Kinneil House is a historic house to the west of Bo'ness in east-central Scotland. It was once the principal seat of the Hamilton family in the east of Scotland; the house was saved from demolition in 1936 when 16th-century mural paintings were discovered, it is now in the care of Historic Scotland. It sits within a public park, which incorporates a section of the Roman Antonine Wall and the only visible example of an Antonine fortlet available today. A digital reconstruction of the fortlet has been created; the house now consists of a symmetrical mansion built in 1677 on the remains of an earlier 16th- or 15th-century tower house, with two rows of gunloops for early cannon still visible. A smaller east wing, of the mid 16th century, contains the two painted rooms; the house is protected as a Category A listed building. The lands of Kinneil with Larbert and Auldcathy were given to Walter Fitz Gilbert, an ancestor of the Hamilton family by Robert the Bruce in 1323. A charter of 1474 mentions a castle at "Craig Lyown", the saltpans which added to the estate income.
The Castle of Lyon was nearer the sea at Snab Brae, remembered by the name of Castleloan housing estate. Parts of an older castle, which replaced the castle at the Snab may be incorporated in the present building. James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran wished to be buried at Hamilton; the east wing of the surviving building, the earlier tower with wide-mouthed gunloops, was built by James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran. He was the Governor or Regent of Scotland on the death of James V; some payments were recorded in the royal treasurer's accounts. Coal was shipped from Kinneil to Leith for Edinburgh Castle, timber for repairing Arran's chamber at'Craig Lyon' came from Leith in May 1545. Timber for roofing and panelling was sent by boat from Leith in 1549 and 1550 to complete one section; the garden or "yaird" was improved for the Spring of 1553, by planting trees, hedges and lettuce. In September 1553, Arran gave a gift of 44 shillings to masons laying the foundation stones of another part of the Palace.
One of the masons was Thomas Bargany and at this time John Scrimgeour of Myres was Arran's master of work or architect. The 16th century painted interior decoration and a stone armorial carry Arran's ducal coronet, the collar of the Order of Saint Michael, French honours he received in 1548; the stone has the Hamilton motto, the woodsman's cry, "Through!", the arms of his wife, Margaret Douglas, with her motto "Lock Sickar", meaning secure or steadfast. The armorial stone was set on the north pavilion of the main block, is now displayed with other carved stones in a cellar. One of his painted rooms has decoration that evokes verdure tapestry and vignettes of Samson and Delilah and Isaac, David and Bathsheba and The Temptation of St. Anthony; the other room has scenes from the Parable of the Good Samaritan, Saint Jerome and Mary Magdalene. The original use of this suite of rooms is unknown; the subjects of these paintings allude to the Power of Women a political reference to Mary of Guise, Mary Queen of Scots and the two Tudor Queens of England.
The house was empty on 4 February 1560 when French troops led by d'Oysel burnt it. On Easter Day 1562, the 3rd Earl of Arran, who suffered from mental ill health, escaped from his father and bedchamber at Kinneil using sheets as a rope; the drop was 30 fathoms. After the battle of Corrichie in October 1562, Arran was the reluctant keeper of George Gordon at Kinneil, the forfeited heir of the Earl of Huntly. Regent Lennox damaged the house with gunpowder and spoiled the lands after the assassination of Regent Moray at Linlithgow by a Hamilton. James VI reduced the power of the Hamiltons by military force in 1579, the Duke's wife, Margaret Douglas, daughter Lady Jean Hamilton, Countess of Eglinton, were brought to Kinneil from Craignethan Castle. In 1581 the king gave their titles to James Stewart; the new Earl resided at Kinneil until after his own fall in the autumn of 1585, when he remained at Kinneil under house-arrest, for a time Kinneil was called Arran House. James VI of Scotland stayed in May 1582, to receive an envoy, Signor Paul, sent by the Duke of Guise with a gift of horses and gunpowder.
