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Invasion of Jamaica

The Invasion of Jamaica was an amphibious expedition conducted by the English in the Caribbean in 1655 that resulted in the capture of the island from Spain. Before that, Spanish Jamaica was a colony of Spain for over a hundred years. Jamaica's capture was the casus belli that resulted in actual war between England and Spain in 1655. For the next period of the island's history, it was known as the Colony of Jamaica. In 1655 Cromwellian England joined France in its war with Spain. On the continent, an English contingent aided Marshal Turenne in defeating the Spanish at the Battle of the Dunes, but it was on the seas and in the colonies that the English Commonwealth directed its major effort against Spain. On March 31, 1655, Admiral William Penn sailed from Barbados in the West Indies with a fleet of 17 warships and 20 transports carrying 325 cannon, 1,145 seamen, 1,830 soldiers. Reinforced by contingents from other English West Indian colonies to 8,000 strong, Penn was able to land 4,000 men under General Robert Venables near Santo Domingo on April 13.

The English forces suffered continuous setbacks at the hands of negroes and mulattoes during their march to Santo Domingo. They suffered from Spanish artillery bombardment throughout the night of 25 April and into the next morning; the foray was disastrous for the English as the troops were driven back to their ships. After its failure at Santo Domingo, the English expedition under Penn and Venables faced the prospect of returning in defeat to Oliver Cromwell. So the English leaders decided to attempt to capture Jamaica; the island had few defences—the Spanish settlers by this time numbered just over 1,500 men and children. Penn, the English naval commander, had lost his faith in the officers of the accompanying army units after the siege of Santo Domingo, assumed overall command of the English force. On Wednesday morning, being the 9th of May, we saw Jamaica Iand high land afar off. Wednesday the 10th our souldiers in numbers 7000 landed at the 3 forts... On 19 May two Spanish settlers saw a huge fleet just as it rounded Point Morant and warned the Spanish Governor Juan Ramírez de Arellano.

The islanders and the governor were caught off guard and had to man what fortifications they could. At dawn on 21 May the English penetrated the shallows of Caguaya Bay. William Penn transferred from his 60 gun ship Swiftsure aboard a lighter 12 gun galley Martin and led a flotilla of smaller craft; the smaller craft were used. Soon, an exchange of shots began between a battery covering the inner anchorage. A small number of inexperienced defenders was led by Francisco de Proenza, a local hacendado, but they soon gave up the attack. Penn disembarked his contingent and advanced six miles to Santiago de la Vega, which he overran. Penn occupied the town and obliged the defeated Ramirez to a request a parlay. Venables, despite being sick, came ashore on 25 May to dictate terms, he announced to Ramírez that the island was to be permanently annexed by the Commonwealth of England, that the inhabitants are to abandon the island within a fortnight, on pain of death. Ramírez temporized for two days but signed the arrangement on 27 May.

Not all the Spanish residents recognized this arrangement, however. After evacuating many noncombatants from northern Jamaica to Cuba, Maestre de Campo de Proenza established his headquarters at the inland town of Guatibacoa. There he allied with the Jamaican Maroons of the mountainous interior, led by Juan de Bolas and Juan de Serras, to inaugurate a guerrilla war against English occupation; the English were soon falling sick and starving and Penn and Venables would take most of the expedition back to England in August. Justifying Penn's and Venables fears for not capturing Hispaniola, Cromwell threw them both in the Tower; the remaining English suffered from disease and want of provisions, dying by the hundreds. Within a year the 7,000 English officers and troops that took part in the invasion were reduced to 2,500. Sickness soon swept through the Spanish resisters as well. One of the first victims was the unfortunate de Proenza, left blind, he was succeeded by Cristóbal Arnaldo de Issasi, who continued the ineffectual resistance for three more years.

