Prime Minister of Japan
The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government of Japan. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the National Diet and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office, he dismisses the other Ministers of State. The literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the Comprehensive Administration of the Cabinet. Before the adoption of the Meiji Constitution, Japan had in practice no written constitution. A Chinese-inspired legal system known as ritsuryō was enacted in the late Asuka period and early Nara period, it described a government based on an elaborate and rational meritocratic bureaucracy, serving, in theory, under the ultimate authority of the Emperor. Theoretically, the last ritsuryō code, the Yōrō Code enacted in 752, was still in force at the time of the Meiji Restoration. Under this system, the Daijō-daijin was the head of the Daijō-kan, the highest organ of Japan's pre-modern Imperial government during the Heian period and until under the Meiji Constitution with the appointment of Sanjō Sanetomi in 1871.
The office was replaced in 1885 with the appointment of Itō Hirobumi to the new position of Prime Minister, four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution, which mentions neither the Cabinet nor the position of Prime Minister explicitly. It took its current form with the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947. To date, 62 people have served this position; the current Prime Minister is Shinzō Abe, who re-took office on December 26, 2012. He is the first former Prime Minister to return to office since 1948, the 4th longest serving Prime Minister to date; the Prime Minister is designated by both houses of the Diet, before the conduct of any other business. For that purpose, each conducts a ballot under the run-off system. If the two houses choose different individuals a joint committee of both houses is appointed to agree on a common candidate. However, if the two houses do not agree within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives is deemed to be that of the Diet. Therefore, the House of Representatives can theoretically ensure the appointment of any Prime Minister it wants.
The candidate is presented with his or her commission, formally appointed to office by the Emperor. In practice, the Prime Minister is always the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives, or the leader of the senior partner in the governing coalition. Must be a member of either house of the Diet. Must be a "civilian"; this excludes serving members of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Former military persons may be appointed prime minister despite the "civilian" requirement, Yasuhiro Nakasone being one prominent example. Exercises "control and supervision" over the entire executive branch. Presents bills to the Diet on behalf of the Cabinet. Signs laws and Cabinet orders. Appoints all Cabinet ministers, can dismiss them at any time. May permit legal action to be taken against Cabinet ministers. Must make reports on foreign relations to the Diet. Must report to the Diet upon demand to provide explanations. May advise the Emperor to dissolve the Diet's House of Representatives. Presides over meetings of the Cabinet.
Commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. May override a court injunction against an administrative act upon showing of cause. In most other constitutional monarchies, the monarch is nominal chief executive, while being bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabinet. In contrast, the Constitution of Japan explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader, his signature is required for Cabinet orders. While most ministers in parliamentary democracies have some freedom of action within the bounds of cabinet collective responsibility, the Japanese Cabinet is an extension of the Prime Minister's authority. Located near the Diet building, the Office of the Prime Minister of Japan is called the Kantei; the original Kantei served from 1929 until 2002, when a new building was inaugurated to serve as the current Kantei. The old Kantei was converted into the Official Residence, or Kōtei; the Kōtei lies to the southwest of the Kantei, is linked by a walkway.
The Prime Minister of Japan travels in a Lexus LS 600h L, the official transport for the head of government, or an unmodified Toyota Century escorted by a police motorcade of numerous Toyota Celsiors. For long distance air travel, Japan maintains two Boeing 747-400 aircraft for the Prime Minister of Japan, the Emperor and other members of the Imperial Family, operated by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, they have the radio callsigns Japanese Air Force One and Japanese Air Force Two when operating on official business, Cygnus One and Cygnus Two when operating outside of official business. The aircraft always fly together on government missions, with one serving as the primary transport and the other serving as a backup with maintenance personnel on board; the aircraft are referred to as Japanese government exclusive aircraft. The aircraft were constructed at the Boeing factory at the same time as the U. S. Air Force One VC-25s, though the U. S. aircraft wer
Satsuma Domain Kagoshima Domain, was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It is associated with the provinces of Satsuma, Ōsumi and Hyūga in modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture and Miyazaki Prefecture on the island of Kyūshū. In the han system, Satsuma was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area; this was different from the feudalism of the West. The domain was ruled from Kagoshima Castle, the core of what became the city of Kagoshima, its kokudaka was assessed at the second highest kokudaka after that of Kaga Domain. The Shimazu family controlled Satsuma province for four centuries prior to the beginning of the Edo period. Despite being chastised by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in his 1587 Kyūshū Campaign, forced back to Satsuma, they remained one of the most powerful clans in the archipelago. During the decisive battle of Sekigahara in 1600, the Shimazu fought on the losing side.
