|Nickname(s): Walled City|
Motto(s): Insigne y siempre leal Ciudad de Manila|
Distinguished and ever loyal City of Manila"
|Region||National Capital Region|
|Congressional District||5th District of Manila|
|Settled||June 12, 1571|
|Founded by||Miguel López de Legazpi|
|• Administrator of Intramuros||Guiller Asido|
|• Total||0.67 km2 (0.26 sq mi)|
|• Density||8,900/km2 (23,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+08:00 (Philippine Standard Time)|
Intramuros (Latin for "within the walls") is the 0.67 square kilometers (0.26 sq mi) historic walled area within the modern city of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration, which was created through the Presidential Decree No. 1616 signed on April 10, 1979.
Intramuros is also called the Walled City, and at the time of the Spanish Colonial Period was synonymous to the City of Manila. Other towns and arrables (suburbs) located beyond the walls are referred to as "extramuros", the Spanish for "outside the walls". It was the seat of government and political power when the Philippines was a component realm of the Spanish Empire. It was also the center of religion, education and economy. The standard way of life in Intramuros became the standard way of life throughout the Philippines. The Manila Galleons which sailed the Pacific for 250 years, carried goods to and from Intramuros (Manila) and Acapulco, Mexico.
Construction of the defensive walls was started by the Spanish colonial government in the late 16th century to protect the city from foreign invasions. The Walled City was originally located along the shores of the Manila Bay, south of the entrance to Pasig River. Guarding the old city is Fort Santiago, its citadel located at the mouth of the river. Land reclamations during the early 20th century subsequently obscured the walls and fort from the bay. The Battle of Manila in 1945 devastated Intramuros. It is the place where the occupying Japanese Imperial Army made their last stand against Allied soldiers and Filipino guerillas. The battle destroyed its churches, universities, houses, and government buildings, most of which dated back to the Spanish Colonial Period.
Intramuros, particularly the Fort Santiago, was designated as a National Historical Landmark in 1951. The Intramuros Administration, created through Presidential Decree No. 1616 that was signed on April 10, 1979, is tasked to rebuild, redevelop, administer and preserve remaining buildings, structures and fortifications of Intramuros. San Agustin Church, a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the Baroque Churches of the Philippines, is located within Intramuros.
- 1 History
- 2 Cityscape
- 3 City walls
- 4 Gates
- 5 Present day Intramuros
- 6 Structures before and after World War II
- 7 Barangays
- 8 Intramuros Administration
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Sources
- 12 External links
The strategic location of Manila along the bay and at the mouth of Pasig River made it an ideal location for the Tagalog and Kapampangan tribes and kingdoms to trade with merchants from what would be today's China, India, Borneo, and Indonesia.
Before the first arrival of Europeans on Luzon island, the island was part of the Hindu Majapahit empire around the 14th century, according to the epic eulogy poem Nagarakretagama which described its conquest by Mahārāja Hayam Wuruk. The region was invaded around 1485 by Sultan Bolkiah and became a part of the Sultanate of Brunei. The site of Intramuros then became a part of the Islamic Kingdom of Maynila a Bruneian puppet-state ruled by Rajah Sulayman, a Muslim Rajah who swore fealty to the Sultan of Brunei.
Spanish Colonial Period (1571-1898)
Spanish conquest of Manila (1571-1762)
In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi sailed from New Spain (now Mexico), and arrived on the island of Cebu on February 13, 1565, establishing the first Spanish colony in the Philippines. Having heard from the natives about the rich resources in Manila, Legazpi dispatched two of his lieutenant-commanders, Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo, to explore the island of Luzon. The Spaniards arrived on the island of Luzon in 1570. After quarrels and misunderstandings between the Muslim natives and the Spaniards, they fought for control of the land and settlements. After several months of warfare the natives were defeated, and the Spaniards made a peace pact with the councils of Rajah Sulaiman III, Lakan Dula, and Rajah Matanda who handed over Manila to the Spaniards.
Legazpi declared the area of Manila as the new capital of the Spanish colony on June 24, 1571, because of its strategic location and rich
resources. He also proclaimed the sovereignty of the Monarchy of Spain over the whole archipelago. King Philip II of Spain delighted at the new conquest achieved by Legazpi and his men, awarding the city a coat of arms and declaring it as: Ciudad Insigne y Siempre Leal (English: "Distinguished and Ever Loyal City"). It was settled and became the political, military, and religious center of the Spanish Empire in Asia.
