John Muir Trail
The John Muir Trail is a long-distance trail in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California, passing through Yosemite, Kings Canyon and Sequoia National Parks. For almost all of its length, the trail is in the High Sierra backcountry, for about 160 miles, the trail, named for naturalist John Muir, follows the same footpath as the longer Pacific Crest Trail. The vast majority of the trail is situated within designated wilderness, the trail passes through large swaths of alpine and high mountain scenery, and lies almost entirely at or above 8,000 feet in elevation. About 35% of the trail, including the entirety of the last 30 miles, the official length of the JMT, as stated by the United States Geological Survey, is 210.4 miles. From its northern terminus in Yosemite Valley, the trail runs northeast, passing south of Half Dome, the trail begins at the Happy Isle bridge near the Happy Isles Nature Center. The trail ascends steeply up an incline before crossing another bridge meeting with the junction with the Mist Trail.
The trail continues along a cut into Panorama Cliff, called the Ice Cut, although broad and well-traveled, hazardous winter conditions and close proximity to civilization make this one of the most dangerous parts of the trail. After some elevation gain via long switchbacks, the trail reaches the top of Nevada Falls, the trail continues into Little Yosemite Valley, past the trail junctions to Half Dome and Clouds Rest, and into a subalpine basin and passing the Sunrise High Sierra Camp. The trail crosses the Cathedral Range at Cathedral Pass before dropping steeply into Tuolumne Meadows, the trail passes a visitors center and some campgrounds before linking up with the Pacific Crest Trail. The John Muir Trail/Pacific Crest Trail turns south, through the mild Lyell Canyon meadow, at the crest of Donahue Pass, the trail enters Inyo National Forest and the Ansel Adams Wilderness. The trail passes Thousand Island Lake, Garnet Lake, and a number of smaller lakes, the trail continues into Devils Postpile National Monument, where there are a number of opportunities to resupply or exit the trail.
Devils Postpile is located a distance from the trail. The John Muir Trail next enters Kings Canyon National Park and Sequoia National Park crossing some spectacular alpine regions, including Evolution Basin, the Golden Staircase, the trail ends at the summit of Mount Whitney, the highest point in the contiguous United States. From the summit of Mount Whitney, the closest trailhead is Whitney Portal, the lowest point on the trail is the northern terminus at Happy Isles in Yosemite Valley. The highest point on the trail is the terminus, Mount Whitney. With the exception of the first 7 miles leaving Yosemite Valley, the elevation of the trail never falls below 7,000 feet. The trail crosses six mountain passes over 11,000 feet, from north to south, Donohue Pass, Silver Pass, Selden Pass, Muir Pass, Mather Pass, Pinchot Pass, Glen Pass, and Forester Pass. At 13,153 feet, Forester Pass is the highest point along the Pacific Crest Trail, when the United States Geological Survey calculated the official length of the trail, elevation gain and loss was not taken into consideration
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. The National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing almost 190 million acres of land and these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the ranges of the Western United States. Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands, the U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, and around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two different types of forests within the National Forest system. Those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were primarily acquired by the government since 1891. The land had long been in the domain and sometimes repeatedly logged since colonial times.
These are mostly lands that were kept in the domain, with the exception of inholdings. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection, unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, and in many cases encouraged. National Forests are categorized by the U. S. as IUCN Category VI protected areas, the first-designated wilderness areas, and some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, and natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands, many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests
John Muir Wilderness
The John Muir Wilderness is a wilderness area that extends along the crest of the Sierra Nevada of California for 90 miles, in the Inyo and Sierra National Forests. Established in 1964 by the Wilderness Act and named for naturalist John Muir, the wilderness lies along the eastern escarpment of the Sierra from near Mammoth Lakes and Devils Postpile National Monument in the north, to Cottonwood Pass near Mount Whitney in the south. The wilderness area spans the Sierra crest north of Kings Canyon National Park, the wilderness contains some of the most spectacular and highest peaks of the Sierra Nevada, with 57 peaks over 13,000 feet in elevation. The peaks are made of granite from the Sierra Nevada Batholith. The southernmost glacier in the United States, the Palisade Glacier, is contained within the wilderness area, notable eastside glaciated canyons are drained by Rock, McGee, and Bishop Creeks. The eastern escarpment in the wilderness rises from 6,000 to 8,000 feet from base to peak, the Sierra crest contains peaks from 12,000 to 14,000 feet in elevation, including Mount Whitney, the highest peak in the continental United States.