Satsuma was one of the most powerful feudal domains in Tokugawa Japan. It was controlled throughout the Edo period by the tozama daimyō of the Shimazu clan. Since the mid-15th century, Satsuma fought with the Ryukyu Kingdom for control of the Northern Ryukyu Islands, which lie southwest of Japan. In 1609, Shimazu Iehisa requested permission from the shogunate to invade Ryukyu. After a three-month war which met stiff resistance, Satsuma captured the Ryukyuan capital of Shuri and King Shō Nei. In the ensuing peace treaty, Satsuma annexed the Amami and Tokara Islands, demanded tribute, forced the King and his descendants to pledge loyalty to Satsuma's daimyō. For the remainder of the Edo period, Satsuma influenced their politics and dominated their trading policies to take advantage of Ryukyu's tributary status with China; as strict maritime prohibitions were imposed upon much of Japan beginning in the 1630s, Satsuma's ability to enjoy a trade in Chinese goods, information, via Ryukyu, provided it a distinct and important, if not unique, role in the overall economy and politics of the Tokugawa state.
The degree of economic benefits enjoyed by Satsuma, the degree of their influence in Ryukyu, are subjects debated by scholars, but the political prestige and influence gained through this relationship is not questioned. The Shimazu continually made efforts to emphasize their unique position as the only feudal domain to claim an entire foreign kingdom as its vassal, engineered repeated increases to their own official Court rank, in the name of maintaining their power and prestige in the eyes of Ryukyu. In 1871, Emperor Meiji abolished the Han system, the following year informed King Shō Tai that he was designated "Domain Head of Ryukyu Domain", transferring Satsuma's authority over the country to Tokyo. Though not the wealthiest han in terms of kokudaka, Satsuma remained among the wealthiest and most powerful domains throughout the Edo period; this derived not only from their connection to Ryukyu, but from the size and productive wealth of Satsuma province itself, from their extreme distance from Edo, thus from the shōgun's armies.
The Shimazu exercised their influence to exact from the shogunate a number of special exceptions. Satsuma was granted an exception to the shogunate's limit of one castle per domain, a policy, meant to restrict the military strength of the domains, they received special exceptions from the shogunate in regard to the policy of sankin-kōtai, another policy meant to restrict the wealth and power of the daimyō. Under this policy, every feudal lord was mandated to travel to Edo at least once a year, to spend some portion of the year there, away from his domain and his power base; the Shimazu were granted permission to make this journey only once every two years. These exceptions thus allowed Satsuma to gain more power and wealth relative to the majority of other domains. Though arguably opposed to the shogunate, Satsuma was one of the strictest domains in enforcing particular policies. Christian missionaries were seen as a serious threat to the power of the daimyō, the peace and order of the domain.
The ban on smuggling unsurprisingly, was not so enforced, as the domain gained from trade performed along its shores, some ways away from Nagasaki, where the shogunate monopolized commerce. In the 1830s, Satsuma used its illegal Okinawa trade to rebuild its finances under Zusho Hirosato; the Satsuma daimyō of the 1850s, Shimazu Nariakira, was interested in Western thought and technology, sought to open the country. At the time, contacts with Westerners increased particularly for Satsuma, as Western ships landed in the Ryukyus and sought not only trade, but formal diplomatic relations. To increase his influence in the shogunate, Nariakira engineered a marriage between Shōgun Tokugawa Iesada and his adopted daughter, Atsu-hime. In 1854, the first year of Iesada's reign, Commodore Perry landed in Japan and forced an end to the isolation policy of the shogunate. However, the treaties signed between Japan and the western powers the Harris Treaty of 1858, put Japan at a serious disadvantage. In the same year, both Iesada and Nariakira died.
