Inversion (meteorology)

In meteorology, an inversion known as a temperature inversion, is a deviation from the normal change of an atmospheric property with altitude. It always refers to an inversion of the thermal lapse rate. Air temperature decreases with an increase in altitude. During an inversion, warmer air is held above cooler air. An inversion traps air pollution, such as smog, close to the ground. An inversion can suppress convection by acting as a "cap". If this cap is broken for any of several reasons, convection of any moisture present can erupt into violent thunderstorms. Temperature inversion can notoriously result in freezing rain in cold climates. Within the lower atmosphere the air near the surface of the Earth is warmer than the air above it because the atmosphere is heated from below as solar radiation warms the Earth's surface, which in turn warms the layer of the atmosphere directly above it, e.g. by thermals. Air temperature decreases with an increase in altitude because higher air is at lower pressure, lower pressure results in lower temperature, following the ideal gas law and adiabatic lapse rate.

Given the right conditions, the normal vertical temperature gradient is inverted such that the air is colder near the surface of the Earth. This can occur when, for example, a warmer, less-dense air mass moves over a cooler, denser air mass; this type of inversion occurs in the vicinity of warm fronts, in areas of oceanic upwelling such as along the California coast in the United States. With sufficient humidity in the cooler layer, fog is present below the inversion cap. An inversion is produced whenever radiation from the surface of the earth exceeds the amount of radiation received from the sun, which occurs at night, or during the winter when the angle of the sun is low in the sky; this effect is confined to land regions as the ocean retains heat far longer. In the polar regions during winter, inversions are nearly always present over land. A warmer air mass moving over a cooler one can "shut off" any convection which may be present in the cooler air mass; this is known as a capping inversion.

However, if this cap is broken, either by extreme convection overcoming the cap, or by the lifting effect of a front or a mountain range, the sudden release of bottled-up convective energy – like the bursting of a balloon – can result in severe thunderstorms. Such capping inversions precede the development of tornadoes in the Midwestern United States. In this instance, the "cooler" layer is quite warm, but is still denser and cooler than the lower part of the inversion layer capping it. An inversion can develop aloft as a result of air sinking over a wide area and being warmed by adiabatic compression associated with subtropical high-pressure areas. A stable marine layer may develop over the ocean as a result; as this layer moves over progressively warmer waters, turbulence within the marine layer can lift the inversion layer to higher altitudes, even pierce it, producing thunderstorms, under the right circumstances, tropical cyclones. The accumulated smog and dust under the inversion taints the sky reddish seen on sunny days.

Temperature inversion stops atmospheric convection from happening in the affected area and can lead to the air becoming stiller and murky from the collection of dust and pollutants that are no longer able to be lifted from the surface. This can become a problem in cities. Inversion effects occur in big cities such as: but in smaller cities such as: These cities are surrounded by hills and mountains, or on plains which are surrounded by mountain chains, which makes an inversion trap the air in the city. During a severe inversion, trapped air pollutants form a brownish haze that can cause respiratory problems; the Great Smog of 1952 in London, England, is one of the most serious examples of such an inversion. It was blamed for an estimated 11,000 to 12,000 deaths. Sometimes the inversion layer is at a high enough altitude that cumulus clouds can condense but can only spread out under the inversion layer; this prevents new thermals from forming. As the clouds disperse, sunny weather replaces cloudiness in a cycle that can occur more than once a day.

As the temperature of air increases, the index of refraction of air decreases, a side effect of hotter air being less dense. This results in distant objects being shortened vertically, an effect, easy to see at sunset where the sun is visible as an oval. In an inversion, the normal pattern is reversed, distant objects are instead stretched out or appear to be above the horizon, leading to the phenomenon known as a Fata Morgana or mirage. Inversions can magnify the so-called "green flash"—a phenomenon occurring at sunrise or sunset visible for a few seconds, in which the sun's green light is isolated due to dispersion; the shorter wavelength is refracted most, so it is the first or last light from the upper rim of the solar disc to be seen. High frequency radio waves can be refracted by inversions, making it possible to hear FM radio or watch VHF low-band television broadcasts from long distances on foggy nights; the signal, which would be refracted up and away from the ground-based antenna, is instead refracted down towards the earth by the temperature-inversion boundary layer.

This phenomenon is called tropospheric ducting. Along coast lines during Autumn and Spring, due to multiple stations being present because of red

Jennifer DiNoia

Jennifer DiNoia is an American singer and actress. She is best known for her work in the theatre Wicked, playing the lead role of Elphaba in various productions around the world. Jennifer DiNoia was raised in Meriden, Connecticut, she began dancing at the age of 3, at the age of 6, took part in a national tour of The King and I. She continued to dance and sing through her youth, began attending Point Park University in Pittsburgh, majoring in dance. After taking a summer internship at the Broadway Dance Center, DiNoia opted to move to New York City in search of stage work as a dancer. Jennifer has a daughter named Joules Simeone Stassi. Born on November 10, 2015 through caesarean section. DiNoia's first professional credit came when she was cast on the US national tour of Mamma Mia!. She appeared in the ensemble, as well as providing cover for the role of Ali. In 2003, while on the Mamma Mia tour, DiNoia was inspired after hearing "Defying Gravity", the signature song from the released musical Wicked, took her first professional singing lessons.

