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Intertextuality

Intertextuality is the shaping of a text's meaning by another text. It is the interconnection between similar or related works of literature that reflect and influence an audience's interpretation of the text. Intertextuality is the relation between texts that are inflicted by means of quotations and allusion. Intertextual figures include: allusion, calque, translation and parody. Intertextuality is a literary device that creates an'interrelationship between texts' and generates related understanding in separate works; these references are made to influence the reader and add layers of depth to a text, based on the readers' prior knowledge and understanding. The structure of intertextuality in turn depends on the structure of influence. Intertextuality is a literary discourse strategy utilised by writers in novels, theatre and in non-written texts. Examples of intertextuality are an author's borrowing and transformation of a prior text, a reader's referencing of one text in reading another. Intertextuality does not require citing or referencing punctuation and is mistaken for plagiarism.

Intertextuality can be produced in texts using a variety of functions including allusion and referencing. It has two types: typological intertextuality. Referential intertextuality refers to the use of fragments in texts and the typological intertextuality refers to the use of pattern and structure in typical texts. However, intertextuality can be utilised inadvertently. There are two types of Intertextuality: presupposition. Iterability makes reference to the "repeatability" of certain text, composed of "traces", pieces of other texts that help constitute its meaning. Presupposition makes a reference to assumptions a text makes about its context; as philosopher William Irwin wrote, the term "has come to have as many meanings as users, from those faithful to Julia Kristeva's original vision to those who use it as a stylish way of talking about allusion and influence". Julia Kristeva was the first to coin the term "intertextuality" in an attempt to synthesize Ferdinand de Saussure's semiotics—his study of how signs derive their meaning within the structure of a text—with Bakhtin's dialogism—his theory which suggests a continual dialogue with other works of literature and other authors—and his examination of the multiple meanings, or "heteroglossia", in each text and in each word.

For Kristeva, "the notion of intertextuality replaces the notion of intersubjectivity" when we realize that meaning is not transferred directly from writer to reader but instead is mediated through, or filtered by, "codes" imparted to the writer and reader by other texts. For example, when we read James Joyce's Ulysses we decode it as a modernist literary experiment, or as a response to the epic tradition, or as part of some other conversation, or as part of all of these conversations at once; this intertextual view of literature, as shown by Roland Barthes, supports the concept that the meaning of a text does not reside in the text, but is produced by the reader in relation not only to the text in question, but the complex network of texts invoked in the reading process. While the theoretical concept of intertextuality is associated with post-modernism, the device itself is not new. New Testament passages quote from the Old Testament and Old Testament books such as Deuteronomy or the prophets refer to the events described in Exodus.

Whereas a redaction critic would use such intertextuality to argue for a particular order and process of the authorship of the books in question, literary criticism takes a synchronic view that deals with the texts in their final form, as an interconnected body of literature. This interconnected body extends to poems and paintings that refer to Biblical narratives, just as other texts build networks around Greek and Roman Classical history and mythology. Bullfinch's 1855 work. Sometimes intertextuality is taken as plagiarism as in the case of Spanish writer Lucía Etxebarria whose poem collection Estación de infierno was found to contain metaphors and verses from Antonio Colinas. Etxebarria claimed that she applied intertextuality. More recent post-structuralist theory, such as that formulated in Daniela Caselli's Beckett's Dantes: Intertextuality in the Fiction and Criticism, re-examines "intertextuality" as a production within texts, rather than as a series of relationships between different texts.

Some postmodern theorists like to talk about the relationship between "intertextuality" and "hypertextuality". The World-Wide Web has been theorized as a unique realm of reciprocal intertextuality, in which no particular text can claim centrality, yet the Web text produces an image of a community—the group of people who write and read the text using specific discursive strategies. One can make distinctions between the notions of "intertext", "hypertext" and "supertex

Hotel Royal, Aarhus

Hotel Royal is a historic hotel in the heart of Aarhus, Denmark, in the central Indre By neighborhood. It overlooks the large Store Torv square; the hotel is among the highest ranked hotels in Denmark with a history as the most prestigious in the city. The hotel, which today has 64 rooms, was founded in 1838 by the innkeeper Niels Larsen from Odense; the new hotel was constructed from two existing buildings overlooking Aarhus' central square. It established a reputation for luxury with clients including royalty, writers, film stars and singers, it became the foremost hotel in the place for local high society to socialize. The hotel was constructed in 1838 from two existing buildings in Neoclassical style. One of the two buildings was the King's House, the inspiration for the name of the hotel. At the time there was only one other place for lodging in the city and Hotel Royal became a popular destination. In 1881 the hotel was expanded with an extra floor and the facade was renovated in 1865 and 1868.

