junction with Loop 202, the highway is signed as the Maricopa Freeway; this name holds true as well for I-17 from its southern terminus to the Durango Curve south of Buckeye Road. From Loop 202 south to the eastern terminus of I-8 just southeast of Casa Grande, the highway is declared the Pearl Harbor Memorial Highway; the Arizona Department of Transportation has maps that show it as the Maricopa Freeway, while the American Automobile Association and other sources show it as the Pima Freeway. The latter's name is used on a stretch of Loop 101 from Loop 202 to I-17. Between I-17 in Phoenix and the I-19 interchanges in Tucson, I-10 is included in the federally designated CANAMEX Corridor, extending from Mexico City to Edmonton, Alberta. In Tucson, between I-10 mileposts 259 and 260 are interchange ramps connecting I-10 with the northern terminus of I-19.
The highest elevation along I-10 occurs just east of Tucson, 20 miles west of Willcox, at the mile marker 320 exit for the Amerind Foundation and Museum. The westbound lanes of I-10 cross above 5,000 feet above sea level. In New Mexico, I-10 more or less follows the former path of U. S. Route 80 across the state, although major portions of old US 80 were bypassed in Western New Mexico's Bootheel and in Doña Ana County. I-10 passes through three Southern New Mexico municipalities of regional significance before the junction with I-25: Lordsburg and Las Cruces. Most of I-10 in New Mexico, between Exit 24 and Exit 135, is concurrent with US 70. At Lordsburg is the western junction of US 70 and a concurrency. Several exits between Lordsburg and Deming lack any town at all. At Deming is the western junction of US 180, which forms a concurrency with I-10 all the way to El Paso. One mile north of Deming on US 180 is New Mexico State Road 26 which serves as a short cut to north I-25 and Albuquerque. I-10/US 70/US 180 continue east to Las Cruces, the southern end of I-25.
US 70 leaves I-10, passing through the north side of Las Cruces. The junction with I-25 occurs just south of the New Mexico State University campus, on the southern end of Las Cruces. I-10/US 180 becomes concurrent with US 85 at the junction with I-25. I-10/US 85/US 180 turns south to the Texas state line, crossing it at Anthony. From the state line with New Mexico to State Highway 20 in west El Paso, I-10 is bordered by frontage roads South Desert for lanes along I-10 East and North Desert for lanes along I-10 West; the interstate has no frontage roads for nine miles but regains them east of downtown and retains them to Clint. In this stretch, the frontage roads are Gateway East for the eastbound lanes and Gateway West for the westbound lanes. All four frontage roads are one-way streets. Gateway East and Gateway West are notable, in particular, for TxDOT's liberal usage of the Texas U-turn at most underpasses of I-10 on this stretch. I-10 is the western terminus for Interstate 20, the two highways intersect at Scroggins Draw, about 41 miles Southwest of Pecos, at mile marker 186.
A small portion of I-10 from Loop 1604 to Downtown San Antonio is known as
Interstate 70 is a major east–west Interstate Highway in the United States that runs from I-15 near Cove Fort, Utah, to I-695 near Baltimore, Maryland. I-70 traces the path of U. S. Route 40 east of the Rocky Mountains. West of the Rockies, the route of I-70 was derived from multiple sources; the Interstate runs through or near many major cities, including Denver, Kansas City, St. Louis, Columbus and Baltimore; the sections of the interstate in Missouri and Kansas have laid claim to be the first interstate in the United States. The Federal Highway Administration has claimed the section of I-70 through Glenwood Canyon, completed in 1992, was the last piece of the Interstate Highway system, as planned, to open to traffic; the construction of I-70 in Colorado and Utah is considered an engineering marvel, as the route passes through the Eisenhower Tunnel, Glenwood Canyon, the San Rafael Swell. The Eisenhower Tunnel is the highest point along the Interstate Highway system, with an elevation of 11,158 ft. Interstate 70 begins at an interchange with Interstate 15 near Cove Fort.