Construction of the city walls
The city was in constant danger of natural and man-made disasters and worse, attacks from foreign invaders. In 1574, a fleet of Chinese pirates led by Limahong attacked the city and destroyed it before the Spaniards drove them away. The colony had to be rebuilt again by the survivors. These attacks prompted the construction of the wall.
The city of stone began during the rule of Governor-General Santiago de Vera. The city was planned and executed by Jesuit Priest Antonio Sedeno in accordance to the Laws of the Indies, and was approved by King Philip II's Royal Ordinance that was issued in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain. The succeeding governor-general, Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas brought with him from Spain the royal instructions to carry into effect the said decree stating that "to enclose the city with stone and erect a suitable fort at the junction of the sea and river". Leonardo Iturriano, a Spanish military engineer specializing in fortifications, headed the project. Chinese and Filipino workers built the walls.
Fort Santiago was rebuilt and a circular fort, known as Nuestra Senora de Guia, was erected to defend the land and sea on the southwestern side of the city. Funds came from a monopoly on playing cards and fines imposed on its excessive play. Chinese goods were taxed for two years. Designed by Geronimo Tongco and Pedro Jusepe, construction of the walls began on 1590 and continued under many governor-generals until 1872. By the middle of 1592, Dasmarinas wrote the King about the satisfactory development of the new walls and fortification. Since the construction was carried on during different periods and often far apart, the walls were not built according to any uniform plan.
Improvements continued during the terms of the succeeding Governor-Generals. Governor-General Juan de Silva executed certain work on the fortifications in 1609 which was improved by Juan Niño de Tabora in 1626, and by Diego Fajardo Chacón in 1644. The erection of the Baluarte de San Diego was also completed that year. This bastion, shaped like an "ace of spades" is the southernmost point of the wall and the first of the large bastions added to the encircling walls, then of no great height nor of finished construction. It was the former site of Nuestra Señora de Guia, the very first stone fort of Manila. Ravelins and reductos were added to strengthen weak areas and serve as outer defenses. A moat was built around the city with the Pasig River serving as a natural barrier on one side. By the 18th century, the city was totally enclosed. The last construction works were completed by the start of the 19th century.
Inside colonial Intramuros
The main square of the city of Manila was Plaza Mayor (later known as Plaza McKinley then Plaza de Roma) in front of the Manila Cathedral. East of the plaza was the Ayuntamiento (City Hall) and facing it was the Palacio del Gobernador, the official residence of the Spanish viceroyalties to the Philippines. An earthquake on June 3, 1863 destroyed the three buildings and much of the city. The residence of the Governor-General was moved to Malacañang Palace located about 3 km (1.9 mi) up on the Pasig River. The two previous buildings were later rebuilt but not the Governor's Palace.
Inside the walls were other Roman Catholic churches, the oldest being San Agustin Church (Augustinians) built in 1607. The other churches built by the different religious orders – San Nicolas de Tolentino Church (Recollects), San Francisco Church (Franciscans), Third Venerable Order Church (Third Order of St. Francis), Santo Domingo Church (Dominican), Lourdes Church (Capuchins), and the San Ignacio Church (Jesuits) – has made the small walled city the City of Churches. Intramuros was the center of large educational institutions in the country. Convents and church-run schools were established by the different religious orders. The Dominicans established the Universidad de Santo Tomás in 1611 and the Colegio de San Juan de Letrán in 1620. The Jesuits established the Universidad de San Ignacio in 1590, the first university in the country, but closed in 1768 following the expulsion of the Jesuits in the country. After the Jesuits were allowed to return to the Philippines, they established the Ateneo Municipal de Manila in 1859. In the initial period of colonization, there were a total of 1200 Spanish families living in the vicinity of Intramuros, 600 Spanish families within the walls and another 600 living in the suburbs outside Intramuros. In addition to this were about 400 Spanish soldiers garrisoned at the walled city.
American period (1898–1946)
After the end of the Spanish–American War, Spain surrendered the Philippines and several other territories to the United States as part of the terms of the Treaty of Paris for $20 million. The American flag was raised at Fort Santiago on August 13, 1898 indicating the start of American rule over the city. The Ayuntamiento became the seat of the Philippine Commission of the United States in 1901 while Fort Santiago became the headquarters of the Philippine Division of the United States Army.
