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Interstate 81

Interstate 81 is a north–south Interstate Highway in the eastern part of the United States. Its southern terminus is at I-40 in Tennessee; the major metropolitan areas that I-81 connects to include Harrisburg and the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania and Syracuse in New York. I-81 traces the paths created down the length of the Appalachian Mountains by migrating animals, American Indians, early settlers, it follows a major corridor for troop movements during the Civil War. These trails and roadways evolved into U. S. Route 11. Being rural, it is used as a trucking corridor, is used as a bypass of the busier I-95 and I-85 to the east; the Interstate 81 Corridor Coalition, a six-state coalition, was organized to handle issues along I-81, such as truck traffic and air pollution. I-81 is part of the fastest route between the capital of the United States and the capital of Canada. I-81 is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration.

I-81 begins in Tennessee at I-40 in Dandridge, a route that connects to Knoxville to the west and Asheville to the east. I-81 meets Interstate 26 and U. S. Route 23, which go to Johnson City. At mile marker 75, I-81 enters Virginia. I-81 in Virginia is a rural route with brief concurrencies with I-77 and I-64; the route parallels the Appalachian Mountains for much of its route through Tennessee and Virginia, serving such cities as the twin cities of Bristol and Bristol, Roanoke, Lexington, Harrisonburg and Winchester. In Harrisonburg, I-81 cuts through James Madison University, it parallels its older counterpart, U. S. Route 11, for its entire length in Virginia. I-81 enters the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia for about 26 miles, serving the city of Martinsburg; the entire routing serves the Eastern WV Regional Airport. The West Virginia segment was completed in 1966 and there have been no realignments since. West Virginia is widening I-81 to six lanes from Martinsburg north to exit 23 connecting West Virginia and Maryland.

In Maryland, the Interstate highway runs 12.08 miles from the West Virginia state line at the Potomac River in Williamsport north to the Pennsylvania state line near Maugansville. I-81 is the primary north–south Interstate highway in Washington County, connecting Hagerstown with Chambersburg and Harrisburg to the north and Martinsburg and Roanoke to the south, it is the shortest mainline Interstate in Maryland and contains the shortest portion of I-81 of all six states through which the Interstate highway passes. The Interstate was dedicated as Maryland Veterans Memorial Highway in 1987. I-81 passes through the state of Maryland at one of its narrowest points, the "Hub City" of Hagerstown where it intersects with a large number of other routes, most notably I-70; the Hagerstown Regional Airport is served by this Interstate Highway. I-81 forms a major north–south corridor through the state of Pennsylvania, serving the boroughs of Chambersburg and Carlisle, where it meets the Pennsylvania Turnpike but does not directly interchange with it.

Around the state capital of Harrisburg, the route forms the northeastern section of Pennsylvania's Capital Beltway. The route travels northeast toward the Wyoming Valley, where it serves the cities of Wilkes-Barre and Scranton heads north through the Endless Mountains region toward the state line. I-81 runs from Interstate 40 at Dandridge, Tennessee, to the Thousand Islands International Bridge at Wellesley Island in New York, beyond which a short stub links it to Ontario Highway 401. In the U. S. state of New York, I-81 extends 183.62 miles from the Pennsylvania state line southeast of Binghamton to the Canadian border at Wellesley Island northwest of Alexandria Bay. The freeway runs north–south through Central New York, serving the cities of Binghamton and Watertown, it passes through the Thousand Islands in its final miles and crosses two bridges, both part of the series of bridges known as the Thousand Islands Bridge. South of Watertown, I-81 parallels U. S. Route 11, the main north–south highway in Central New York prior to the construction of I-81.