Other notable mountains in the area include the Palisades and Mount Humphreys. Mount Muir is located 2 miles south of Mount Whitney, Mount Williamson is the second-highest peak in the wilderness, at 14,375 feet, it rises in one continuous sweep of granite from the floor of the Owens Valley to a peak just east of the main range. The John Muir Wilderness contains the largest contiguous area above 10,000 feet in the continental United States and it contains large areas of subalpine meadows and fellfields above 10,800 feet, containing stands of whitebark and foxtail pine. From 9,000 feet to 10,800 feet, the wilderness is dominated by lodgepole pines, below the lodgepole forest is forest dominated by Jeffrey pine. Common animals in the wilderness include yellow-bellied marmots, golden-mantled ground squirrels, Clarks nutcrackers, golden trout, the wilderness area includes California bighorn sheep zoological areas, which are set aside for the protection of the species. The wilderness contains 589.5 miles of hiking trails, including the John Muir Trail and the Pacific Crest Trail, the John Muir Wilderness is the second most-visited wilderness in the United States, and quota are required for overnight use on virtually all trailheads.
Duck Lake Lake Virginia Squaw Lake Bibliography of the Sierra Nevada, for further reading Wilderness. net TopoQuest map
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, explorer, soldier and reformer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. Born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, Roosevelt successfully overcame his health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle and he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, and world-famous achievements into a cowboy persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College and his first of many books, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the faction of Republicans in New Yorks state legislature. Returning a war hero, he was elected governor of New York in 1898, the state party leadership distrusted him, so they took the lead in moving him to the prestigious but powerless role of vice presidential candidate as McKinleys running mate in the election of 1900.
Roosevelt campaigned vigorously across the country, helping McKinleys re-election in a victory based on a platform of peace, prosperity. Following the assassination of President McKinley in September 1901, Roosevelt succeeded to the office at age 42, making conservation a top priority, he established a myriad of new national parks and monuments intended to preserve the nations natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal and he greatly expanded the United States Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to end the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, but many of his efforts and much of his legislative agenda were eventually blocked in Congress. Roosevelt successfully groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, to succeed him in the presidency, after leaving office, Roosevelt went on safari in Africa and toured Europe.
Returning to the United States, he became frustrated with Tafts approach, failing to win the Republican presidential nomination in 1912, Roosevelt founded his own party, the Progressive, so-called Bull Moose Party, and called for wide-ranging progressive reforms. The split among Republicans enabled the Democrats to win both the White House and a majority in the Congress in 1912, Republicans aligned with Taft nationally would control the Republican Party for decades. Frustrated at home, Roosevelt led an expedition to the Amazon basin. During World War I, he opposed President Woodrow Wilson for keeping the country out of the war, and offered his military services, although planning to run again for president in 1920, Roosevelt suffered deteriorating health and died in early 1919. Roosevelt has consistently ranked by scholars as one of the greatest American presidents. Historians admire Roosevelt for rooting out corruption in his administration, but are critical of his 1909 libel lawsuits against the World and his face was carved into Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 27,1858, at East 20th Street in New York City and he was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart Mittie Bulloch and glass businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr
Esmeralda County, Nevada
Esmeralda County is a county in the west of U. S. state of Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 783, making it the least populous county in Nevada, Esmeralda County has no incorporated communities. Its county seat is the Census Designated Place of Goldfield and its 2000 census population density of 0.2706 inhabitants per square mile was the second-lowest of any county in the contiguous United States. Its school district has no school, so students in grades 9-12 go to school in Tonopah and are in the database of the Nye County School District. Esmeralda is the only Nevada county in the Los Angeles TV market as defined by A. C. Nielsen, Esmeralda County is one of the original counties in Nevada, established in 1861. When it was organized, it comprised the part of the Nevada Territory south of the 39th parallel, Esmeralda is the Spanish and Portuguese word for emerald. An early California miner from San Jose Ca, James Manning Cory, named the Esmeralda Mining District after the Gypsy dancer, from Victor Hugos novel, just after the organization of Esmeralda County, the vast majority of it wasnt discovered yet.
Frémont was one of the few people who had discovered parts of the county and he had crossed Big Smoky Valley in 1845. Also and its northern corridor had been discovered, in 1862 and 1863, the area along the Reese River was discovered during the Reese River excitement. Explorers kept going south and explored the Shoshone Mountains, the mining district Union was organized after silver was found in 1863 and the settlement of Ione was founded over there. The total area of Esmeralda County more than halved as Nye County was organized on February 16,1864 and that county was entirely created out of land that used to be part of Esmeralda County. Esmeralda has had three county seats, Aurora until 1883, Hawthorne from 1883 to 1907 and finally Goldfield, at one point, due to the disputed border with California, Aurora was simultaneously the county seat of both Mono County and Esmeralda County, Nevada. Samuel Clemens wrote about his time as a miner in the Esmeralda District in his book Roughing It, Esmeralda grew from a gold mining boom in the first years of the 20th century.