When the English invaded, the Spanish freed their slaves, who fled into the mountainous forests of the interior, where they established free and independent communities, fought a guerrilla war against the English. The Spanish attempted to retake Jamaica twice over the next few years, to this end Issasi relied on his alliance with the Spanish Maroons; the first attempt ended when Issasi was defeated at Ocho Rios in 1657. A much larger force was recruited from New Spain, but was defeated at Rio Nuevo in 1658. However, Governor Edward D'Oyley succeeded in persuading one of the leaders of the Spanish Maroons, Juan de Bolas, to switch sides and join the English along with his Maroon warriors. In 1660, when Issasi realised that de Bolas had joined the English, he admitted that the Spanish no longer had a chance of recapturing the island, since de Bolas and his men knew the mountainous interior better than the Spanish and the English. Issasi gave up on his dreams, fled to Cuba. After these failures, Spain ceded Jamaica and the Cayman islands to the English crown at the Treaty of Madrid.

Under British rule, Jamaica soon became a hugely profitable possession, producing large quantities of sugar for the home market and for other colonies. Black, The story of Jamaica

Fritz Höhn

Leutnant Fritz Höhn was a German World War I fighter ace credited with 21 victories. He had worked his way up to being a fighter squadron commander, was on the verge of eligibility for the German Empire's highest award for heroism, the Blue Max, when he was killed in action on 3 October 1918. Fritz Höhn was born in Wiesbaden, German Empire, on 31 May 1896, he began his military service in the elite 7th Guards Infantry Regiment. Höhn began aerial duty as an artillery spotter in two-seated reconnaissance planes, flying for Flieger-Abteilung 227, he was graduated as a fighter pilot. He joined a fighter squadron, Royal Saxon Jagdstaffel 21 on 15 November 1917, just as they received new Pfalz D. IIIs, he shot down a Breguet 14 bomber on 1 December 1917 for his first victory. Höhn had Pfalz no. 4011/17 painted with diagonal stripes to deceive the aim of anyone shooting at him. He had two rear view mirrors and a teddy bear wired on the rear of the cockpit facing tailwards. However, it is unknown if his teddy bear mascot were successful with this particular plane.

He did become a balloon buster for his next win, shooting down a French kite balloon from 33e Compagnie de Aerostiers on 11 April 1918. The next day, he downed a balloon. On 20 April, he scored two victories on balloons—one each from the 45e and 75e Compagnies—making him an ace. In the process, he was wounded in the knee. Höhn would be out of action until August. By the time he could return to combat, he had been awarded both classes of the Iron Cross, as well as the Knight's Cross of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern. Beginning on 20 August 1918, he added two more enemy aircraft and two more observation balloons to his tally by month's end; that made him a double ace, with ten victories, a balloon ace, with six. Towards the end of the month, Höhn had a fleeting assignment as commander of Royal Prussian Jagdstaffel 81 that lasted until 3 September, he shot down a Spad on both 3 September. For the rest of the month of September 1918, Höhn was the acting commander of Royal Prussian Jagdstaffel 60.

While with them, he scored four more balloons. He was given command of Royal Prussian Jagdstaffel 41, he scored each of the first three days of October 1918, running his total to 21. He was killed in action on 3 October 1918, his Fokker D. VII was downed by a member of French squadron Spa67. Neither his dual rear view mirrors nor his teddy bear mascot saved him. Höhn's final victory total was eleven airplanes. If he had survived, he would have been eligible for the German Empire's highest honor for valor, the Pour le Merite, upon confirmation of his 20th victory. Franks, Norman. Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918. Grub Street, 1993. ISBN 0-948817-73-9, ISBN 978-0-948817-73-1. Franks, Norman. Fokker D VII Aces of World War 1, Part 2. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-729-1. Van Wyngarden, Greg. Pfalz Scout Aces of World War 1. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-998-1


Petroxestes is a shallow, elongate boring found excavated in carbonate skeletons and hardgrounds of the Upper Ordovician of North America. These Ordovician borings were made by the mytilacean bivalve Corallidomus as it ground a shallow groove in the substrate to maintain its feeding position, they are thus the earliest known bivalve borings. Petroxestes was described from the Lower Silurian of Anticosti Island by Tapanila and Copper and the Miocene of the Caribbean by Pickerill et al.. Pickerill, R. D. Donovan, S. K. Portell, R. W.. "The bioerosional ichnofossil Petroxestes pera Wilson and Palmer from the Middle Miocene of Carriacou, Lesser Antilles". Caribbean Journal of Science. 37: 130–131. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Pojeta, J. Jr. Palmer, T. J.. "The origin of rock boring in mytilacean pelecypods". Alcheringa. 1: 167–179. Doi:10.1080/03115517608619068. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Tapanila, L. Copper, P.. "Endolithic trace fossils in Ordovician-Silurian corals and stromatoporoids, Anticosti Island, eastern Canada".