The visit was controversial because Paul was known to have been involved in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. After the Raid of Ruthven, the Earl of Arran was confined at Kinneil; when the Ruthven regime collapsed, James VI came to banquet at Kinneil with Arran on 13 November 1583. The next day, Ludovic Stewart son of the King's favourite Esmé Stewart arrived from France at Leith and was taken to Kinneil to meet the King. James VI held court at Kinneil again at Christmas-time in 1588 as the guest of John Hamilton, Commendator of Arbroath, he played at the "maye" with his English courtier, Roger Aston, told him that the more he did to please Elizabeth the less regard she had of him. The Earl of Huntly, the Earl of Crawford and the Chancellor, John Maitland, were present; the Arbour Room was redecorated c.1620 for James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Hamilton and his wife Ann Cunningham and the "shakefork" and rabbit supporters of Cunningham heraldry can still be seen. This painting was certainly the work of Valentine Jenkins and burgess of Glasgow, painter of the Chapel Royal at Stirling Castle.
When Anne died in 1644, she left Kinneil with its new tapestries and the furnishings she had made to her son, James, 1st Duke of Hamilton. She had laboured to make the coal mines and salt pans profitable and urged him to employ faithful servants a
Auchendavy was a Roman fort on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. Much of the site archeology was destroyed by the builders of the Clyde Canal. Between Bar Hill and Balmuildy the wall follows the southern bank of the River Kelvin; the site of the fort is north of Kirkintilloch's northern border. It can be seen as a mound mid-way between the road. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the excavation of the site, he says, "Auchendavy is distinguished for the large number of antiquities found in and about it." "About it" includes Shirva Farm in Twechar. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well although the troops were not allowed to marry. There is too to have been large communities of civilians around the site. A centurion called, he was a soldier with the Second Augusta Legion. A sandstone altar to Jupiter and Victory was found in a pit to the south-west of the Roman fort at Auchendavy.
There is an altar to Silvanus. A sandstone altar, dedicated to the Presiding Spirit of the Land of Britain, was found near Auchendavy fort. Again a sandstone altar to Diana and Apollo, was found near Auchendavy fort, yet another altar to Mars was discovered. It has dedications to: Minerva, parade-ground goddesses, Hercules and Victory. A distance slab by the 20th Legion Valiant was found. A fragment of a male torso was found too. Gordon and others speak of coins; the ballista bullets are said to have been upwards of fifty in number. Two iron mallets were found. Many other artefacts have been found at Shirva, near Twechar
Summerston is a residential area of Glasgow, Scotland. With most of the housing constructed in the 1970s, it is situated in the far north of the city and is sometimes considered to be part of the larger Maryhill district, but has a different postcode. With open farmland to the north-east, Summerston is separated from the southern parts of the town of Bearsden to the north-west by the River Kelvin and a golf course. Summerston has a riding school run by UK charity Riding for the Disabled; the area is home to St Blane's Primary and John Paul Academy. The 4th Glasgow Scout Beaver Colony and Cub Scout Pack are based in Caldercuilt Primary School at 101 Invershiel Road, it is home to Summerston Childcare, the most popular Family Learning and Out of School centre in Summerston having had a waiting list for their classes since their opening in 1995. Maryhill Harriers running club meet at John Paul Academy as well as various other clubs together with a range of fitness class in the evening at the school.
Summerston has several large shops, including an ASDA, a B&M Bargains and a Poundstretchers store, a flooring shop and chemist. There is an entrance to Maryhill Park from Summerston which contains tennis courts, a children’s play area and walking paths; the current Summerston railway station is about a mile and a half south of the original one, on the Kelvin Valley Railway. The original station was north and west of the River Kelvin, close to the Summerston Farm and Cottages and the site of a fortlet on the Antonine Wall; the fortlet was discovered from aerial observation in 1980. A temporary marching camp, south of the Kelvin, was found in 1978 from the air. A sandstone distance slab was found at Summerston Farm before 1694. A video of scans taken from the stone has been produced; the slab, reminiscent of The Bridgeness Slab, was made by the Second Legion and depicts a helmeted horseman and naked captives. It is now in the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow; the slab was originally painted with bright pigments.