In the Summer of 2004, DiNoia joined the Las Vegas production of We Will Rock You, appearing as part of the original American cast in the ensemble and as understudy for the lead role Scaramouche. After leaving We Will Rock You, DiNoia auditioned for Wicked, was cast in the Chicago production as a swing, she became emergency cover for the lead role of Elphaba. She became the standby for Elphaba in October 2007, providing cover for Dee Roscioli and Lisa Brescia. DiNoia remained with the Chicago company until it closed in January 2009. Following the closure, DiNoia transferred to the Broadway production of Wicked, taking over the role of Elphaba standby from Julie Reiber. In the November of the same year, DiNoia travelled to Sydney, Australia to provide emergency standby for Elphaba for one month, departing in December 2009. DiNoia returned to the Broadway company, remained the Elphaba standby until August 2011, when she was replaced by Donna Vivino. In June 2012, DiNoia returned to this time with the Asian touring company.

She appeared as an alternate Elphaba, performing in Seoul, South Korea when lead Jemma Rix was unavailable. This marked the third country. In October 2012, she returned to the role as Elphaba standby in the Broadway company, before Vivino returned to the role on month later. After appearing in Wicked in various roles for over six years, DiNoia was cast in the lead role of Elphaba in April 2013, replacing Christine Dwyer on the "Munchkinland Tour" - the second national touring company, she appeared as Elphaba alongside Hayley Podschun. Both DiNoia and Podschun left the company after one year in April 2014, she was replaced by Laurel Harris. In 2014, DiNoia performed "Defying Gravity" at the opening ceremony of the 2014 Special Olympics in New Jersey, she again served as temporary Elphaba standby on Broadway, before Lilli Cooper could take on the role. In September 2014, DiNoia was revealed to be the next lead Elphaba in the West End production of Wicked, she became the second American to appear as Elphaba in London, following the original lead Idina Menzel, while the United Kingdom became the fourth country that DiNoia had played Elphaba in.

She replaced Kerry Ellis on 27 October 2014, appearing alongside Savannah Stevenson as Glinda. DiNoia's limited engagement in London came to an end on 31 January 2015, when she was replaced by Elphaba standby Emma Hatton. In February 2015 DiNoia joined the first national tour of Wicked in Los Angeles, CA for a four-week engagement, following the unexpected sudden departure of Elphaba actress Emma Hunton, she was part of the tour's final cast, her run ended on March 15 when the tour closed after ten years on the road. Following the closure of the first national tour of Wicked, it was announced that DiNoia would be succeeding Christine Dwyer as temporary lead Elphaba in the Broadway company starting on March 19, 2015, she played the role for 3 weeks until Caroline Bowman returned to the role after a break of 2 months. On August 1, 2016 DiNoia rejoined the Broadway production of Wicked, replacing Rachel Tucker as lead Elphaba at the Gershwin Theatre, she remained with the show until July 29, 2017, was succeeded by Jackie Burns.

DiNoia returned to the Broadway production on June 4, 2019, once again assuming the role of standby for Elphaba

Abbey Road, London

Abbey Road is a thoroughfare in the borough of Camden and the City of Westminster in London, running northwest to southeast through St. John's Wood, near Lord's Cricket Ground, it is part of the B507 road. This road is best known for the Abbey Road Studios and for being the namesake of the 1969 album by the Beatles; the north western end of Abbey Road begins in Kilburn, at the junction with Quex Road and West End Lane. The road was once a track leading to Kilburn Priory and its associated Abbey Farm, was developed in the early 19th century, it continues south east for a mile, crossing Belsize Road, Boundary Road, Marlborough Place, ending at the junction of Grove End Road and Garden Road. The Abbey National Building Society was founded in 1874 as The Abbey Road & St John's Wood Permanent Benefit Building Society in a Baptist church on Abbey Road. EMI's Abbey Road Studios are located at 3 Abbey Road, St John's Wood; the Beatles and many other famous popular music performers have recorded at this studio, the Beatles named their last studio LP after this street.

The album's cover photograph shows the four group members walking across the zebra crossing just outside the studio entrance. As a result of its association with the Beatles, since 1969, this part of Abbey Road has been featured on the London tourism circuit. In December 2010, the crossing was given Grade II Listed Building status by English Heritage; the zebra crossing featured on the Beatles cover has become a popular photo-opportunity area, despite the road still being a busy thoroughfare for traffic. The album cover of the Beatles has been parodied many times over the years; the street sign on the corner of Grove End Road and Abbey Road is now mounted high on the building on the corner, to save the local council the expense of cleaning and replacing the sign, defaced or stolen. The council repaints the wall next to the zebra crossing every three months to cover fans' graffiti. Abbey Road is a ward of the City of Westminster. At the 2011 Census, this ward had a population of 11,250. Abbey Road London, QuickTime VR Abbey Road webcam Satellite View of Crosswalk / Zebra crossing Google Street View of Crosswalk / Zebra crossing