Heading east, I-70 crosses between the Tushar and Pahvant ranges via Clear Creek Canyon and descends into the Sevier Valley, where I-70 serves Richfield, the only town of more than a few hundred people along I-70's path in Utah. Upon leaving the valley near Salina, I-70 crosses the 7,923 ft Salina Summit and crosses a massive geologic formation called the San Rafael Swell. Prior to the construction of I-70, the swell was inaccessible via paved roads and undiscovered. Once this 108 mi section was opened to traffic in 1970, it became the longest stretch of interstate highway with no services and the first highway in the U. S. built over a new route since the Alaska Highway. It became the longest piece of interstate highway to be opened at one time. Although opened in 1970, this section was not formally complete until 1990, when a second steel arch bridge spanning Eagle Canyon was opened to traffic. Since I-70's construction, the swell has been noted for its desolate beauty; the swell has since been nominated for National Park or National Monument status on multiple occasions.
If the swell is granted this status, it arguably would be the first time a National Park owes its existence to an interstate highway. Most of the exits in this span are rest areas, brake check areas, runaway truck ramps with few traditional freeway exits. I-70 exits the swell near Green River. From Green River to the Colorado state line, I-70 follows the southern edge of the Book Cliffs. Entering from Utah, I-70 descends into the Grand Valley, where it meets the Colorado River, which provides its path up the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. Here I-70 serves the Grand Junction metro area before traversing more mountainous terrain; the last section of I-70 to be completed was the 15-mile Glenwood Canyon. This stretch was completed in 1992 and was an engineering marvel, due to the difficult terrain and narrow space in the canyon, which requires corners that are sharper than normal Interstate standards. Construction was delayed for many years due to environmental concerns; the difficulties in building the road in the canyon were compounded by the fact the Denver & Rio Grande Western railroad occupied the south bank, many temporary construction projects took place to keep US 6 open, at the time the only east–west road in the area.
Much of the highway is elevated above the Colorado River. The speed limit in this section is due to the limited sight distance and sharp corners; the Eisenhower–Johnson Memorial Tunnel, the highest vehicular tunnel in North America and the longest tunnel built under the Interstate program, passes through the Continental Divide. Because of the rugged and narrow terrain of the Rocky Mountains, I-70 is one of few roads connecting Colorado's ski resorts with Denver. Descending through the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains, one can see the Denver skyline on a clear day; this can fool truckers and other unsuspecting drivers, because one must still traverse 10 miles of steep grade road before reaching the city. A series of signs warns truckers of the steep grade; as I-70 leaves the foothills, it goes through Denver and intersects Interstate 25, serving as the central east-west artery through the city. Leaving Denver, I-70 levels out and traverses the wide plains through eastern Colorado. East of Denver, I-70 makes a broad turn to the south-southeast for 30 miles before reaching Limon and resuming its eastward journey toward Kansas.
Coming from Colorado, I-70 enters the prairie and rolling hills of Kansas. This portion of I-70 was the first segment to start being paved and to be completed in the Interstate Highway System, it is given the nickname "Main Street of Kansas", as the interstate extends from the western border to the eastern border of the state, covering 424 miles and passing through most of the state's principal cities in the process. In Salina, I-70 intersects with I-135, the longest "spur" route in the Interstate system, forming the latter's northern terminus. In Topeka, I-70 intersects I-470, twice. At the eastern intersection, the Kansas Turnpike merges, with I-70 becoming a toll road; this is one of only two sections of I-70. I-70 carries this designation from Topeka to the eastern terminus of the turnpike. About halfway between Topeka and Kansas City, Kansas, I-70 passes through Lawrence; the tolled portion of the turnpike ends near Bonner Springs, just west of Kansas City. There is a third child route in Topeka, I-335, which runs from I-470 south to meet up wit
U.S. Route 66
U. S. Route 66 known as the Will Rogers Highway, the Main Street of America or the Mother Road, was one of the original highways in the U. S. Highway System. US 66 was established on November 1926, with road signs erected the following year; the highway, which became one of the most famous roads in the United States ran from Chicago, through Missouri, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona before ending in Santa Monica in Los Angeles County, covering a total of 2,448 miles. It was recognized in popular culture by both the hit song " Route 66" and the Route 66 television show in the 1960s. In John Steinbeck's classic American novel, The Grapes of Wrath, the road, "Highway 66", was turned into a powerful symbol of escape and loss. US 66 served as a primary route for those who migrated west during the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, the road supported the economies of the communities through which it passed. People doing business along the route became prosperous due to the growing popularity of the highway, those same people fought to keep the highway alive in the face of the growing threat of being bypassed by the new Interstate Highway System.