The Americans made drastic changes to the city, such as in 1903, when the walls from the Santo Domingo Gate up to the Almacenes Gate were removed as the wharf on the southern bank of the Pasig River was improved. The stones removed were used for other construction happening around the city. The walls were also breached in four areas to ease access to the city: the southwestern end of Calle Aduana (now Andres Soriano Jr. Ave.); the eastern end of Calle Anda; the northeastern end of Calle Victoria (previously known as Calle de la Escuela); and the southeastern end of Calle Palacio (now General Luna Street). The double moats that surrounded Intramuros were deemed unsanitary and were filled in with mud dredged from Manila Bay where the present Port of Manila is now located. The moats were transformed into a municipal golf course by the city.
Reclamations for the construction of the Port of Manila, the Manila Hotel, and Rizal Park obscured the old walls and skyline of the city from the Manila Bay. The Americans also founded the first school under the new government, the Manila High School, on June 11, 1906 along Victoria Street.
World War II and Japanese occupation
In December 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army invaded the Philippines. The first casualties in Intramuros brought by the war were the destruction of Santo Domingo Church and the original University of Santo Tomas campus during an assault. The whole city of Manila was declared by General Douglas MacArthur as an "Open City" as Manila was indefensible.
In 1945, the battle for the liberation of Manila began when American troops tried to occupy Manila on January 1945. Intense urban fighting occurred between the combined American and Filipino troops under the United States Army and Philippine Commonwealth Army including recognized guerrillas, against the 30,000 Japanese defenders. As the battle continued, both sides inflicted heavy damage on the city culminating with the Manila massacre by Japanese troops. The Imperial Japanese Army was pushed back, eventually retreating into the Intramuros district. General MacArthur, though opposed to the bombing of the walled city, approved the heavy shelling which resulted in deaths of over 16,665 Japanese alone within Intramuros. Two of the eight gates of Intramuros were badly damaged by American tanks. The bombings leveled most of Intramuros leaving only 5% of the city structures; the walls lost 40% to the bombings. Over 100,000 Filipino men, women and children died from February 3 to March 3, 1945 during the Battle of Manila.
Contemporary period (1946-present)
In 1951, Intramuros was declared a historical monument and Fort Santiago, a national shrine with Republic Act 597, with the policy of restoring, reconstructing, and urban planning of Intramuros. Several laws and decrees also followed but results were deemed unsatisfactory due to limited funds.  In 1979, the Intramuros Administration (IA) was created by virtue of Presidential Decree № 1616, signed by President Ferdinand Marcos on April 10 of that year.
Since then, the IA has been slowly restoring the walls, the sub-features of the fortification, and the city within. The remaining five original gates have been restored or rebuilt: Isabel II Gate, Parian Gate, Real Gate, Santa Lucía Gate and the Postigo Gate. The entrances made by the Americans by breaching the walls at four locations are now spanned by walkways thereby creating a connection, seamless in design and character to the original walls. Buildings destroyed during the war were subsequently rebuild: Manila Cathedral was rebuilt and was opened to the public in 1958, Ayuntamiento de Manila was rebuilt in 2013, while the San Ignacio Church and Convent is currently being reconstructed as the Museo de Intramuros.
The Department of Tourism along with the Intramuros Administration launched the first major project of the newly created Faith Sector that focuses on the historic and cultural religious wealth of the Walled City. For the 2018 lenten season, seven religious destinations can be visited. For the first time since World War II, Visita Iglesia is once again possible in Intramuros. The seven destinations are the Manila Cathedral, San Agustin Church, San Ignacio Church, Guadalupe Shrine in Fort Santiago, Knights of Columbus Fr. Willman Chapel, Lyceum of the Philippines University Chapel, and the Mapua University Chapel. The event pays homage to the original seven churches during the pre-war Intramuros. The 2018 lenten season event draws over 1 million people from both foreign and local tourists in Intramuros. The Intramuros Administration, together with the Royal Danish Embassy in Manila, and Felta Multimedia, Inc., opened the iMake History Fortress at the Baluarte de Santa Barbara in Fort Santiago last March 19, 2018. The facility is the first history-based Lego education center in the world.
