United States Reports
The United States Reports are the official record of the rulings, case tables, in alphabetical order both by the name of the petitioner and by the name of the respondent, other proceedings of the Supreme Court of the United States. United States Reports, once printed and bound, are the final version of court opinions and cannot be changed. Opinions of the court in each case are prepended with a headnote prepared by the Reporter of Decisions, any concurring or dissenting opinions are published sequentially; the Court's Publication Office oversees the binding and publication of the volumes of United States Reports, although the actual printing and publication are performed by private firms under contract with the United States Government Publishing Office. For lawyers, citations to United States Reports are the standard reference for Supreme Court decisions. Following The Bluebook, a accepted citation protocol, the case Brown, et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, for example, would be cited as: Brown v. Bd. of Educ.
347 U. S. 483. This citation indicates that the decision of the Court in the case entitled Brown v. Board of Education, as abbreviated in Bluebook style, was decided in 1954 and can be found in volume 347 of the United States Reports starting on page 483; the early volumes of the United States Reports were published by the individual Supreme Court Reporters. As was the practice in England, the reports were designated by the names of the reporters who compiled them: Dallas's Reports, Cranch's Reports, etc; the decisions appearing in the entire first volume and most of the second volume of United States Reports are not decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Instead, they are decisions from various Pennsylvania courts, dating from the colonial period and the first decade after Independence. Alexander Dallas, a lawyer and journalist, of Philadelphia, had been in the business of reporting these cases for newspapers and periodicals, he subsequently began compiling his case reports in a bound volume, which he called Reports of cases ruled and adjudged in the courts of Pennsylvania and since the Revolution.
This would come to be known as the first volume of Dallas Reports. When the United States Supreme Court, along with the rest of the new Federal Government moved, in 1791, from New York City to the nation's temporary capital in Philadelphia, Dallas was appointed the Supreme Court's first unofficial, unpaid, Supreme Court Reporter. Dallas continued to publish Pennsylvania decisions in a second volume of his Reports; when the Supreme Court began hearing cases, he added those cases to his reports, starting towards the end of the second volume, 2 Dallas Reports, with West v. Barnes. Dallas went on to publish a total of four volumes of decisions during his tenure as Reporter; when the Supreme Court moved to Washington, D. C. in 1800, Dallas remained in Philadelphia, William Cranch took over as unofficial reporter of decisions. In 1817, Congress made the Reporter of Decisions an official, salaried position, although the publication of the Reports remained a private enterprise for the reporter's personal gain.
The reports themselves were the subject of an early copyright case, Wheaton v. Peters, in which former reporter Henry Wheaton sued current reporter Richard Peters for reprinting cases from Wheaton's Reports in abridged form. In 1874, the U. S. government began creating the United States Reports. The earlier, private reports were retroactively numbered volumes 1–90 of the United States Reports, starting from the first volume of Dallas Reports. Therefore, decisions appearing in these early reports have dual citation forms: one for the volume number of the United States Reports. For example, the complete citation to McCulloch v. Maryland is 17 U. S. 316. Reporter of Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States Lists of United States Supreme Court cases by volume National Reporter System United States Supreme Court: Information About Opinions United States Supreme Court: Bound Volumes – Lists of PDFs Torrents of United States Reports 502–550
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
State governments of the United States
State governments of the United States are institutional units in the United States exercising some of the functions of government at a level below that of the federal government. Each state's government holds legislative and judicial authority over a defined geographic territory; the United States comprises 50 states: 13 that were part of the United States at the time the present Constitution took effect in 1789, plus 37 that have been admitted since by Congress as authorized under Article IV, Section 3 of the Constitution. While each state government within the United States holds legal and administrative jurisdiction within its bounds, they are not sovereign in the Westphalian sense in international law which says that each State has sovereignty over its territory and domestic affairs, to the exclusion of all external powers, on the principle of non-interference in another State's domestic affairs, that each State is equal in international law. Additionally, the member states of the United States do not possess international legal sovereignty, meaning that they are not recognized by other sovereign States such as, for example, Germany or the United Kingdom, nor do they possess full interdependence sovereignty, meaning that they cannot control movement of persons across state borders.