US 66 underwent many improvements and realignments over its lifetime, but was removed from the United States Highway System in 1985 after it had been replaced in its entirety by segments of the Interstate Highway System. Portions of the road that passed through Illinois, New Mexico, Arizona have been communally designated a National Scenic Byway of the name "Historic Route 66", returning the name to some maps. Several states have adopted significant bypassed sections of the former US 66 into their state road networks as State Route 66; the corridor is being redeveloped into U. S. Bicycle Route 66, a part of the United States Bicycle Route System, developed in the 2010s. In 1857, Lt. Edward Fitzgerald Beale, a Naval officer in the service of the U. S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, was ordered by the War Department to build a government-funded wagon road along the 35th Parallel, his secondary orders were to test the feasibility of the use of camels as pack animals in the southwestern desert.
This road became part of US 66. Parts of the original Route 66 from 1913, prior to its official naming and commissioning, can still be seen north of the Cajon Pass; the paved road becomes a dirt road, south of Cajon, the original Route 66. Before a nationwide network of numbered highways was adopted by the states, named auto trails were marked by private organizations; the route that would become US 66 was covered by three highways. The Lone Star Route passed through St. Louis on its way from Chicago to Cameron, though US 66 would take a shorter route through Bloomington rather than Peoria; the transcontinental National Old Trails Road led via St. Louis to Los Angeles, but was not followed until New Mexico. Again, a shorter route was taken, here following the Postal Highway between Oklahoma City and Amarillo; the National Old Trails Road became the rest of the route to Los Angeles. While legislation for public highways first appeared in 1916, with revisions in 1921, it was not until Congress enacted an more comprehensive version of the act in 1925 that the government executed its plan for national highway construction.
The original inspiration for a roadway between Chicago and Los Angeles was planned by entrepreneurs Cyrus Avery of Tulsa and John Woodruff of Springfield, Missouri. The pair lobbied the American Association of State Highway Officials for the creation of a route following the 1925 plans. From the outset, public road planners intended US 66 to connect the main streets of rural and urban communities along its course for the most practical of reasons: most small towns had no prior access to a major national thoroughfare; the numerical designation 66 was assigned to the Chicago-to-Los Angeles route on April 30, 1926, in Springfield, Missouri. A placard in Park Central Square was dedicated to the city by the Route 66 Association of Missouri, traces of the "Mother Road" are still visible in downtown Springfield along Kearney Street, Glenstone Avenue, St. Louis streets and on Route 266 to Halltown, Missouri. Championed by Avery when the first talks about a national highway system began, US 66 was first signed into law in 1927 as one of the original U.
S. Highways, although it was not paved until 1938. Avery was adamant that the highway had proposed number 60 to identify it. A controversy erupted over the number 60 from delegates from Kentucky who wanted a Virginia Beach–Los Angeles highway to be US 60 and US 62 between Chicago and Springfield, Missouri. Arguments and counterarguments continued throughout February, including a proposal to split the proposed route through Kentucky into Route 60 North and Route 60 South; the final conclusion was to have US 60 run between Virginia Beach and Springfield, the Chicago–L. A. Route be US 62. Avery and highway engineer John Page settled on "66,", unassigned, despite the fact that in its entirety, US 66 was north of US 60; the state of Missouri released its 1926 state highway map with the highway labeled as US 60. After the new federal highway system was created, Cyrus Avery called for the establishment of the U. S. Highway 66 Association to promote the complete paving of the highway from end to end and to promote travel down the highway.