The outline of the defensive wall of Intramuros is irregular in shape, following the contours of Manila Bay and the curvature of the Pasig River. The walls covered an area of 64 hectares (160 acres) of land, surrounded by 8 feet (2.4 m) thick stones and high walls that rise to 22 feet (6.7 m). The walls stretched to an estimated 3-5 kilometers in length. An inner moat (foso) surrounds the perimeter of the wall and an outer moat (contrafoso) surrounds the walls that face the city.
Several bulwarks (baluarte), ravelins (ravellin) and redoubts (reductos) are strategically located along the massive walls of Intramuros following the design of medieval fortifications. The seven bastions (clockwise, from Fort Santiago) are the Bastions of Tenerias, Aduana, San Gabriel, San Lorenzo, San Andres, San Diego, and Plano. The bastions were constructed at different periods of time, the reason for the differences in style. The oldest bastion is the Bastion de San Diego, which was built in 1587.
The fortifications of Intramuros comprises several parts, the front facing the sea and the river, which were less elaborate and complex, and the three-sided land front with its corresponding bastions. Fort Santiago was built at the northwest tip where the sea and river converge, and this functioned as a citadel. Fort Santiago has significantly served as military headquarters of Spanish, British, United States and Japan during different eras throughout the Philippine history.
In Fort Santiago, there are bastions on each corner of the triangular fort. The Baluarte de Santa Bárbara faces the bay and Pasig River; Baluarte de San Miguel, faces the bay; and the Medio Baluarte de San Francisco, which faces the Pasig River.
Before the American Era, entrance to the city was through eight gates or Puertas namely (clockwise, from Fort Santiago) Puerta Almacenes, Puerta de la Aduana, Puerta de Santo Domingo, Puerta Isabel II, Puerta del Parian, Puerta Real, Puerta Sta. Lucia, and Puerta del Postigo. Three of the gates were destroyed. Two of them, the Almacenes Gate and the Santo Domingo/Customs Gate, were destroyed by the American engineers when they open up the northern part of the walls to the wharves. The Banderas Gate was destroyed during an earthquake and was never rebuilt. Formerly, drawbridges were raised and the city was closed and under sentinels from 11:00 pm till 4:00 am. It continued so until 1852, when, in consequence of the earthquake of that year, it was decreed that the gates should thenceforth remain open night and day.
|Isabel II Gate||Puerta de Isabel II||Opened in 1861. Damaged during the Battle of Manila. Restored in 1966.||North|
|Parián Gate||Puerta del Parián||Built in 1593. Damaged during the Battle of Manila. Restoration began on 1967 and was completed in 1982.||East|
|Postigo Gate||Puerta de Postigo||Built in 1662. Damaged during the Battle of Manila. Restored in 1968.||West|
|Royal Gate||Puerta Real||Built in 1663. Damaged during the Battle of Manila. Restored in 1969 with additional work made in 1989.||South|
|Santa Lucia Gate||Puerta de Santa Lucia||Built in 1603. Destroyed during the Battle of Manila. Reconstructed in 1982.||West|
|Almacenes Gate||Puerta de Almacenes||Built in 1690. Demolished in 1903 by American engineers for widening the river wharves along Intramuros.||North|
|Banderas Gate||Puerta de Banderas||Constructed in 1662. It was destroyed during an earthquake and was never rebuilt.||West|
|Santo Domingo Gate/Customs Gate||Puerta de Santo Domingo/Puerta de Aduana||Built in the 18th century during the renovation of the riverside defenses. It opened to the river wharves, but the American engineers tore down the gate & part of the walls in 1903 to open a road to Intramuros from Magallanes Drive.||North|
Present day Intramuros
Intramuros is the only district of Manila where old Spanish-era influences are still plentiful. Fort Santiago is now a well-maintained park and popular tourist destination. Adjacent to Fort Santiago is the reconstructed Maestranza Wall, which was removed by the Americans in 1903 to widen the wharves thus opening the city to Pasig River. One of the future plans of the Intramuros Administration is to complete the perimeter walls that surround the city making it completely circumnavigable from the walkway on top of the walls.