In 1902 a new building was added by designs of Thorkel Møller. The new building replaced half of the hotel; the original owner and founder of the hotel was the innkeeper Niels Larsen from Odense. Niels Larsen died in 1838 and left the hotel to his son Frederik Larsen who managed it until 1873 when he sold it to his brother Carl Larsen and the restaurateur Anders Vincent. In 1876 Carl Larsen became the sole proprietor but in 1894 he sold it to his brother's son Viggo Frederik Sofus Larsen; the hotel stayed in the family another 3 years until it was sold to a commercial entity in 1897. The hotel catered from the beginning offered a number of services; when horses were the preferred means of transportation the hotel had stables, when the first rail connection to Randers was opened in 1862 the hotel acquired a horse drawn bus to shuttle guests between the railway station until 1907. When cars became popular fueling and cleaning services was offered. In 1913 the Marble Room was built as a restaurant and it became the social focal point for the upper classes in the city.

In 1938 the hotel was renovated again. Through the economic crisis of the 1970s the hotel was threatened by bankruptcy and a number of new activities were attempted. In 1972 the Marble Room became home to the jazz club Royal Birdland which managed to attract international artists such as Count Basie and Duke Ellington, it was a shortlived experiment which ended in 1973 and was replaced by other attempts such as a cinema and discoteque, all which closed again after a few years. In 1983 the hotel changed owners again and was renovated again and the Queens Garden was built and today functions as a restaurant. In 1991 a casino opened in the former Marble Room in the basement; the hotel was owned by Jens Richard Pedersen in 2016. The hotel appears as an intricately decorated Neoclassical white structure. In 1991 a casino was established during an extensive renovation by the architects company 3XN; the new establishment was made visible with a new entrance. The design merges past and present with a windbreak of glass with a fan-shaped roof carried by columns and 3 copper caryatids made by local artist Hans Oldau Krull.

The design is reminiscent of the art déco entrances of the early 20th century metro stations in Paris. Hotel Royal has some 300 art works by different artists such as Asger Jorn, Karel Appel, Joan Miró, Wassily Kandinsky and older genre paintings by Wennewald, Høyrup and Friis Hansen, Åge Jensen, Frederik Madsen, Alex Secher and Adolf Larsen. There are newer art works by artists, good friends of the hotel such as Jørgen Nash, his wife Lis Zwick, Teddy Sørensen, Tine Hind, Margit Enggaard Pedersen, Lene Noer, Axel Lind, Bent Holstein, Karl Johan Sennels, Hans Krull and Per Kramer along with works by multimedia artists such as Johnny Madsen and Peter Viskinde; the most prolific artist is the Polish painter Andrzej Kowalczyk who has made many of the ceiling paintings and paintings along the main staircase depicting important events in the history of the city such as the inauguration of Aarhus Cathedral, establishment of Aarhus Katedralskole in 1520 and a panorama painting of Aarhus. The walls in the hotel feature paintings of the 53 Danish kings and queens going back to Gorm the Old.

Official website

Henrietta, Texas

Henrietta is a city in and the county seat of Clay County, United States. It is part of the Wichita Falls metropolitan statistical area; the population was 3,141 at the 2010 census, a decline of 123 from the 2000 tabulation of 3,264. Henrietta is one of the oldest settled towns in north central Texas, it sits at the crossroads of U. S. Highway 287, U. S. Highway 82, State Highway 148, Farm to Market Road 1197 in north central Clay County. Clay and Montague counties were separated in 1857 from Cooke County to the east, Henrietta was named as the county seat; the naming of the town remains a mystery. Regardless of the origin of its name, Henrietta became the center of gravity for the fledgling county. In 1860, as the only town in the county, it had 109 residents, 10 houses, a general store, it sat at the far western edge of Anglo expansion in north-central Texas, but Native Americans remained a viable threat to current and future settlers. In 1862, Henrietta opened its post office. In the early 1860s, there were continuous attacks from local tribes.

By late 1862, Henrietta was abandoned, white settlers returned east to Cooke and Montague counties. Remaining structures were burned. Anglos continued to attempt resettlement, in 1865 after the Civil War, a group attempting resettlement was massacred. A number of Quakers attempted to reoccupy the former townsite, but its members were either killed or fled. In 1870, fifty soldiers and Kiowa Indians fought a battle in the ruins of Henrietta. After the battle, white settlers returned to Henrietta, this time permanently. In 1874, the post office reopened, Henrietta became the economic hub of north-central Texas. In 1882, the Fort Worth and Denver Railway reached Henrietta on its southern side, in 1887, Henrietta became the westernmost terminus for the Gainesville and Western Railway. In 1895, the Wichita Falls Railway, one of the properties of Joseph A. Kemp and Frank Kell, linked Henrietta with Wichita Falls; this particular track was abandoned in 1970. MK&T built in Wichita Falls a station, offices, a roundhouse, three switching tracks.