Nariakira named Shimazu Tadayoshi, as his successor. As Tadayoshi was still a child, his father, Shimazu Hisamitsu
May 15 Incident
The May 15 Incident was an attempted coup d'état in the Empire of Japan, on May 15, 1932, launched by reactionary elements of the Imperial Japanese Navy, aided by cadets in the Imperial Japanese Army and civilian remnants of the ultra nationalist League of Blood. Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi was assassinated by 11 young naval officers; the following trial and popular support of the Japanese population led to light sentences for the assassins, strengthening the rising power of Japanese militarism and weakening democracy and the rule of law in the Empire of Japan. As a result of the ratification of the London Naval Treaty limiting the size of the Imperial Japanese Navy, a movement grew within the junior officer corps to overthrow the government, to replace it with military rule; this movement had parallels in the Sakurakai secret society organized within the Imperial Japanese Army. The naval officers established contacts with the ultranationalist Inoue Nissho and his "League of Blood", agreed with his philosophy that to bring about a "Shōwa Restoration", it would be necessary to assassinate leading political and business figures.
In March 1932, in the "League of Blood Incident", Inoue's group only managed to kill former Finance Minister and head of the Rikken Minseitō, Inoue Junnosuke, Director-General of Mitsui Holding Company, Takuma Dan. On May 15, 1932, the naval officers, aided by army cadets, right-wing civilian elements staged their own attempt to complete what had been started in the League of Blood Incident. Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi was shot by eleven young naval officers in the prime minister's residence. Inukai's last words were "If I could speak, you would understand" to which his killers replied "Dialogue is useless"; the original assassination plan had included killing the English film star Charlie Chaplin who had arrived in Japan on May 14, 1932, at a reception for Chaplin, planned by Prime Minister Inukai. "These activists, eager to ingest a nativist Yamato spirit into politics, recognised the charged political nature of mass culture". Chaplin's murder would facilitate war with the U. S. and anxiety in Japan, lead on to "restoration" in the name of the emperor.
When the prime minister was killed, his son Inukai Takeru was watching a sumo wrestling match with Charlie Chaplin, which saved both their lives. The insurgents attacked the residence of Makino Nobuaki, the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, head of the Rikken Seiyūkai political party, tossed hand-grenades into Mitsubishi Bank headquarters in Tokyo, several electrical transformer substations. Aside from the murder of the prime minister, the attempted coup d'état came to nothing, the rebellion as a whole proved a failure; the participants took a taxi to the police headquarters and surrendered themselves to the Kempeitai without a struggle. The 11 murderers of Prime Minister Inukai were court-martialed. Before the end of their trial a petition arrived at court containing over 350,000 signatures in blood, signed by sympathizers around the country to plead for a lenient sentence. During the proceedings, the accused used the trial as a platform to proclaim their loyalty to the emperor and to arouse popular sympathy by appealing for reforms of the government and economy.
In addition to the petition, the court received a request from eleven youths in Niigata, asking that they be executed in place of the naval officers, sending eleven severed fingers to the court as a gesture of their sincerity. The punishment handed down by the court was light, there was little doubt in the Japanese press that the murderers of Prime Minister Inukai would be released in a couple of years, if not sooner. Failure to punish the plotters in the May 15 Incident further eroded the rule of law and the power of the democratic government in Japan to confront the military. Indirectly, it led to the increasing rise of Japanese militarism; the May 15 Incident serves as a major plot point in Ghost in the Shell: S. A. C. 2nd GiG of 2005, in which a terrorist group attempts to recreate the incident out of the leader's cynical belief that people prefer to be controlled and told what to do rather than make their own decisions. Beasley, W. G.. The Rise of Modern Japan, 3rd Edition: Political and Social Change since 1850.
Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23373-6. Borkwith, Mark. Pacific Century: The Emergence of Modern Pacific Asia. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3471-3. Oka, Yoshitake. Five Political Leaders of Modern Japan: Ito Hirobumi, Okuma Shigenobu, Hara Takashi, Inukai Tsuyoshi, Saionji Kimmochi. University of Tokyo Press. ISBN 0-86008-379-9. Sims, Richard. Japanese Political History Since the Meiji Renovation 1868-2000. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23915-7. Spector, Ronald. Eagle Against the Sun: The American War With Japan. Vintage. ISBN 0-394-74101-3. Toland, John; the Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936-1945. Modern Library. ISBN 0-8129-6858-1. National Diet Library Reference
Aoyama Cemetery is a cemetery in Aoyama, Tokyo, managed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. The cemetery is famous for its cherry blossoms, at the season of hanami, which many people would visit; the cemetery was the land of the Aoyama family of the Gujō clan in the province of Mino. Japan's first public cemetery was opened in 1874, in the Meiji era was the main locations of foreigners' graves; the cemetery has an area of 263,564 m2. The Japanese section includes the graves of many notable Japanese, including: Amino Kiku Gotō Shōjirō Ichikawa Danjūrō IX Ichikawa Danjūrō XI Kitasato Shibasaburō Nakae Chōmin Nogi Maresuke Ōkubo Toshimichi Otoya Yamaguchi Sasaki Takayuki Shiga Naoya Nishi Takeichi The cemetery has a Tateyama branch, where Nagata Tetsuzan, Kimura Heitarō, Sagara Sōzō are buried. One of the cemetery's most famous graves is that of Hachikō, the faithful and dutiful dog whose statue adorns Shibuya Station, was buried alongside with his two owners, Hidesaburō Ueno and Yaeko Sakano.
The cemetery includes one of the few such plots in Tokyo. Many of the graves are of foreign experts who came to Japan at the end of the 19th century, as part of the Meiji Government's drive for modernisation. Although some of the graves were threatened with removal in 2005 due to unpaid annual fees, the Foreign Section was awarded special protection in 2007. A plaque on the site recognises the women who contributed to Japan's modernization; some of the noted foreigners buried within the cemetery: Francis Brinkley Journalist and scholar. Edoardo Chiossone, engraver. Edwin Dun, American agricultural advisor. William Clark Eastlake "Dental Pioneer of the Orient" Hugh Fraser, British Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Japan. Flora B. Harris and translator, wife of Merriman Colbert Harris. Merriman Colbert Harris American Methodist missionary. Henry Hartshorne, Quaker missionary and doctor, father of Anna Hartshorne. Joseph Heco, the first naturalized Japanese-American. Paul Jacoulet, French-born woodblock print artist in the Japanese style.
Arthur Lloyd, British. Anglican Church in Japan minister, Keio University professor and translator. Henry Spencer Palmer British journalist. Julius Scriba, German surgeon. Alexander Croft Shaw, Canadian. Anglican Church in Japan minister, Keio University professor. Frederick William Strange, British. University instructor, founder of competitive rowing in Japan. Guido Verbeck, Dutch political advisor and missionary. Gottfried Wagener, German chemist and ceramics specialist Charles Dickinson West, Irish engineer. Zōshigaya cemetery Yanaka cemetery This article was translated from the Japanese Wikipedia article ja:青山霊園, accessed December 16, 2007 Who is Buried in the Foreign Section?, The Foreign Section Trust. "Resting in Pieces", Metropolis
The Xinhai Revolution known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty and established the Republic of China. The revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar; the revolution consisted of many uprisings. The turning point was the Wuchang uprising on 10 October 1911, the result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement; the revolution ended with the abdication of the six-year-old Last Emperor, Puyi, on 12 February 1912, that marked the end of 2,000 years of imperial rule and the beginning of China's early republican era. The revolution arose in response to the decline of the Qing state, which had proven ineffective in its efforts to modernize China and confront foreign aggression. Many underground anti-Qing groups, with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile, tried to overthrow the Qing; the brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai, the late Qing military strongman, Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui.