In 1927, in Tulsa, the association was established with John T. Woodr
Normal is a town in McLean County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town's population was 52,497. Normal is the smaller of two principal municipalities of the Bloomington–Normal metropolitan area, Illinois' seventh most populous community outside the Chicago metropolitan area. Normal's mayor is Chris Koos; the main campus of Illinois' oldest public university, Illinois State University, a accredited four-year institution, is in Normal, as is Heartland Community College, a accredited two-year institution. There is a satellite campus of Lincoln College, which offers associate degrees as well as four-year programs. A large share of residents of Normal are employed by Illinois State University, State Farm Insurance, Country Financial, Unit 5 schools; the town was laid out with the name North Bloomington on June 1854 by Joseph Parkinson. From its founding, it was recognized that Jesse W. Fell was the force behind the creation of the town, he had arranged for the new railroad, which would soon become the Chicago and Alton Railroad, to pass west of Bloomington curving to cross the Illinois Central Railroad at a point where he owned or controlled land.
Most of the original town lies south of these tracks, with Beaufort Street as its northern limit, some blocks west of the Illinois Central and north of the tracks. Fell, his brothers, associates laid out many additions to the original town; the town was renamed Normal in February 1865 and incorporated on February 25, 1867. The name was taken from a normal school located there; the school has since been renamed Illinois State University after becoming a general four-year university. Normal is adjacent to Bloomington and when mentioned together they are known as the "Twin Cities", "Bloomington-Normal", "BN", or "BloNo". In 2007, the town council voted to name the downtown area "Uptown Normal", and, as of 2011, Uptown Normal is home to the Children's Discovery Museum, Marriott Hotel and Conference Center, a variety of stores; the district is home to the historic and non-profit Normal Theater, a restored Art Deco theater owned by the Town of Normal that runs classic and independent films. November 19, 2014: Bronze Level Bicycle Friendly Community Award, League of American Bicyclists 2014: First in State for Most Minutes Read, 2014 Scholastic Summer Reading Challenge, Scholastic Corp.
- Received by Glenn Elementary 2014: Chamber of the Year, Association of Chamber of Commerce Executives - Received by the McLean County Chamber of Commerce 2013: Honorable Mention - Mayor's Climate Protection Awards, United States Conference of Mayors - Received by Mayor Chris Koos 2013: Tree Cities USA Community Award, Arbor Day Foundation 2011: National Award for Smart Growth Achievement - Civic Places, United States Environmental Protection Agency Normal is located near 40°30′44″N 88°59′19″W. According to the 2010 census, Normal has a total area of 18.412 square miles, of which 18.35 square miles is land and 0.062 square miles is water. As of the 2000 census, there were 45,386 people, 15,157 households, 8,184 families residing in the town; the population density was 3,332.6 people per square mile. There were 15,683 housing units at an average density of 1,151.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the town was 87.57% White, 7.71% African American, 0.15% Native American, 2.21% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.93% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.56% of the population. There were 15,157 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.0% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town, the age distribution of the population shows 17.5% under the age of 18, 38.1% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 13.7% from 45 to 64, 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $40,379, the median income for a family was $60,644. Males had a median income of $41,323 versus $27,486 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,775.
About 5.6% of families and 19.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.4% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over. Normal is served by I-39, I-55, Interstate 74, one railroad line, the Central Illinois Regional Airport in neighboring Bloomington, Connect Transit provides public bus service in the area. Interstate 55 wraps around the northwest edge of the town. Interstate 74 shares the I-55 roadway on the western edge of Normal before splitting off toward the northwest. Normal is the southern terminus of Interstate 39; the Central Illinois Regional Airport is on Route 9 in Bloomington five miles east southeast from Uptown Normal. The airport is served by four airlines, five rental car agencies, has direct daily flights to Atlanta, Dallas-Ft. Worth and Minneapolis/St. Paul. A record 559,481 passengers flew to or from CIRA in 2010. Connect Transit has 11 color-coded fixed routes in the area. The