Interstate 85 is a major Interstate Highway in the Southeastern United States. Its current southern terminus is at an interchange with I-65 in Alabama, it is nominally north–south, but it is physically oriented northeast–southwest and covers a larger east-west span than north-south. While most interstates that end in a "5" are cross-country routes, I-85 is a regional route, serving five southeastern states. Major metropolitan areas served by I-85 include the Greater Richmond Region in Virginia, the Research Triangle, Piedmont Triad, Metrolina regions of North Carolina, Upstate South Carolina, the Atlanta metropolitan area in Georgia, the Montgomery metropolitan area in Alabama. I-85 is a route that serves several major locations in the Southeastern United States, stretching from Alabama to Virginia and major metropolitan areas such as Atlanta and Charlotte. I-85 begins as a fork off I-65 in Montgomery. From there, I-85 parallels U. S. Route 80. At Tuskegee, I-85 leaves US 80 and starts to parallel US 29, which the highway parallels for much of its length.
I-85 passes near Auburn, Opelika and Lanett before crossing the Chattahoochee River into Georgia. I-85 will soon be rerouted southward just east of Montgomery, where it will intersect with I-65 just south of downtown Montgomery and have a future southern terminus at the concurrency of I-20/59 just northeast of Cuba. Future I-685 will be the new designation for the route of current I-85, which leads directly to I-65 in downtown Montgomery. In Georgia, I-85 bypasses West Point before coming into the LaGrange area. East of LaGrange, I-85 intersects I-185 which connects to Fort Benning. In the Atlanta area, I-85 intersects I-20 and merges with I-75 through the downtown area. North of Atlanta, I-985 provides a link to Gainesville before heading through northeastern Georgia and crossing into South Carolina. Due to a bridge collapse on March 30, 2017, parts of I-85 in Atlanta were closed. I-85 provides the major transportation route for the Upstate of South Carolina, linking together the major centers of Greenville and Spartanburg with regional centers of importance.
In Spartanburg, BMW has a major manufacturing plant. In South Carolina, I-85 bypasses Anderson on the way to Greenville. Beginning at Anderson, I-85 widens from four to six lanes. Near Powdersville, US 29 joins I-85 and they run concurrently until they cross the Saluda River. I-85 bypasses just south of Greenville, but provides two links into the city via spur routes I-185 and I-385. I-85 has direct exits to Greenville–Spartanburg International Airport, which serves the Greenville–Spartanburg metropolitan area. I-85 bypasses the city of Spartanburg to the north, its original route is now signed as Business Loop 85 and was approved by AASHTO on April 22, 1995. Near mile marker 70, I-85 intersects with I-26; the exits are signed as 70B for westbound traffic. North of Spartanburg, I-85 narrows from six lanes back to bypasses Gaffney. Much of the terrain between Spartanburg and the North Carolina border is rural in nature but congested to the state line due to its location near Charlotte. In North Carolina, I-85 enters a rural area near Kings Mountain before entering the Gastonia and Charlotte areas.
In Charlotte, I-85 bypasses Charlotte Douglas International Airport and turns northeastward just before reaching uptown Charlotte. North of Charlotte, the highway passes near Concord, Salisbury and High Point before reaching Greensboro. At Greensboro, I-85 shifts away from downtown I-85 Business Loop. I-85 joins I-40 east of downtown, the two highways are cosigned as they pass through Burlington and Mebane separate near Hillsborough where I-40 turns toward Chapel Hill and Raleigh. After the split with I-40, I-85 continues to Durham, before turning northeastward through Oxford Henderson toward Virginia. Starting from the Virginia border, drivers will pass South Hill and McKenney before heading into a large forest. After the forest, I-85 reaches Petersburg and ends at I-95; the highway is cosigned with US 460 from a few miles west of Petersburg in Dinwiddie County to I-95. I-85 follows the same general path as US 1, as the two cross several times between the North Carolina border and the northern terminus outside Petersburg.
In the northern half of I-85, the route parallels an ancient Indian trading path documented since colonial times from Petersburg, Virginia, to the Catawba Indian territory. I-85 near Petersburg once formed the southern end of the Richmond–Petersburg Turnpike, completed in 1958; the tolls were removed in 1992. Before a 2010 decision to raise the speed limit in the state to 70 miles per hour, Virginia's portion of I-85 was the only Interstate Highway in the state with a posted speed limit greater than 65 miles per hour, it was raised from 65 to 70 mph on July 2006, by the state legislature. In 2004, I-85 was rerouted around Greensboro. I-40 ran with I-85 along the bypass to the southern/western end and I-40 continued on a new freeway alignment at exit 121 until September 2008, when it was rerouted back to its old alignment through the city. Despite its reroute around Greensboro, the overall length for I-85 in North Carolina remains the same as before. An extension o
Round Hand is a type of handwriting and calligraphy originating in England in the 1660s by the writing masters John Ayres and William Banson. Characterised by an open flowing hand and subtle contrast of thick and thin strokes deriving from metal pointed nibs, Round Hand's popularity grew becoming codified as a standard, through the publication of printed writing manuals. During the Renaissance, writing masters of the Apostolic Camera developed the italic cursiva script; when the Apostolic Camera was destroyed during the sack of Rome in 1527, many masters moved to Southern France where they began to refine the renaissance italic cursiva script into a new script, italic circumflessa. By the end of the 16th century, italic circumflessa began to replace italic cursiva. Italic circumflessa was further adapted into the French style rhonde in the early 17th century. By the mid-17th century, French officials were flooded with documents written in various hands at varied levels of skills and artistry.