The idea of "dual sovereignty" or "separate sovereigns" is derived from the 10th Amendment to the Constitution, which states that "the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States or to the people." Structured in accordance with state law, state governments share the same structural model as the federal system, with three branches of government—executive and judicial. The governments of the 13 states that formed the original Union under the Constitution trace their roots back to the British royal charters which established them. Most of the states admitted to the Union after the original 13 have been formed from organized territories established and governed by Congress in accord with its plenary power under Article IV, Section 3, Clause 2 of the Constitution. Six subsequent states were never an organized territory of the federal government, or part of one, before being admitted to the Union. Three were set off from an existing state: Kentucky and West Virginia.
Two were sovereign states at the time of their admission: Texas, Vermont. One was established from unorganized territory: California; the legislative branch of the U. S. states consists of state legislatures. Every state except for Nebraska has a bicameral legislature; the unicameral Nebraska Legislature is called the "Senate", its members are called "Senators". In the majority of states, the state legislature is called "Legislature." Another 19 states call their legislature "General Assembly". Two states use the term "Legislative Assembly", while another two use the term "General Court". In the 49 bicameral legislatures, the upper house is called the "Senate"; until 1964, state senators were elected from districts that were not equal in population. In some cases state senate districts were based on county lines. However, in the 1964 decision Reynolds v. Sims, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that, unlike the United States Senate, state senates must be elected from districts of equal population. In 40 of the 49 bicameral state legislatures, the lower house is called the "House of Representatives".
The name "House of Delegates" is used in Maryland and West Virginia. California and Wisconsin call their lower house the "State Assembly", while Nevada and New York call the lower house the "Assembly". New Jersey calls its lower house the "General Assembly"; the executive branch of every state is headed by an elected Governor. Most states have a plural executive, in which several key members of the executive branch are directly elected by the people and serve alongside the governor; these include the offices of lieutenant governor and attorney general, secretary of state, treasurer, commissioner of agriculture, commissioner of education, commissioner of insurance. Each state government is free to organize its executive departments and agencies in any way it likes; this has resulted in substantial diversity among the states with regard to every aspect of how their governments are organized. Most state governments traditionally use the department as the standard highest-level component of the executive branch, in that the secretary of a department is considered to be a member of the governor's cabinet and serves as the main interface between the governor and all agencies in his or her assigned portfolio.
A department in turn consists of several divisions, and/or agencies. A state government may include various boards, councils, offices, or authorities, which may either be subordinate to an existing department or division, or independent altogether. A few of the most populous or oldest states have run into ser
United States Department of Commerce and Labor
The United States Department of Commerce and Labor was a short-lived Cabinet department of the United States government, concerned with controlling the excesses of big business. It was created on February 1903, during the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt. Investigations were the province of its Bureau of Corporations; the department was renamed the Department of Commerce on March 4, 1913, its bureaus and agencies specializing in labor were transferred to the new Department of Labor. In 1915, the Bureau of Corporations was spun off as an independent agency, the Federal Trade Commission The United States Secretary of Commerce and Labor was the head of the department; the secretary was a member of the President's Cabinet. Corresponding with the division of the department in 1913, the Secretary of Commerce and Labor's position was divided into separate positions of United States Secretary of Commerce and United States Secretary of Labor. In 2011, in response to federal budget-cutting efforts, Senator Richard Burr, sponsored S. 1116, a proposal to re-combine two departments as the "Department of Commerce and the Workforce".
To date no action on this proposal has been taken beyond referral to committee. Parties Republican United States Bureau of Fisheries, a component of the U. S. Department of Commerce and Labor "Labor and Commerce, Department of". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
New International Encyclopedia
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia and was updated in 1906, 1914 and 1926; the New International Encyclopedia was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia. The International Cyclopaedia was a reprint of Alden's Library of Universal Knowledge, a reprint of the British Chambers's Encyclopaedia; the title was changed to The New International Encyclopedia in 1902, with editors Harry Thurston Peck, Daniel Coit Gilman, Frank Moore Colby. The encyclopedia was popular and reprints were made in 1904, 1905, 1907, 1909 and 1911; the 2nd edition appeared from 1914 to 1917 in 24 volumes. With Peck and Gilman deceased, Colby was joined by Talcott Williams; this edition was set up from new type and revised. It was strong in biography. A third edition was published in 1923, however this was a reprint with the addition of a history of the First World War in volume 24, a reading and study guide.