At Watertown, US 11 turns northeastward to head across New York's North Country while I-81 continues on a northward track to the Canadian border. From there, the road continues into the province of Ontario as Highway 137, a short route leading north to the nearby Highway 401. I-81 parallels the Great Indian Warpath, an old Indian trail that connected New York to the Piedmont via Virginia and West Virginia. A series of roads linking Virginia to Maryland through Martinsburg were present on maps as early as 1873. New York was served by NY 2, a road built in 1924. S. Route 11 in 1927. A highway that followed the path of US 11 was built, became known as the Penn-Can Highway. On August 14, 1957 the highway was redesigned as I-81. In New York, the first segments of I-81 were begun in 1954. In Maryland, the Interstate was begun with the Hagerstown Bypass in the mid 1950s. After several bouts of expansion, the freeway was completed from US 40 to the Pennsylvania state line in 1958, marke

BBC Red Button

BBC Red Button is a branding used for digital interactive television services provided by the BBC, broadcast in the United Kingdom. The services replaced Ceefax, the BBC's analogue teletext service. BBC Red Button's text services were due to close on 30 January 2020, but the switch off was suspended on 29 January 2020 following protests; the service was launched in September 1999 as BBC Text. It was relaunched in November 2001 under the BBCi brand and operated under this name until late 2008, when it was rebranded as BBC Red Button; the "red button" name refers to the common interface on remote controls for digital televisions and set-top boxes, a red push-button which launches digital teletext services. Although marketed as a spectacular new form of television, by 2008 this had given way to positioning iTV as ‘everyday’; this was due in part to the institutional landscape of television in the UK. In September 2009, the BBC celebrated 10 years of the digital interactive TV service. BBC Text launched on digital terrestrial services in September 1999, was introduced on satellite and cable platforms.

In the first phase, the service was created using content migrated from the existing analogue teletext service, Ceefax. A digital text service had been available since the launch of digital terrestrial television in November 1998, but the BBC Text service was not publicly launched until November 1999, due to a lack of availability of compatible set-top boxes. BBC Text was more advanced than Ceefax, in that it offered a richer visual interface, with the possibility of photographic images and designed graphics. BBC Text enabled channel association, the ability for the user to retain their selected television channel visible in one section of the screen whilst viewing the text service, in contrast to Ceefax, which could only be viewed as a full-screen display, or as a semitransparent overlay above the television picture; the original text service had no return path, this being made available in phases. BBC Text pioneered an early form of "on-demand" interactive television, called Enhanced TV. During the 1999 Wimbledon Championships, the BBC presented a service which allowed viewers to select a video stream of different matches, access additional information such as player profiles and interactive quizzes.

Although the experimental service was publicly available, there were no digital set-top boxes or receivers available on the market which could decode the signal and the service was only presented to the public via BBC demonstrations using prototype receivers. The BBCi brand launched in November 2001 and was conceived as a cohesive multi-platform brand name for all the BBC's digital interactive services, encompassing the corporation's digital teletext, interactive television and website services. According to the BBC, the "i" in BBCi stood for "interactivity" as well as "innovation"; the various services all took on a common interface device, an "i-bar" branded with the BBCi logo, which sought to emphasise the brand across different technologies by providing similar navigation. For example, the BBC website, called BBC Online, took on the BBCi brand from 2001, displaying an i-bar across the top of every page, offering a category-based navigation: Categories, TV, Communicate, Where I Live, A-Z Index, a search.

BBC interactive television services all offered a horizontal i-bar along the bottom of television screens, with four colour-coded interactions linked to the four colour buttons on TV remote controls. After three years of consistent use across different platforms, the BBC began to drop the BBCi brand gradually. Interactive TV services continued under the BBCi brand until late 2008. Today, the broadcaster's online video player, the BBC iPlayer, reflects the branding legacy by retaining an i-prefix in its branding. In June 2013, a HD version of BBC Red Button was launched for the summertime, it closed on 25 November 2013 after the 50 anniversary of Doctor. It returned each year along with the other BBC Red Button channels as a temporary channel for the duration of the Wimbledon tennis tournament. On 26 March 2018, CBBC HD began its downtime and the relaunch of BBC Red Button HD took place to cover the 2018 Commonwealth Games, it was added on Sky on channel 981 and Freeview channel 602 on 3 April 2018 and closed on 16 April 2018 after the Games had concluded.