The colours were found using laser technology. The gorey slabs showed natives with bright red blood on their faces and legs; the neighbouring forts to this forlet were at Bearsden at Balmuildy to the east. Another Summerston slab can be compared with one found near Castlehill. Both these similar slabs, like two others from Duntocher have two decorative pelta shields, one on either side of the slab; the horns of each shield are embellished with three rosettes on the Castlehill slab whereas the Summerton slab has these end in two griffins' heads. The first, badly weathered, slab has four rosettes between the inscription, it was found in 1803 on Low Millochan farm. The farm called East Millichen, is near Summerston, it records the building of 3666.5 paces of wall by the Sixth Legion. MacDonald relates that some of the abbreviations are unusual, he suggests. On the similar Castlehill slab he suggests the stone-cutter has blundered and made a letter P where he should have a letter F on the fourth line.
The Castlehill slab records 3666.5 paces although the units used are a matter of ongoing research. There is some evidence of a Roman bridge over the Kelvin between Balmuildy. Summerston was part of the parish of Strathblane. Ironstone and coal were mined in the area. Neighbourhood Profile and statistics at Understanding Glasgow Black and White Town, music video by Doves filmed at Summerston and featuring local children
Mumrills was the site of the largest Roman fort on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. It is possible; some believe. The farm at Mumrills was used as an early site for the Falkirk Relief Church. Excavations, which took place in the years 1923-1928 and 1958-1960, established its outline. Photographs of the excavations can be found online. An altar to Hercules Magusanus was found in 1841 "near the Bridge at Brightons" about a mile south-east of this fort, it is now in the National Museums Scotland. A second altar to the Matres was found at Mumrills; the altar was dedicated by a signifer serving at the fort. The historian Alfred von Domaszewski had suggested that the "Matres" mentioned in the altar were the Campestres, another term for the Silvanae, it was carved between 140 and 165 AD. A third inscribed stone has been described as a "Funerary inscription for Nectovelius". George Macdonald says the translation is: "To the Divine Manes. Nectovelius, son of Vindex. Aged thirty. A Brigantian by birth, he served for nine years in the Second Cohort of Thracians."
The Brigantes were a Celtic tribe who controlled the largest section of what would become Northern England. This shows local recruitment of native Britons. A stone carving of Hercules was found in a back garden in the village of Laurieston, Falkirk in 1987. Other finds include a section of a palmate funerary monument, a heavy, iron chisel, a set of wrought iron tongs, a box flue tile, a cooking pot of back burnished ware, a large piece of Roman concrete made out of crushed tile. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well although the troops were not allowed to marry. There is too to have been large communities of civilians around the site. Something of the soldiers' diet may be inferred from the variety of animal bones and shells found at the fort. Other buildings have been found which might have supported smelly industries like tanning or smithing. A hearth was found which could have been used to support troops
Seabegs Wood was the site of a Roman fortlet on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. At Seabegs, the outline of Antonine's Wall, has lasted. Archaeologists from previous generations recorded this and stated that the ditch was deep and watterlogged. There is an underpass under the Clyde Canal nearby known locally as the Pend. In in the 1890s, the Antonine Wall Committee of Glasgow Archaeological Society’s cut several trenches across the Roman rampart; these uncovered its stone base. Subsequent excavations in 1977 found a Roman fortlet attached to the south of the Rampart. In 1981, a mound little has been discovered; the neighbouring forts to this fortlet are Rough Castle in the east. Sir George Macdonald and others theorized that because these neighbouring fort were widespread another structure was in the Seabegs area. No coinage has been recovered nor any inscriptions. There are two marching camps nearby at Milnquarter. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well although the troops were not allowed to marry.