There has been minimal commercialization occurring within the district, despite restoration efforts. A few fast food establishments set up shop at the turn of the 21st century, catering mostly to the student population within Intramuros. Shipping companies have also set up offices inside the district. Concerts, tours and exhibitions are frequently held within Intramuros to draw both local and foreign tourists.
The center of education since the colonial period, Manila — particularly Intramuros — is home to several Philippine universities and colleges as well as its oldest ones. It served as the home of the University of Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620), Ateneo de Manila University (1859), Lyceum of the Philippines University and the Mapua Institute of Technology. Only Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620) remains at Intramuros; the University of Santo Tomas transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc in 1927, and Ateneo left Intramuros for Loyola Heights, Quezon City (while still retaining "de Manila" in its name) in 1952.
New non-sectarian schools were established and built over the ruins after the war. The Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, established in 1965 by the city government of Manila, was built at the site of the old Cuartel España (Spanish Barracks). The Lyceum of the Philippines University, a private university founded in 1952 by Philippine President Jose P. Laurel, was built over the lot of San Juan de Dios Hospital. The hospital moved out to Roxas Boulevard in Pasay. Mapúa Institute of Technology, which was founded in 1925 in Quiapo, Manila moved in Intramuros after the war. Its post-war campus was built on the location of the destroyed San Francisco Church and the Third Venerable Order Church at the corner of San Francisco and Solana Streets. The three new educational institutions, along with Colegio de San Juan de Letran formed an academic cooperation called the Intramuros Consortium.
Aerial photo of the Campus of Mapúa University
Intramuros, as the seat of religious and political power during the colonial period, was the home to eight grand churches built by different religious orders. All but one of these churches were destroyed in the Battle of Manila. Only San Agustin Church, the oldest building in existence in Manila completed in 1607, was the only structure inside the Walled City not to be destroyed during the war. The Manila Cathedral, the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila, was reconstructed thereafter in 1958. The other religious orders reconstructed their churches outside Intramuros after the war. The Dominicans rebuilt Santo Domingo Church on Quezon Avenue in Quezon City. The Augustinian Recollects moved to their other church, the San Sebastian Church (now Basilica), 2.5-kilometre (1.6 mi) northeast of the walled city. The Capuchins moved the Lourdes Church in 1951 to the corner of Kanlaon St. and Retiro St. (now Amoranto Ave.) in Quezon City. It was declared a National Shrine in 1997. The Order of Saint John of God moved to Roxas while the Order of Poor Clares in Aurora Boulevard. The San Ignacio Church and Convent is now currently being reconstructed as Museo de Intramuros, an ecclesiastical museum.
Monuments and statues
World War II as well as natural and man-made disasters destroyed a great many old buildings and statues throughout the country. It is by sheer luck that many Spanish period monuments have continued to survive the passage of time. The following are the ones we could still see today in Intramuros.
|Name||Image||Location / GPS Coordinates||Designers||Year||Notes|
|Adolfo López Mateos Statue||Plaza Mexico
|Anda Monument||Anda Circle||1871||Originally located at Plaza Maestranza near Fort Santiago. In 1957, the whole monument was transferred outside Intramuros to Bonifacio Drive, where it now stands in Anda Circle. In recent years it has been painted over, with the lower level vandalized with graffiti.|
|Benavides Monument||Plaza Santo Tomas||Tony Noël||1889||Replica; the undamaged original statue was transferred in 1946 to the Sampaloc Campus of the University of Santo Tomas, now fronting the Main Building. Its original marble pedestal had been completely obliterated during the Battle of Manila in 1945.|
|King Charles IV Monument||Plaza de Roma
|King Philip II Statue||Plaza de España
|Legazpi-Urdaneta Monument||Bonifacio Drive opposite the Manila Hotel||Agustí Querol Subirats||1929||In 2012, some of its metal ornaments had been stolen and unscrupulously sold as scrap metal.|
|Memorare – Manila 1945 Memorial (Shrine of Freedom)||Plazuela de Santa Isabel||1995||The inscription for the memorial was penned by National Artist for Literature Nick Joaquin.|
|Queen Isabel II Statue||Puerta Isabel II||Ponciano Ponzano||1860||Formerly located at Plaza Rajah Sulayman in front of Malate Church. The statue was transferred in 1975 at the front of Puerta Isabel II during the visit of Prince Carlos of Spain.|