From 2008, the BBC began to drop the BBCi name from its digital interactive TV services replacing it with the name BBC Red Button. The BBCi logo continued in on-screen presentation for some time. BBC Connected Red Button launched in December 2012 on Virgin TiVo and on some Freeview and Freesat'Smart TVs' in December 2013; the service is a composite IP and broadcast service and may be the future of Red Button on internet connected televisions. The service was renamed BBC Red Button+ in April 2015, it launched with an updated brand. After nearly 21 years of service, the BBC announced in 2019 that due to financial cuts, the text services on Red Button on all platforms would be removed from 30 January 2020; the video services, used during events like Wimbledon and the Olympic Games, would continue. On 29 January 2020, the BBC announced their suspension of the switch-off due to protests, one day before the service was due to have started being phased out; this announcement comes following a petition, organised by the National Federation of the Blind of

José Nápoles

José Ángel Nápoles, nicknamed Mantequilla, was a Cuban-born Mexican boxer and a World Welterweight Champion. He is ranked as one of the greatest fighters of all time in that division and is a member of the International Boxing Hall of Fame, his record of the most wins in unified championship bouts in boxing history, shared with Muhammad Ali, was unbeaten for 40 years. After debuting professionally in Cuba, he became a Mexican citizen. Nápoles debuted as a professional boxer on August 2, 1958 in Cuba, knocking out Julio Rojas in the first round. Nápoles' first 21 bouts were in Cuba, against unknown competition, he lost to Hilton Smith. After beating Enrique Carabeo in March 1961, Nápoles found himself a new challenge, outside of the ring, he found asylum in Mexico, where he soon found himself back inside the ring, beating Enrique Camarena by a knockout in two rounds on July 21, 1962. He won all four of his fights that year. In 1963, he lost two, he was defeated by Tony Perez and Alfredo Urbina, both by decision, but he beat JC Morgan, by knockout in seven rounds, in Venezuela.

1964 was a successful year for Nápoles. He travelled to Japan, where he beat Taketeru Yoshimoto by knockout in round one, he beat future world champion Carlos Morocho Hernández by knockout in round seven, this time back in Venezuela. In addition to those wins, he avenged his loss to Urbina by knocking him out twice, the first time in the first round and the second time in the third, he won three more fights in 1965, including another win against Morgan, before seeing a raise in opposition quality when he faced the former world Junior Welterweight champion Eddie Perkins, beating him by decision in ten rounds. For his next fight, he met his own future world title challenger, Adolph Pruitt, beating him by knockout in round three. In 1966, he won five fights, all by knockout, lost one, to arch-rival Morgan, who knocked him out in round four; this would be his last loss in four years. Nápoles began a streak of 20 wins in a row, 13 of them before challenging for the world's welterweight title; these included avenging the loss to Morgan with a two-round knockout.

During this period, Nápoles became a fan favorite in southern California, after beating Fate Davis, on February 15 of 1969 in Mexico, he was given an opportunity to win the world championship when he faced the current champion Curtis Cokes in Inglewood, on April 18. Nápoles beat Cokes by a knockout in round 13 to become world welterweight champion, and, as was becoming common place for him, he wore a sombrero after the fight. On June 29, he retained the title in a rematch with Cokes by a knockout in round 10 in his hometown of Mexico City, on October 12, he outpointed former world champion Emile Griffith in 15 retaining the title. Nápoles began the 1970s, by defeating Ernie "Indian Red" Lopez by a knockout in round 15 in front of an audience that included former world champion Sugar Ray Robinson on February 14, 1970, but after winning two non-title bouts, he suffered an upset when he was stopped due to be cut in four rounds by Carmen Basilio's nephew Billy Backus, who took the world's Welterweight title from Nápoles on December 3 at Syracuse.