The mines were tapped out by the end of the 1910s. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 3,589 square miles. It is the fourth-smallest county in Nevada by area, a very small part of Death Valley National Park lies in its southeast corner. The county is dominated by the Silver Peak and Monte Cristo mountain ranges and it was moved to Goldfield on May 1,1907. The courthouse was opened on May 1,1908 and has been in use since then
Sequoia National Forest
Sequoia National Forest is located in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains of California. The U. S. National Forest is named for the majestic Giant Sequoia trees which populate 38 distinct groves within the boundaries of the forest, the Giant Sequoia National Monument is located in the national forest. Other notable features include glacier-carved landscapes and impressive granite monoliths, the Needles are a series of granite spires atop a narrow ridge above the Kern River. Forest headquarters are located in Porterville, there are local ranger district offices in Dunlap, Lake Isabella, and Springville. The Sequoia National Forest covers 1,193,315 acres and its Giant Sequoia groves are part of its 196,000 acres of old growth forests. Other tree species include, Jeffrey Pine Red Fir Coast Douglas-fir Ponderosa Pine White Fir Lodgepole Pine The Needles are a series of granite atop a narrow ridge above the Kern River. There are six areas within Sequoia NF that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System.
Some of these extend into neighboring National Forests, as indicated, two of them extend into land that is managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The forest is adjacent to Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, Sequoia National Forest was established on July 1,1908 from a portion of Sierra Forest Reserve. On March 2,1909 Theodore Roosevelt added land by Presidential Proclamation, on July 1,19101,951,191 acres was removed from the forest to create the Kern National Forest. This land was returned to Sequoia National Forest on July 1,1915, the Sequoia National Forest has 34 giant sequoia groves. It can be accessed by paved roads, the grove contains many young sequoias approaching diameters of up to 10 feet. Once the second-largest grove, but much logged around 1890-1900, nearly 100 widely scattered old-growth Giant Sequoias remain, good regrowth of younger trees. Home of the Boole Tree, which the loggers spared as it was by far the largest tree in the grove and is now identified as the sixth-largest tree by volume.
Although not among the very largest Giant Sequoias, the General Noble Tree was perhaps among the top 30 largest Giant Sequoias before it was cut, immediately north of the Agnew Grove, near Monarch Wilderness boundary. 36°48N 118°4930W 2050–2250 m. Agnew & Deer Meadow Grove, located between Converse Basin Grove and General Grant Grove, near McGee Overlook. Cherry Gap Grove is a sequoia grove of about thirty-five acres in Sequoia national forest. Listed by Rundel and Flint, very small, too few trees to qualify as a grove according to Willard, contains the 13th largest giant sequoia in the world, The Ishi Giant
Mineral County, Nevada
Mineral County is a county located in the U. S. state of Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,772, Mineral County was carved out of Esmeralda County in 1911 shortly after the county seat of Esmeralda was moved to Goldfield in 1907. Its name came from the area, which is heavily mineralized. Hawthorne has always been its county seat, the county is listed as Nevada Historical Marker 16. The marker is located on U. S. Highway 95 at Walker Lake. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 3,813 square miles. The highest point in Mineral County is Mount Grant at 11,285 ft, the population density was 1 person per square mile. There were 2,866 housing units at a density of 1 per square mile. 8. 44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,31. 60% of all households were made up of individuals and 15. 10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the family size was 2.78. In the county, the population was out with 24. 40% under the age of 18,6. 20% from 18 to 24,22. 50% from 25 to 44,27. 10% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 43 years, for every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.30 males, the median income for a household in the county was $32,891, and the median income for a family was $39,477. Males had an income of $31,929 versus $25,262 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,952, about 11. 00% of families and 15. 20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17. 70% of those under age 18 and 10. 70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,772 people,2,240 households, the population density was 1.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,830 housing units at a density of 0.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 72. 5% white,15. 5% American Indian,4. 1% black or African American,1. 1% Asian,0. 1% Pacific islander,2. 1% from other races, and 4. 4% from two or more races
Sequoia National Park
Sequoia National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada east of Visalia, California, in the United States. It was established on September 25,1890, the park is south of and contiguous with Kings Canyon National Park, the two are administered by the National Park Service together as the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. They were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976, the park is famous for its giant sequoia trees, including the General Sherman tree, the largest tree on Earth. The General Sherman tree grows in the Giant Forest, which five out of the ten largest trees in the world. The Giant Forest is connected by the Generals Highway to Kings Canyon National Parks General Grant Grove, the parks giant sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Indeed, the preserve a landscape that still resembles the southern Sierra Nevada before Euro-American settlement. Many park visitors enter Sequoia National Park through its entrance near the town of Three Rivers at Ash Mountain at 1,700 ft elevation.