Acta Geologica Hispanica. 37: 15–20. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Taylor, P. D. Wilson. M. A.. "Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities". Earth-Science Reviews. 62: 1–103. Doi:10.1016/S0012-825200131-9. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Wilson, M. A. Palmer, T. J.. "Nomenclature of a bivalve boring from the Upper Ordovician of the midwestern United States". Journal of Paleontology. 62: 306–308. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Wilson, M. A. Palmer, T. J.. "Patterns and processes in the Ordovician Bioerosion Revolution". Ichnos. 13: 109–112. Doi:10.1080/10420940600850505. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list

Holland (CDP), New York

Holland is a hamlet and census-designated place in Erie County, New York, United States. The population was 1,206 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Buffalo -- Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area. Holland is located at 42°38′28″N 78°32′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.6 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,261 people, 488 households, 328 families living in the CDP; the population density was 354.7 per square mile. There were 507 housing units at an average density of 142.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 98.10% White, 0.63% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.48% Asian, 0.08% from other races, 0.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.32% of the population. There were 488 households out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families.

27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.19. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.5 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $39,702, the median income for a family was $56,806. Males had a median income of $40,250 versus $25,461 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $18,721. About 7.5% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.6% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over

YDG SRA protein domain

In molecular biology, this protein domain has been termed SRA-YDG, the abbreviation for SET and Ring finger Associated, YDG motif. Additional characteristics of the domain include conservation of up to 13 evenly spaced glycine residues and a VRVRG motif; the protein domain is found in plants and animals and in bacteria. The function of this protein domain, in animals, is to aid progression through the cell cycle; this domain is associated with the Np95-like ring finger protein and the related gene product Np97, which contains PHD and RING FINGER domains. Np95 is a chromatin-associated ubiquitin ligase, binding to histones is direct and shows a remarkable preference for histone H3 and its N-terminal tail; the SRA-YDG domain contained in Np95 is needed for the interaction with histones and for chromatin binding in vivo. In plants the SRA-YDG domain is associated with the SET domain, found in a family of histone methyl transferases, which switch genes "off" by adding a methyl group. In bacteria it is found in association with a non-specific nuclease motif.

This protein domain contains both alpha helices and beta sheets. In particular, the beta sheets are arranged in an antiparallel formation. More it contains a beta grasp fold

List of banks in the Dominican Republic

This is a list of banks in Dominican Republic as of November 2010, published by the Bank Superintendency, including credit unions and other financial services companies that offer banking services and may be popularly referred to as "banks". Central Bank of the Dominican Republic The main local banks: Central Bank of the Dominican Republic,Banco Popular Dominicano and Banco BHD Leon contribute more than 60% market share. BanReservas Banco Popular Dominicano Banco BHD Leon Banco del Progreso Banco Santa Cruz Banco Caribe Banco BDI Banco Vimenca Banco Lopez de Haro Bancamérica Banesco Scotiabank Banco Promerica Banco Atlántico Banco Bancotuí Banco BDA Banco Adopem Banco Agrícola De La Republica Dominicana Banco Pyme Bhd Banco Ademi Banco Capital Banco Confisa Banco De Desarrollo Idecosa Banco Empire Banco Motor Credito Banco Río Banco Providencial Banco Del Caribe Banco Inmobiliario Banco Gruficorp Banco Cofaci Banco Atlas Banco Bonanza Banco Bellbank Banco Fihogar Banco Federal Banco Micro Banco Unión Kneutt F.

Bank Asociación Popular de Ahorros y Préstamos Asociación Cibao Asociación Nortena Asociación Romana Asociación Higuamo Asociación La Vega Real Asociación Duarte Asociación Barahona Asociación Maguana Asociación Mocana Asociación Bonao Asociación La Nacional Asociación Noroestana Banco Intercontinental Bancrédito Banco Mercantil Republic Bank Banco Altas Cumbres Banco Peravia. Bank Superintendency of the Dominican Republic Central Bank of the Dominican Republic