After winning one more fight, he and Backus fought again, for the world welterweight title now in Backus' hands. This time, it was held in Los Angeles, Nápoles recovered the world championship via an 8th round stoppage. After three non-title wins, including one over Jean Josselin, he faced Hedgemon Lewis on December 14, retaining the world title with a decision in 15 rounds, but Nápoles' training habits were suffering. In 1972, he retained the title knocking out Ralph Charles in seven in England, Pruitt resurfaced again, this time with the world Welterweight title on the line. Nápoles retained his crown by knockout in round two. World traveller Nápoles began 1973 by retaining the title against Lopez again, by knockout in seven he visited Grenoble, where he retained the crown with a 15-round decision over Roger Menetrey, Toronto, Canada where he beat Clyde Gray, once again retaining the world title with a 15-round decision. After this, many boxing fans were asking for a fight between Nápoles and World Middleweight Champion Carlos Monzón.

The fight was made possible when Nápoles moved in weight to challenge Monzon for Monzon's title, so the two dueled on February 9, 1974 at a parking lot in Paris. This would be Nápoles' only bout at the Middleweight division, as he was defeated by quitting the match. Nápoles went back to the Welterweight division, retained the title twice before the year ended, with a knockout in nine over Lewis, with a knockout in three over Horacio Saldaño. In 1975, Nápoles had two wins over both times to retain his world title; the first time, a technical decision win in 12 rounds at Acapulco was a controversial win, so a return match was fought in Los Angeles, where Nápoles prevailed by decision. On December 6 of that year, however, Nápoles lost his title to British boxing teacher John H. Stracey, who won over Nápoles by a technical knockout in round six at Mexico City despite being floored by Nápoles in round one. After this fight, Nápoles announced his retirement. Remarkably, he was able to stay away from the temptation of a comeback, much like Marvin Hagler.

Nápoles had a final record of 81 wins and 7 losses, with 54 wins by knockout, which makes him a member of the exclusive group of boxers

William Carruthers (botanist)

William C Carruthers was a Scottish botanist and paleobotanist. Carruthers was keeper of the Botanical Department at the Natural History Museum from 1871 to 1895, he was consulting botanist to the Royal Agricultural Society. He was born in Moffat, the son of merchant Samuel Carruthers. Educated at Moffat Academy, he graduated from the University of Edinburgh; as a student he supported himself by working as a tutor. In 1854 he began to study for the Presbyterian Ministry at New College, but decided to specialise in natural sciences, he became a lecturer in Botany at the New Veterinary College in Edinburgh, served as assistant secretary to the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He became assistant in the botany department of the British Museum in 1859, becoming Keeper of Botany in 1871 and retiring in 1895, he oversaw the transfer of the British Museum botany collections from Bloomsbury to South Kensington, saw off an attempt to have them moved to Kew. He married in daughter of William Moffat, architect, of Edinburgh.

They had three children. Carruthers published scientific work on oaks, mosses, fossil ferns, fossil Cycads and Lepidodendron, he was an expert on graptolites and in 1867 he contributed an article on them to the fourth edition of Roderick Murchison's Siluria. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1871, he was President of the Geologist's Association from 1875-1877. He was president of the Linnean Society from 1886 to 1890, a member of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, he was awarded a PhD by the University of Uppsala in 1907. William Carruthers was involved in the Presbyterian Church throughout his life, he edited the Messenger for Children. He was keenly interested in the history of Puritanism. Carruthers was skeptical about Darwin's theory of evolution. In his 1876 presidential address to the Geologist's Association he argued that "the facts of palaeontological botany are opposed to evolution", he argued that intermediate forms are absent in the plant fossil record, that the plant fossil record is characterized by "sudden and simultaneous" appearances of different groups of plants.