There is too to have been large communities of civilians around the site. Drone footage from Seabegs Wood ]
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland
The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland was an executive non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government, "sponsored" through Historic Scotland, an executive agency of the Scottish Government. As one of the country's National Collections, it was responsible for recording and collecting information about the built and historic environment; this information, which relates to buildings and ancient monuments of archaeological and historical interest, as well as historical aspects of the landscape, was made available to the public at no cost. It was established by a Royal Warrant of 1908, revised in 1992; the RCAHMS merged with government agency Historic Scotland to form Historic Environment Scotland, a new executive non-departmental public body on 1 October 2015. The Royal Commission was established in 1908, twenty-six years after the passage of the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882, which provided the first state protection for ancient monuments in the United Kingdom, eight years after the passage of the wider-ranging Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1900.
Critics – including David Murray in his Archaeological Survey of the United Kingdom and Gerard Baldwin Brown in his Care of Ancient Monuments – had argued that, for the legislation to be effective, detailed lists of significant monuments needed to be compiled. Brown, Professor of Fine Art at the University of Edinburgh, explicitly proposed that the issues should be addressed by a Royal Commission, comparable to the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, his suggestion was favourably received by Sir John Sinclair, Secretary for Scotland, following a brief period of consultation, the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland was established on 14 February 1908, with Brown as one of its first Commissioners. The equivalent Royal Commission for Wales was established in August 1908; the Commission was based in Edinburgh where it had a huge selection of photographs and drawings for consultation. It published a range of books and documents on Scottish architecture and archaeology.
Study was increasingly conducted of neglected industrial and agricultural constructions, as well as 20th-century buildings, including high-rise tower blocks. RCAHMS maintained a database/archive of the sites and buildings of Scotland's past, known as the National Monuments Record of Scotland. A growing proportion of RCAHMS's own survey material and material deposited in the archive by others was made available through online databases such as Canmore. Since 1976, RCAHMS conducted intensive aerial survey of archaeological sites, buildings and natural features. In addition to its holdings of its own aerial photographs, it held the National Collection of Aerial Photography, one of the largest and most important aerial imagery collections in the world, containing over 1.8 million aerial photographs of Scotland including large numbers of Royal Air Force oblique and vertical aerial photographs taken of Scotland during and in the years after the Second World War, as well as post-war Ordnance Survey and national government, commercial vertical aerial photographs, over 10 million images of international sites as part of The Aerial Reconnaissance Archives.
The RCAHMS in conjunction with Historic Scotland hosted a map-based GIS portal called PASTMAP. This allowed Historic Scotland, NMRS, Scottish Natural Heritage and some Local Authority Sites and Monuments data sets to be viewed together. Other online resources managed by RCAHMS included Scran, a UK charity with a learning image service of over 367,000 images, clip art and sounds from museums, galleries and the media. RCAHMS was one of the first national collections in Scotland to embed social media into its online services, enabling user generated images and information to be added to the national database Canmore. An outreach programme included publications, exhibitions and training sessions for students and other groups, a series of free lunchtime lectures, as well as daily Facebook and Twitter feeds. From 2011, the RCAHMS maintained the Buildings at Risk Register for Scotland on behalf of Historic Scotland; the register was maintained by the Scottish Civic Trust. Under the terms of a Bill of the Scottish Parliament published on 3 March 2014 RCAHMS would be dissolved and its responsibilities including the management of collections undertaken by a new executive Non-departmental public body to be called Historic Environment Scotland, which would take over the property management responsibilities of Historic Scotland.
This occurred on 1 October 2015. RCAHMS recorded all buildings and monuments of note until the year 1707; this was updated to 1805. The findings were published in a series of inventories. Changes in what constitutes a construction "of note", plus developments in how the public could access this information, led to the abandonment of the inventories after publication of the last Argyll volume in 1992. Only one-half of Scotland was covered by this method. Although the volumes are now all out-of-print, they are available online on the Scotland's Places website, through most large public libraries, or via Historic Env
The Antonine Wall, known to the Romans as Vallum Antonini, was a turf fortification on stone foundations, built by the Romans across what is now the Central Belt of Scotland, between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. Representing the northernmost frontier barrier of the Roman Empire, it spanned 63 kilometres and was about 3 metres high and 5 metres wide. Lidar scans have been carried out to establish the length of the wall and the Roman distance units used. Security was bolstered by a deep ditch on the northern side, it is thought. The barrier was the second of two "great walls" created by the Romans in what the English once called Northern Britain, its ruins are less evident than the better-known Hadrian's Wall to the south because the turf and wood wall has weathered away, unlike its stone-built southern predecessor. Construction began in AD 142 at the order of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, took about 12 years to complete. Antoninus Pius never visited Britain. Pressure from the Caledonians may have led Antoninus to send the empire's troops further north.