|Rizal Statue||Rizal Shrine|
Structures before and after World War II
|Name (Pre-war)||Image||Name (Post-war)||Image||Note|
|El Amanecer Building|
|San Francisco Church
|Mapúa University Campus
|San Ignacio Church and Convent
|Museo de Intramuros
|The church and convent was reconstructed as the Museo de Intramuros.|
|San Nicolas de Tolentino Church
|Manila Bulletin Headquarters|
|Santo Domingo Church
|Bank of the Philippine Islands, Benlife Building, and Tuazon Building|
|Third Venerable Order Church
|Mapúa University Chapel|
|Schools and Convents|
|Ateneo de Manila University
|Tent||Transferred to its Padre Faura Campus (now Robinsons Place Manila) after a fire destroyed its Intramuros Campus in 1932. The school again transferred to its Loyola Heights Campus in 1976-77.|
|Beaterio de la Compania||Light and Sound Museum||Rebuilt as the Light and Sound Museum|
|Beaterio-Colegio de Santa Catalina||Colegio de San Juan de Letran Campus||The school and convent transferred to its new campus in Legarda Street, Sampaloc. Its Intramuros lot was acquired by the Colegio de San Juan de Letran to expand its post-war campus.|
|Colegio de Santa Isabel
|Vacant Lot, and Plazuela de Santa Isabel||Colegio de Santa Isabel transferred to its new post-war campus in Taft Avenue just outside the city walls.|
|Real Colegio de Santa Potenciana||National Commission for Culture and the Arts, Philippine Red Cross (Manila Chapter), Philippine Veterans Building, and the Insurance Center Building|
|Santa Clara Monastery||Vacant Lot|
|University of Santo Tomas||BF Condominiums||UST transferred to its Sampaloc Campus in 1927. The College of Law remained at Intramuros. However, after the war, the university decided not to rebuild its Intramuros Campus.|
|Cuartel de España
|University of the City of Manila|
|Hospital de San Juan de Dios||Lyceum of the Philippines University|
|Palacio de Santa Potenciana||Philippine Red Cross|
Intramuros is made up of five Barangays numbered 654, 655, 656, 657 and 658. These five barangays only serves the welfare of the city's constituents because they have no executive and legislative power. The Intramuros Administration oversee the day-to-day administration of the district, including the issuance of building permits, traffic re-routing, among others.
The Intramuros Administration (IA) is an agency of the Department of Tourism that is mandated to orderly restore, administer, and develop the historic walled area of Intramuros that is situated within the modern City of Manila as well as to insure that the 16th to 19th century Philippine-Spanish architecture remains the general architectural style of the walled area. Its office is located at Palacio del Gobernador in Plaza Roma.
Architecture is meant to move forward. After World War II, all buildings inside Intramuros were destroyed, with only the San Agustin Church left standing. However, Intramuros was rebuilt with Spanish colonial style instead of moving forward architecturally. Numerous architects, urban planners and professors are critical of the way Intramuros was restored, describing it as frozen in time. Others, however are comparing it to a theme park that is inspired by the Spanish colonial period.
Buildings and structures in Intramuros were criticized for not being authentic in their design that is supposed to be inspired by the Bahay na Bato or the prevailing pre-war architectural style. Several design elements from the Spanish colonial period were not present in the post-war building constructions. There are also no buildings from the Spanish colonial period inside Intramuros that is a candidate for adaptive reuse since all of them were destroyed during the war. Despite the design flaws, construction and remodeling of several buildings were approved by the Intramuros Administration.
- Intramuros Grand Marian Procession
- Gates of Intramuros
- Fort Santiago
- History of the Philippines
- History of Manila
- Kingdom of Maynila
- Tourism in Manila
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Within the walls, there were some six hundred houses of a private nature, most of them built of stone and tile, and an equal number outside in the suburbs, or “arrabales,” all occupied by Spaniards (“todos son vivienda y poblacion de los Españoles”). This gives some twelve hundred Spanish families or establishments, exclusive of the religious, who in Manila numbered at least one hundred and fifty, the garrison, at certain times, about four hundred trained Spanish soldiers who had seen service in Holland and the Low Countries, and the official classes.
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- Rocamora, Joyce Ann L. (March 15, 2018). "3 big Lenten events lined up in Intramuros". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
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