A two-volume supplement was published in 1925 and was incorporated into the 1927 reprint, which had 25 volumes. A further two volumes supplement in 1930 along with another reprint; the final edition was published in 1935, now under the Wagnalls label. This edition included another updating supplement, authored by Herbert Treadwell Wade; some material from the The New International would be incorporated into future books published by Funk and Wagnall's books such as Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopaedia. The 1926 material was printed in Massachusetts, by Yale University Press. Boston Bookbinding Company of Cambridge produced the covers. Thirteen books enclosing 23 volumes comprise the encyclopedia, which includes a supplement after Volume 23; each book contains about 1600 pages. Like other encyclopedias of the time, The New International had a yearly supplement, The New International Yearbook, beginning in 1908. Like the encyclopedia itself, this publication was sold to Funk and Wagnalls in 1931.
It was edited by Frank Moore Colby until his death in 1925, by Wade. In 1937 Frank Horace Vizetelly became editor; the yearbook outlasted the parent encyclopedia, running to 1966. More than 500 men and women submitted and composed the information contained in the The New International Encyclopedia. Walsh, S. P.. Anglo-American general encyclopedias: a historical bibliography, 1703–1967. New York: Bowker. OCLC 577541. Works related to The New International Encyclopedia at Wikisource
49th United States Congress
The Forty-ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1885, to March 4, 1887, during the first two years of Grover Cleveland's first presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Tenth Census of the United States in 1880; the Senate had a Republican majority, the House had a Democratic majority. March 4, 1885: Grover Cleveland became President of the United States November 25, 1885: Vice President Thomas A. Hendricks died January 1886: Presidential Succession Act of 1886, ch. 4, 24 Stat. 1 February 3, 1887: Electoral Count Act, ch. 90, 24 Stat. 373 February 4, 1887: Interstate Commerce Act, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379 February 8, 1887: Indian General Allotment Act, ch. 119, 24 Stat. 388 March 2, 1887: Agricultural Experiment Stations Act of 1887 March 2, 1887: Hatch Act of 1887, ch.
314, 24 Stat. 440 March 3, 1887: Tucker Act, ch. 359, 24 Stat. 505 March 3, 1887: Edmunds–Tucker Act, ch. 397 24 Stat. 635 The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. Democratic: 182 Republican: 141 National Greenback: 1 Independent Democratic: 1TOTAL members: 325 President: Thomas A. Hendricks, until November 25, 1885. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1886; the names of members of the House of Representatives are listed by district. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 7 Democratic: 1 seat net gain Republican: 1 seat net loss Liberal Republican: 1 seat net loss deaths: 3 resignations: 6 interim appointments: 1 Total seats with changes: 9 replacements: 11 Democratic: 2 seat net gain Republican: 2 seat net loss deaths: 8 resignations: 7 contested election: 1 Total seats with changes: 16 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Additional Accommodations for the Library of Congress Agriculture and Forestry Appropriations Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Civil Service and Retrenchment Claims Coast Defenses Commerce Compensation of Members of Congress Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Education and Labor Engrossed Bills Enrolled Bills Epidemic Diseases Examine the Several Branches in the Civil Service Executive Departments Methods Expenditures of Public Money Finance Fisheries Foreign Relations Indian Affairs Indian Traders Interstate Commerce Judiciary Library Manufactures Military Affairs Mines and Mining Mississippi River and its Tributaries Naval Affairs Nicaraguan Claims Ordnance and War Ships Patents Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Potomac River Front Printing Private Land Claims Privileges and Elections Public Buildings and Grounds Public Lands Railroads Revision of the Laws Revolutionary Claims Rules Tariff Regulation Tenth Census Territories Transportation Routes to the Seaboard Whole Woman Suffrage Accounts Admission to the Floor Agriculture Alcoholic Liquor Traffic American Ship building Appropriations Banking and Currency Claims Coinage and Measures Commerce District of Columbia Education Elections Enrolled Bills Expenditures in the Interior Department Expenditures in the Justice Department Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Labor Levees and Improvements of the Mississippi River Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Mines and Mining Naval Affairs Pacific Railroads Patents Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Lands Railways and Canals Revision of Laws Rivers and Harbors Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories War Claims Ways and Means Whole Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special
History of rail transport in the United States
This article is part of the history of rail transport by country series. Wooden railroads, called wagonways, were built in the United States starting from the 1720s. A railroad was used in the construction of the French fortress at Louisburg, Nova Scotia, in New France in 1720. Between 1762 and 1764, at the close of the French and Indian War, a gravity railroad is built by British military engineers up the steep riverside terrain near the Niagara River waterfall's escarpment at the Niagara Portage in Lewiston, New York. Railroads played a large role in the development of the United States from the industrial revolution in the North-east to the settlement of the West; the American railroad mania began with the founding of the first passenger and freight line in the nation of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1827 and the "Laying of the First Stone" ceremonies and beginning of its long construction heading westward over the obstacles of the Appalachian Mountains eastern chain the following year of 1828, flourished with continuous railway building projects for the next 45 years until the financial Panic of 1873 followed by a major economic depression bankrupted many companies and temporarily stymied and ended growth.