After the Qing court transferred power to the newly founded republic, a provisional coalition government was created along with the National Assembly. However, political power of the new national government in Beijing was soon thereafter monopolized by Yuan and led to decades of political division and warlordism, including several attempts at imperial restoration; the Republic of China in Taiwan and the People's Republic of China on the mainland both consider themselves the legitimate successors to the Xinhai Revolution and honor the ideals of the revolution including nationalism, modernization of China and national unity. 10 October is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day, the National Day of the ROC. In mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, the day is celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War in 1842, the Qing imperial court struggled to contain foreign intrusions into China. Efforts to adjust and reform the traditional methods of governance were constrained by a conservative court culture that did not want to give away too much authority to reform.
Following defeat in the Second Opium War in 1860, the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement from 1861. In the wars against the Taiping, the Muslims of Yunnan and the Northwest, the traditional imperial troops proved themselves incompetent and the court came to rely on local armies. In 1895, China suffered another defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War; this demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898 the Guangxu Emperor was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao for a drastic reform in education and economy under the Hundred Days' Reform; the reform was abruptly cancelled by a conservative coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi. The Guangxu Emperor, who had always been a puppet dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898. Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled. While in Canada, in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society in an attempt to restore the emperor.
Empress Dowager Cixi controlled the Qing dynasty from this point on. The Boxer Rebellion prompted another foreign invasion of Beijing in 1900 and the imposition of unequal treaty terms, which carved away territories, created extraterritorial concessions and gave away trade privileges. Under internal and external pressure, the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms; the Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on political power by suppressing with great brutality, all domestic rebellions. Dissidents could operate only in secret societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas. There were many revolutionaries and groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to re-establish Han led government; the earliest revolutionary organizations were founded outside of China, such as Yeung Ku-wan's Furen Literary Society, created in Hong Kong in 1890. There were 15 members, including Tse Tsan-tai, who did political satire such as "The Situation in the Far East", one of the first Chinese manhua, who became one of the core founders of the South China Morning Post.
Sun Yat-sen's Xingzhonghui was established in Honolulu in 1894 with the main purpose of raising funds for revolutions. The two organizations were merged in 1894; the Huaxinghui was founded in 1904 with notables like Huang Xing, Zhang Shizhao, Chen Tianhua and Song Jiaoren, along with 100 others. Their motto was "Take one province by force, inspire the other provinces to rise up"; the Guangfuhui was founded in 1904, in Shanghai with Cai Yuanpei. Other notable members include Tao Chengzhang. Despite professing the anti-Qing cause, the Guangfuhui was critical of Sun Yat-sen. One of the most famous female revolutionaries was Qiu Jin, who fought for women's rights and was from Guangfuhui. There were many other minor revolutionary organizations, such as Lizhi Xuehui in Jiangsu, Gongqianghui in Sichuan and Hanzudulihui in Fujian, Yizhishe in Jiangxi, Yuewanghui in Anhui and Qunzhihui in Guangzhou. There were criminal organizations that were anti-Manchu, including the Green Gang and Hongmen Zhigongtang.
Sun Yat-sen himself came in cont
The Satsuma Rebellion or Seinan War was a revolt of disaffected samurai against the new imperial government, nine years into the Meiji Era. Its name comes from the Satsuma Domain, influential in the Restoration and became home to unemployed samurai after military reforms rendered their status obsolete; the rebellion lasted from January 29, 1877, until September of that year, when it was decisively crushed and its leader, Saigō Takamori, committed seppuku after being mortally wounded. Saigō's rebellion was the last and most serious of a series of armed uprisings against the new government of the Empire of Japan, the predecessor state to modern Japan. Although Satsuma had been one of the key players in the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War, although many men from Satsuma had risen to influential positions in the new Meiji government, there was growing dissatisfaction with the direction the country was taking; the modernization of the country meant the abolition of the privileged social status of the samurai class, had undermined their financial position.