In 1886, as President of the Biological Section of the British Association, he gave an address that argued for lack of evolution in plants based on comparisons of modern plants with those from Egyptian tombs. Works by or about William Carruthers at Internet Archive

Dome S102

The Dome S102 upgraded and raced as the Dome S102.5, is a sports prototype built and designed for use in the LMP1 class of the 24 Hours Of Le Mans, other similar endurance races. The car is the successor to the Dome S101, its evolutions; the car was unveiled on the 21st of March 2008. The Dome S102 is designed to be the successor to the open-topped Dome S101, featuring improved aerodynamics compared to the final iteration of the S101, with 9% Less Drag, as well as 11% More Aerodynamic Efficiency; the car was developed in-house, with 2 wind-tunnel models, one at 25% scale, alongside a larger 40% scale model. The 25% scale model was run at the Yajima Wind Tunnel. In order to test the reliability of the car's powertrain components, namely the Judd engine, as well as the X-Trac Transmission and the Zytek Paddle-shift system, Dome modified 1 Dome S101.5 into a testing mule, with the modified car being tested around Sportsland SUGO over a 2 day period, with Tatsuya Kataoka at the wheel. The car subsequently had its initial shakedown run at the Suzuka Circuit.

The car was tested at the Fuji Speedway. Over the winter of 2011, the 40% scale model was updated, in preparation for the car's return to competition, with redesigned front fenders, wider front tyres, as well as an engine cover fin; the Judd V10 was replaced with a smaller 3.4L Judd V8, with the car requiring a spacer plate in the engine bay to accommodate the newer engine. On the 2nd of February 2012, it was announced that the Dome S102 would return to competition, upgraded as the Dome S102.5, to be run by the Pescarolo Team. The new DOME S102.5 was given its shakedown run by the Pescarolo Team at Chateauroux Airport. The car was tested at the Navarra Racetrack in Spain, with the team giving positive feedback about the car; the car had its debut at the 2008 24 Hours of Le Mans, with a single car, the #11 run by the factory Dome Racing Team. The car qualified well, with a P8, behind the 3rd Audi R10; the car was the last classified finisher in the race, completing 272 laps. The car was slated to be run in 2009 by the Ecospeed Team.

However, due to the lack of payments to Dome, the contract was subsequently cancelled. The Dome Racing Team received an entry for the 2010 24 Hours of Le Mans. However, it was subsequently withdrawn; the #17 car qualified P9 on its debut at the 2012 6 Hours of Spa Francorchamps, finishing 15th Overall, completing 147 laps. At the 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans, the car qualified 10th, but was unclassified, completing just 203 laps; this race would prove to be the last for both Pescarolo, who would collapse due to financial issues, the car, in spite of Dome continuing development

William L. Chaplin

William Lawrence Chaplin was a prominent abolitionist in the years before the American Civil War. Known by the title of "General," he was an agent for the New York Anti-Slavery Society. In 1850 in Washington, DC, Chaplin aided two of the slaves of congressman Robert Toombs in an attempted escape; the slaves were Lousia and Garland H. White. During the pursuit of the escapees, Toombs said that he was more concerned about Lousia than White, as he did not care for White. Both were caught. During the chase, the posse shot into the carriage; when they were caught, Chaplin was beaten and held in D. C. for six weeks. Chaplin was bailed by others; the money was returned to New York. Case of William L. Chaplin: being an appeal to all respecters of law and justice against the cruel and oppressive treatment to which, under color of legal proceedings, he has been subjected in the District of Columbia and the state of Maryland. Boston: Chaplin Committee. 1851. Available in Sabin Americana, 1500–1926. "Slavery Diabolical".

The Liberator. April 25, 1851. P. 2 – via Review of the preceding "William L. Chaplin". Find a Grave. Retrieved January 3, 2015. "Theodosia Gilbert Chaplin". Find a Grave. Retrieved January 6, 2015