After heavy lobbying by businessmen, Henrietta became a logistical supply point for various operations in north-central Texas, including mining in Foard and Archer counties. The Southwestern Railway Company in 1910 completed a rail linking Henrietta with Archer City. Though it had been settled earlier, Henrietta did not incorporate until 1881; the Clay County courthouse is still in use. By 1890, the population had reached 2,100, the town boasted a 400-seat opera house, five churches, a new jailhouse, a school. From 1893 to 1895, it had a college - Henrietta Normal College - for the training of teachers, it remained the economic hub of the county at the turn of the 20th century. The St. Elmo Hotel, established about 1895 in Henrietta, had among its guests Quanah Parker, who married two of his wives there, U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt, when he toured the North Texas area; when the top floors of the hotel burned, the facility closed and never reopened. A portion of the lower floor now houses an antiques store.

The growth of Henrietta waned in the 20th century as Wichita Falls grew into the most prosperous economic center in the area. The Southwestern Railway line was abandoned in 1920, the Gainesville and Western Railway line closed in 1969. By 1990, the population remained under 3,000. In 2000, it topped 3,000 for the first time since the 1970 census. In many ways, Henrietta is a "bedroom community" for Wichita Falls but is still the largest city in Clay County; the play Texas presented during summers at the Palo Duro Canyon near Amarillo is loosely based on the history of Henrietta. The 1995 film, The Stars Fell on Henrietta, produced by Clint Eastwood and David Valdez, starring Robert Duvall, Brian Dennehy and Billy Bob Thornton, depicts the Texas oil rush of the 1930s and is set in Henrietta. Henrietta is located near the center of Clay County at 33°49′N 98°12′W, it is 20 miles southeast of Wichita Falls, 28 miles northwest of Bowie, 95 miles northwest of Fort Worth. According to the United States Census Bureau, Henrietta has a total area of 5.2 square miles, of which 5.1 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 1.98%, is water.

As of the census of 2000, there were 3,264 people, 1,308 households, 893 families residing in the city. The population density was 694.8 people per square mile. There were 1,460 housing units at an average density of 310.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.89% White, 0.89% African American, 1.04% Native American, 0.98% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.94% of the population. There were 1,308 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,835, the median income for a family was $40,797. Ma

Djerfisherite

Djerfisherite is an alkali copper–iron sulfide mineral and a member of the djerfisherite group. It has the chemical formula K6Na25S26Cl, its type locality is Malawi. It was first described in 1966 and named after professor Daniel Jerome Fisher, University of Chicago, it has been reported from meteorites, copper-nickel hydrothermal deposits, pegmatite and alkalic intrusive complexes. Associated minerals include kamacite, schreibersite, tridymite, daubreelite, roedderite, talnakhite, chalcopyrite, valleriite and platinum minerals

Terre Blair

Terre Blair is a former broadcast journalist and producer, having worked for television networks ABC, NBC, CBS and PBS. She was married to three time Oscar-winning composer Marvin Hamlisch from 1989 until his death in 2012; as a young woman, she earned national recognition as Miss Columbus USA. She is most notable for her work and creative direction as the on-air host and producer of the television series “Big Problems Big Thinkers”, broadcast on Bloomberg TV. Blair is from Columbus, a graduate of Otterbein College, she attended Ohio State University as a post-graduate. As a young woman, Blair competed in beauty contests, earned national recognition as Miss Columbus USA. Blair is a former correspondent and producer for The TODAY Show and PM Magazine, as well as ABC Wide World of Sports, Monday Night Football The New York Times headlined her as a female reporter who “breaks a pattern.” She was an on-air host, interviewer and creative director of the television series, “Big Problems Big Thinkers”, broadcast on Bloomberg TV.

It was “the first television show to premiere a full episode on a Times Square billboard using closed captioning at the same time the live TV show is airing.”