As a result, officials began to complain that many such documents were beyond their ability to decipher. France's Controller-General of Finances took proposals from French writing masters of the time, the most influential being Louis Barbedor, who had published his Les Escritures financière et italienne-bastarde dans leur naturel, circa 1650. After examining the proposals, the Controller-General of Finances decided to restrict all legal documents to three hands, namely the Coulée, the Rhonde, a Speed Hand sometimes called Bastarde. In England, Edward Cocker had been publishing copybooks based upon French rhonde in the 1640s. In the 1680s, John Ayres and William Banson popularized their versions of rhonde after further refining and developing it into what had become known as English round hand style. In the 17th and 18th centuries, English writing masters including George Bickham, George Shelley and Charles Snell helped to propagate Round Hand's popularity, so that by the mid-18th century the Round Hand style had spread across Europe and crossed the Atlantic to North America.
The typefaces Snell Roundhand and Kuenstler Script are based on this style of handwriting. Charles Snell was noted for his reaction to other variants of roundhand, developing his own Snell Roundhand which emphasised restraint and proportionality in the script. Carter, Day, Meggs, Philip. Typographic Design: Form and Communication, Second Edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold, Inc: 1993 ISBN 0-442-00759-0. Fiedl, Nicholas Ott and Bernard Stein. Typography: An Encyclopedic Survey of Type Design and Techniques Through History. Black Dog & Leventhal: 1998. ISBN 1-57912-023-7. Macmillan, Neil. An A–Z of Type Designers. Yale University Press: 2006. ISBN 0-300-11151-7. Nesbitt, Alexander; the History and Technique of Lettering Dover Publications, Inc.: 1998. ISBN 0-486-40281-9; the Dover edition is an abridged and corrected republication of the work published in 1950 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. under the title Lettering: The History and Technique of Lettering as Design. Whalley, Joyce Irene; the Art of Calligraphy, Western Europe & America.
1980. Folger Shakespeare Library web page on round hand manuscripts Columbia Exhibition Chronicles The Evolution Of Handwriting Over Four Centuries
Bramalea Satellites was a member of the Ontario Rugby Football Union, a senior league that preceded the Canadian Football League. When the ORFU ceased, it transferred over to the Northern Football Conference for the 1973 and 1974 seasons, the Ontario junior level after that; the team name is in reference to Bramalea being a "satellite city", as opposed to an orbiting object. They were the East York Argos; the team practiced five evenings a week at Bramalea Secondary School, had cheerleaders. John Bennett came out of retirement to coach the team in their new location, having sat out the 1966 season, their team included John Bennett, a former McGill star, Doug McNichol, a former Montreal Alouette and Toronto Argonaut. On October 23, the London Lords gave them their first defeat in two years; the Satellites met the London Lords again at the 1967 ORFU championship, receiving a loss in the first of the two-game season, due to "over-confidence". Despite an illegal intrusion from the bench, the team won the championship, with a two-game total of 27-24.
The Lords filed an official protest with the league. In November 1967, the Chateauguay Ramblers faced off against the Satellites in the Eastern Football Conference finals in Montreal, winning 33-13. Before the Canadian Amateur Football Association senior championship versus the St. Vital Bulldogs, team vice-president Bob Orr publicly worried about when the "law of averages" would catch up with the team, having won 54 out of the previous 56 games, they won their fourth consecutive national win, at a "rain drenched" the Etobicoke Centennial Stadium, 4-0. The team expected; the Toronto Argonauts released eight season vet a mainstay of their punt return team. After the win and an injury on the Argos, he rejoined the CFL as a backup man to Mike Wickum, missing the Eastern and Canadian senior championships, their quarterback this season was John Henry Jackson. The team had a slow start, with their first win coming in their fifth game, beating Sarnia Imperials 39-0. By late September, the team was tied for second place with the St. Catherines Rams.
Having played with the Calgary Stampeders in 1967, Ed Aru spent the 1968 season with Bramalea, being drafted to the Argos in 1969. In mid-October, the team moved into a tie for first place in the league, with the St. Catherine Rams. Released at the start of the Canadian Football League season, Toronto Argonauts player Tom Johansen went to play with the Satellites; when Argos player Dave Mann was injured, he was "instantly" available to the Argos. As taxi squads weren't permitted by the CFL, this and halfback Dickie Moore's availability was questioned. Around a dozen former Argos played on the Bramalea team in the 1969 season. Both the London Lords and Bramalea Satellites applied to join the Northern Football Conference. In both the 1973 and 1974 seasons, the team was unbeaten, they beat the Sudbury Spartans for the James Pestolis Memorial Trophy and Donald Plaunt Memorial Trophy. Following three teams being declined for the 1975 season, the Satellites withdrew to compete at the Ontario junior level.
It was quite successful during its time in the NFC. Rick Morenz was the NFC's leading scorer in 1973, with 102, Stu Wright in 1974, with 127. Angelo Raggin was the Lineman of the Year in 1973, Buddy Bendall in 1974; the Sid Forster Memorial Coach of the Year went to Bubba Marriott in 1973. Morenz is the only NFC Hall of Fame player from Bramalea, being inducted in 1990, he holds the league's all-time Touchdowns - Rushing record, with six, in a 1973 game versus the North Bay Ti-Cats. The Satellites transferred to the Canadian Junior Football League's Ontario Football Conference in 1975. Players at this level are 17 to 22. Partway through the 1978 OFC season, the Lakeshore Bears and Scarborough Rams folded; the resulting realignment paired Brampton with the Oshawa Hawkeyes, Sarnia Golden Bears, Brantford Bisons, St. Catherines Raiders, considered by sports media as the weaker division. Brampton itself folded at the end of the season, with the two divisions combined, it holds no records