The rapid and massive changes to Japanese culture, language and society appeared to many samurai to be a betrayal of the jōi portion of the sonnō jōi justification used to overthrow the former Tokugawa shogunate. Saigō Takamori, one of the senior Satsuma leaders in the Meiji government who had supported the reforms in the beginning, was concerned about growing political corruption (the slogan of his rebel movement was shinsei-kōtoku. Saigō was a strong proponent of war with Korea in the Seikanron debate of 1873. At one point, he offered to visit Korea in person and to provoke a casus belli by behaving in such an insulting manner that the Koreans would be forced to kill him. Saigō expected both that a war would be successful for Japan and that the initial stages of it would offer a means by which the samurai whose cause he championed could find meaningful and beneficial death; when the plan was rejected, Saigō resigned from all of his government positions in protest and returned to his hometown of Kagoshima, as did many other Satsuma ex-samurai in the military and police forces.
To help support and employ these men, in 1874 Saigō established a private academy in Kagoshima. Soon 132 branches were established all over the prefecture; the “training” provided was not purely academic: although the Chinese classics were taught, all students were required to take part in weapons training and instruction in tactics. Saigō started an artillery school; the schools resembled paramilitary political organizations more than anything else, they enjoyed the support of the governor of Satsuma, who appointed disaffected samurai to political offices, where they came to dominate the Kagoshima government. Support for Saigō was so strong that Satsuma had seceded from the central government by the end of 1876. Word of Saigō’s academies was greeted with considerable concern in Tokyo; the government had just dealt with several small but violent samurai revolts in Kyūshū, the prospect of the numerous and fierce Satsuma samurai, being led in rebellion by the famous and popular Saigō was alarming.
In December 1876, the Meiji government sent a police officer named Nakahara Hisao and 57 other men to investigate reports of subversive activities and unrest. The men were captured, under torture, confessed that they were spies, sent to assassinate Saigō. Although Nakahara repudiated the confession, it was believed in Satsuma and was used as justification by the disaffected samurai that a rebellion was necessary in order to "protect Saigō". Fearing a rebellion, the Meiji government sent a warship to Kagoshima to remove the weapons stockpiled at the Kagoshima arsenal on January 30, 1877; this provoked open conflict, although with the elimination of samurai rice stipends in 1877, tensions were extremely high. Outraged by the government's tactics, 50 students from Saigō’s academy attacked the Somuta Arsenal and carried off weapons. Over the next three days, more than 1000 students staged raids on the naval yards and other arsenals. Presented with this sudden success, the dismayed Saigō was reluctantly persuaded to come out of his semi-retirement to lead the rebellion against the central government.
In February 1877, the Meiji government dispatched Hayashi Tomoyuki, an official with the Home Ministry with Admiral Kawamura Sumiyoshi in the warship Takao to ascertain the situation. Satsuma governor, Oyama Tsunayoshi, explained that the uprising was in response to the government's assassination attempt on Saigō, asked that Admiral Kawamura come ashore to help calm the situation. After Oyama departed, a flotilla of small ships filled with armed men attempted to board Takao by force, but were repelled; the following day, Hayashi declared to Oyama that he could not permit Kawamura to go ashore when the situation was so unsettled, that the attack on Takao constituted an act of lèse-majesté. On his return to Kobe on February 12, Hayashi met with General Yamagata Aritomo and Itō Hirobumi, it was decided that the Imperial Japanese Army would need to be sent to Kagoshima to prevent the revolt from spreading to other areas of the country sympathetic to Saigō. On the same day, Saigō met with his lieutenants Kirino Toshiaki and Shinohara Kunimoto and announced his intention of marching to Tokyo to ask questions of the government.