The Silence (song)

"The Silence" is a song by British singer Alexandra Burke from her debut studio album Overcome. The song was written by Bilal Hajji and Savan Kotecha, along with the song's producer Nadir "RedOne" Khayat; the song was released as a promotional single in anticipation of the re-release of Overcome. Burke stated that the song was written when her aunt told the singer about how she and her partner were experiencing troubles in their relationship, that they were not telling each other how they felt. In response, Burke asked her aunt why he was letting the silence in their relationship do the talking instead of them discussing it. "The Silence" is an R&B and pop-influenced power ballad and instrumentation consists of a piano, a guitar and drums. The lyrics of the song feature the protagonist asking why the other person in the relationship remains silent about their difficulties instead of talking about them; the song garnered positive reviews from music critics. It received comparisons to songs by Bonnie Tyler, Beyoncé Knowles and Leona Lewis.

Upon the release of Overcome, the song debuted at number 95 on the UK Singles Chart on the strength of digital download sales. A year when released as a promotional single, it peaked at number 16 on the chart, it peaked inside the top thirty on the singles charts in Hungary and Scotland, peaked at number 66 in Switzerland. An accompanying music video was shot in black and white, it features Burke in a variety of different stylized sets in different dresses. The singer has performed the song on The X Factor, it was included on the set list of her All Night Long Tour. After the release and success of the lead single "Bad Boys" from her debut album Overcome in October 2009, the singer released "Broken Heels" as the second single in January 2010, with the intention of releasing "The Silence" as the album's third single. However, a remix single version of "All Night Long" featuring Pitbull was released as the third single from the album instead in May 2010. On 25 October 2010, Burke announced via Twitter that "The Silence" would be the final song to be released from Overcome, writing "Some of you might be surprised at my choice of next single and some of you guys will be happy."

The song was re-recorded with a new vocal for inclusion on the re-release of the album, entitled "The Silence". In an interview with Eamonn Holmes for Sky News Sunrise in December 2010, Burke stated that "The Silence" was released as a promotional single for the re-release of Overcome and for Christmas. During an interview talking about the song for Virgin Media in December 2010, Burke stated that "The Silence" is a "very special song" and that despite it being a "very emotional song to sing", it is one of her most favourite songs on Overcome. "The Silence" is a power ballad, which lasts for a duration of 35 seconds. It draws influence from the music genre of R&B and pop, while instrumentation consists of a piano, a guitar and drums; the song is written in the key of A minor and is set in simple time with a metronome of 76 beats per minute. Burke's vocal range in the song spans from the low note of F3 to the high note of F5. In an interview with Peter Andre on The Paul O'Grady Show on 3 November 2009, Burke explained the meaning of the songs lyrics, saying "I'm sure everyone has been in that situation where you are in a relationship, it might not be going so well and you kinda want your other half to speak out and say what is on their mind, I've had relationships like that."

Burke continued to explain that when she was in the recording studio with RedOne, her Aunt was experiencing problems in her relationship which related to the lyrics in "The Silence," and that she felt that her Aunt's partner should not "let the silence do the talking? Why doesn't he let you know how he feels?," and that "The Silence" was written as a result. The songs begins with the lyrics "Oh, you lift me up." "The Silence" garnered positive reviews from music critics. Al Fox for BBC Music described the song as "a gargantuan power ballad" and that it displays Burke's "rich and emotive vocals." Fox compared the song to the work of Bonnie Tyler and Beyoncé. Nick Levine for Digital Spy wrote that Overcome features ballads which are reminiscent to songs performed by previous X Factor winner Leona Lewis, with regard to "The Silence" and the title track "Overcome." Upon the release of Overcome, "The Silence" debuted on the UK Singles Chart at number 95 in the chart issue dated 31 October 2009. Upon its release as a promotional single in December 2010, it re-entered the singles chart at number 126 on 11 December 2010, leaped to its peak of number 16 the following week.

In the chart issue dated 25 December 2010, the song fell twenty positions to number 36. "The Silence" leaped from number 125 to number 13 on the UK Digital Chart. The following week, it dropped to number 35. In Scotland, the song peaked at number 16 on the Scottish Singles Chart on 18 December 2010; the following week, it descended to number 37. "The Silence" debuted and peaked at number 30 on the Irish Singles Chart on 9 December 2010. The following week, it dropped to number 35; the song debuted and peaked on the Swiss Singles Chart at number 66 on 12 December 2010, fell to number 69 the following week. A month the song re-entered the chart at number 72 on 23 January 2011 for one week. In Hungary, the song peaked at number 26; the music video for "The Silence" was directed by Nzingha Stewart before the video for "All Night Long" was shot. The video was shot in black and white, features Burke in different outfits and dresses, as well as in a variety of sets with props, it begins with a couple of establishing shots of Bu