The Antonine Wall was protected by 16 forts with small fortlets between them. The soldiers who built the wall commemorated the construction and their struggles with the Caledonians in decorative slabs, twenty of which survive; the wall was abandoned only eight years after completion, the garrisons relocated back to Hadrian's Wall. In 208 Emperor Septimius ordered repairs; the occupation ended a few years and the wall was never fortified again. Most of the wall and its associated fortifications have been destroyed over time, but some remains are visible. Many of these have come under the care of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius ordered the construction of the Antonine Wall around 142. Quintus Lollius Urbicus, governor of Roman Britain at the time supervised the effort, which took about twelve years to complete; the wall stretches 63 kilometres from Old Kilpatrick in West Dunbartonshire on the Firth of Clyde to Carriden near Bo'ness on the Firth of Forth. The wall was intended to extend Roman territory and dominance by replacing Hadrian's Wall 160 kilometres to the south, as the frontier of Britannia.
But while the Romans did establish many forts and temporary camps further north of the Antonine Wall in order to protect their routes to the north of Scotland, they did not conquer the Caledonians, the Antonine Wall suffered many attacks. The Romans called the land north of the wall Caledonia, though in some contexts the term may refer to the whole area north of Hadrian's Wall; the Antonine Wall was shorter than Hadrian's Wall and built of turf on a stone foundation, but it was still an impressive achievement. It was a simpler fortification than Hadrian's Wall insofar as it did not have a subsidiary ditch system behind it to the south, as Hadrian's Wall did with its Vallum; the stone foundations and wing walls of the original forts on the Antonine Wall demonstrate that the original plan was to build a stone wall similar to Hadrian's Wall, but this was amended. As built, the wall was a bank, about four metres high, made of layered turves and earth with a wide ditch on the north side, a military way on the south.
The Romans planned to build forts every 10 kilometres, but this was soon revised to every 3.3 kilometres, resulting in a total of nineteen forts along the wall. The best preserved but one of the smallest forts is Rough Castle Fort. In addition to the forts, there are at least 9 smaller fortlets likely on Roman mile spacings, which formed part of the original scheme, some of which were replaced by forts; the most visible fortlet is Kinneil, at the eastern end of the Wall, near Bo'ness. There was once a remarkable Roman structure within sight of the Antonine Wall at Stenhousemuir; this was Arthur's O'on, a circular stone domed monument or rotunda, which may have been a temple, or a tropaeum, a victory monument. It was demolished for its stone in 1743. In addition to the line of the Wall itself there are a number of coastal forts both in the East and West, which should be considered as outposts and/or supply bases to the Wall itself. In addition a number of forts farther north were brought back into service in the Gask Ridge area, including Ardoch, Strageath and Dalginross and Cargill.
Recent research by Glasgow University has shown that the distance stones, stone sculptures unique to the Antonine Wall which were embedded in the wall to mark the lengths built by each legion, were brightly painted unlike their present bare appearance. These stones are preserved in the University's museum and are said to be the best-preserved examples of statuary from any Roman frontier. Several of the slabs have been analysed by various techniques including portable X-ray fluorescence. Tiny remnants of paint have been detected by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Several of the distance slabs have been scanned and 3-D videos produced. There are plans to reproduce the slabs, both digitally and in real physical copies, with their authentic colours. A copy of the Bridgeness Slab has been made and can be found in Bo'ness, it is expected that lottery funding will allow replicas of distance markers to be placed along the length of the wall. The wall was abandoned onl