Rejecting large numbers of volunteers, he made no attempt to contact any of the other domains for support, no troops were left at Kagoshima to secure his base against an attack. To aid in the air of legality, Saigō wore his army uniform. Marching north, his army was hampered
Keio University, abbreviated as Keio or Keidai, is a private university located in Minato, Japan. It is known as the oldest institute of modern higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo, it has eleven campuses in Kanagawa. It has ten faculties: Letters, Law and Commerce, Medicine and Technology, Policy Management and Information Studies and Medical Care, Pharmacy; the university is one of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports and Technology's thirteen "Global 30" Project universities. In the United States, Keio has a high school called "Keio Academy of New York". Keio traces its history to 1858 when Fukuzawa Yukichi, who had studied the Western educational system at Brown University in the United States, started to teach Dutch while he was a guest of the Okudaira family. In 1868 he devoted all his time to education. While Keiō's initial identity was that of a private school of Western studies, it expanded and established its first university faculty in 1890, became known as a leading institute in Japanese higher education.
It was the first Japanese university to reach its 150th anniversary, celebrating this anniversary in 2008. Keio has leading research centers, it has 30 Research Centers located on its five main campuses and at other facilities for advanced research in Japan. Keio University Research Institute at SFC has joined the MIT and the French INRIA in hosting the international W3C. Fukuzawa stated the mission of Keio shown below, based on his speech at the alumni party on November 1, 1896. Keio Gijuku shouldn't be satisfied with being just one educational institution, its mission is expected to be a model of the nobility of intelligence and virtue,to make clear how it can be applied to its family and nation,and to take an actual action of this statement. It expects all students being leaders in society by the practice of this mission; those sentences were given to students as his will, considered as the simple expression of Keio's actual mission. Keio is known for being the first institution to introduce many modern education systems in Japan.
The following are the examples: Keio is the earliest Japanese school that introduced an annual fixed course fee, designed by Fukuzawa. It introduced the culture of speech to Japan, which Japan had never had before, it built Japan's earliest speech house Mita Speech House in 1875 as well. It is regarded as Japan's first university to accept international students. Keio accepted 2 Korean students in 1881 as its first international students. 60 Korean students entered in 1883 and 130 Korean students in 1895. Keio put "self-respect" as a foundation of its education; this is meant to be physically and mentally independent, respect yourself for keeping your virtue. Independence and self-respect are regarded as Fukuzawa's nature and essence of his education. Learning half and teaching half is the other unique culture in Keio. During the late Edo period and the early Meiji period, several private prep schools used students as assistant teachers and it was called "Learning half and teaching half". Keio had used this system.
In the early period of such schools of Western studies, there had been many things to learn not only for students but professors themselves. Hence there had been sometimes the occasions that students who had learned in advance had taught other students and professors. After the proper legal systems for education had been set up, those situations have disappeared. However, Fukuzawa thought the essence of academia was and is a continuous learning, knowing more things provides more learning opportunities. Keio respects his thought and put the rule in "Rules in Keio Gijuku" that there shouldn't be any hierarchy between teachers and learners, all of the people in Keio Gijuku are in the same company. For this reason, there is still a culture in this university that all professors and lecturers are called with the honorific of "Kun" but never "Teacher" or "Professor". Collaboration in a company is a uniqueness of Keio. Fukuzawa stated in 1879 that the Keio's success today is because of the collaboration in its company, "Collaboration in a company" came from this article.
People in Keio think that all of the people related to Keio are the part of their company, thus they should try to help each other like brothers and sisters. This culture has been seen in the alumni organization called Mita-Kai. Keio University was established in 1858 as a School of Western studies located in one of the mansion houses in Tsukiji by the founder Fukuzawa Yukichi, its root is considered as the Han school for Kokugaku studies named Shinshu Kan established in 1796. Keio changed its name as "Keio Gijuku" in 1868, which came from the era name "Keio" and "Gijuku" as the translation of Private school, it moved to the current location in 1871, established the Medical school in 1873, the official university department with Economics and Literacy study in 1890. Keio has been forming its structure in the following chronological order. There have been several notable things in Keio's over 150-year history as shown below. Keio launched Hiromoto Watanabe as a first chancellor of the Imperial University in 1886.
He is the first chancellor of the authorized