Although the antebellum South started early to build railways, it concentrated on short lines linking cotton regions to oceanic or river ports, the absence of an interconnected network was a major handicap during the Civil War. The North and Midwest constructed networks. In the settled Midwestern Corn Belt, over 80 percent of farms were within 5 miles of a railway, facilitating the shipment of grain and cattle to national and international markets. A large number of short lines were built, but thanks to a fast developing financial system based on Wall Street and oriented to railway bonds, the majority were consolidated into 20 trunk lines by 1890. State and local governments subsidized lines, but owned them; the system was built by 1910, but trucks arrived to eat away the freight traffic, automobiles to devour the passenger traffic. After 1940, the use of diesel electric locomotives made for much more efficient operations that needed fewer workers on the road and in repair shops. A series of bankruptcies and consolidations left the rail system in the hands of a few large operations by the 1980s.
All long-distance passenger traffic was shifted to Amtrak in 1971, a government-owned operation. Commuter rail service is provided near a few major cities such as New York, Boston, Philadelphia and the District of Columbia. Computerization and improved equipment reduced employment, which peaked at 2.1 million in 1920, falling to 1.2 million in 1950 and 215,000 in 2010. Route mileage peaked at 254,251 miles in 1916 and fell to 139,679 miles in 2011. Freight railroads continue to play an important role in the United States' economy for moving imports and exports using containers, for shipments of coal and, since 2010, of oil. According to the British news magazine The Economist, "They are universally recognized in the industry as the best in the world." Productivity rose 172% between 1981 and 2000, while rates rose 55%. Rail's share of the American freight market rose to the highest for any rich country. A railroad was used in the construction of the French fortress at Louisburg, Nova Scotia in 1720.
Between 1762 and 1764, at the close of the French and Indian War, a gravity railroad is built by British military engineers up the steep riverside terrain near the Niagara River waterfall's escarpment at the Niagara Portage in Lewiston, New York. The animal powered Leiper Railroad followed in 1810 after the preceding successful experiment—designed and built by merchant Thomas Leiper, the railway connects Crum Creek to Ridley Creek, in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, it was used until 1829, when it was temporarily replaced by the Leiper Canal is reopened to replace the canal in 1852. This became the Crum Creek Branch of the Baltimore and Philadelphia Railroad in 1887; this is the first railroad meant to be permanent, the first to evolve into trackage of a common carrier after an intervening closure. In 1826 Massachusetts incorporated the Granite Railway as a common freight carrier to haul granite for the construction of the Bunker Hill Monument. Other railroads authorized by states in 1826 and constructed in the following years included the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company's gravity railroad.
To link the port of Baltimore to the Ohio River, the state of Maryland in 1827 chartered the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the first section of which opened in 1830. The South Carolina Canal and Railroad Company was chartered in 1827 to connect Charleston to the Savannah River, Pennsylvania built the Main Line of Public Works between Philadelphia and the Ohio River; the Americans followed and copied British railroad technology. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was the first common carrier and started passenger train service in May 1830 using horses to pull train cars; the South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company was the first to use steam locomotives beginning with the Best Friend of Charleston, the first American-built locomotive intended for