The last California grizzly was killed in this park in 1922, the California Black Oak is a key transition species between the chaparral and higher elevation conifer forest. At higher elevations in the front country, between 5,500 and 9,000 feet in elevation, the landscape becomes montane forest-dominated coniferous belt, found here are Ponderosa, Jeffrey and lodgepole pine trees, as well as abundant white and red fir. Found here too are the giant sequoia trees, the most massive living single-stem trees on earth, between the trees and summer snowmelts sometimes fan out to form lush, though delicate, meadows. In this region, visitors often see deer, Douglas squirrels, and American black bears. There are plans to reintroduce the bighorn sheep to this park, the vast majority of the park is roadless wilderness, no road crosses the Sierra Nevada within the parks boundaries. 84 percent of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks is designated wilderness and is only by foot or by horseback. Sequoias backcountry offers a vast expanse of high-alpine wonders, covering the highest-elevation region of the High Sierra, the backcountry includes Mount Whitney on the eastern border of the park, accessible from the Giant Forest via the High Sierra Trail.
On the floor of canyon, at least two days hike from the nearest road, is the Kern Canyon hot spring, a popular resting point for weary backpackers. From the floor of Kern Canyon, the trail ascends again over 8,000 ft to the summit of Mount Whitney, in the summertime, Native Americans would travel over the high mountain passes to trade with tribes to the East. By the time the first European settlers arrived in the area, smallpox had spread to the region. The first European settler to homestead in the area was Hale Tharp, Tharp allowed his cattle to graze the meadow, but at the same time had a respect for the grandeur of the forest and led early battles against logging in the area
Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Fresno, California. The park was established in 1940 and covers 461,901 acres and it incorporated General Grant National Park, established in 1890 to protect the General Grant Grove of giant sequoias. The park is north of and contiguous with Sequoia National Park and they were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976. Humans have inhabited the area for thousands of years, the first Native Americans in the area were Paiute peoples, who moved into the region from their ancestral home east of Mono Lake. The Paiute Nation people used deer and other animals for food. They created trade routes that extended down the slope of the Sierra into the Owens Valley. Kings Canyon had been known to white settlers since the mid-19th century, United States Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes fought to create the Kings Canyon National Park. He hired Ansel Adams to photograph and document this among other parks, the bill combined the General Grant Grove with the backcountry beyond Zumwalt Meadow.
Kings Canyons future was in doubt for nearly fifty years, some wanted to build a dam at the western end of the valley, while others wanted to preserve it as a park. The debate was settled in 1965, when the valley, along with Tehipite Valley, was added to the park, Kings Canyon National Park consists of two sections. The parks Giant Sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and this section of the park is mostly mixed conifer forest, and is readily accessible via paved highways. Both the South and Middle Forks of the Kings Rivers have extensive glacial canyons, one portion of the South Fork canyon, known as the Kings Canyon, gives the entire park its name. Kings Canyon, with a depth of 8,200 feet, is one of the deepest canyons in the United States. The canyon was carved by glaciers out of granite, the Kings Canyon, and its developed area, Cedar Grove, is the only portion of the main part of the park that is accessible by motor vehicle. Both the Kings Canyon and its Middle Fork twin, Tehipite Valley, are deeply incised, U-shaped glacial gorges with relatively flat floors and towering granite cliffs thousands of feet high.
In addition, the canyon has several systems, one of which is Boyden Cave. To the east of the canyons are the peaks of the Sierra Crest, which attain an elevation of 14,248 feet NAVD88 at the summit of North Palisade. This is classic high Sierra country, barren ridges and glacially scoured lake-filled basins
Madera County, California
Madera County, officially the County of Madera, is a county at the geographic center of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 150,865, Madera County comprises the Madera, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical Area. It is located in the eastern San Joaquin Valley and the central Sierra Nevada, the southeasternmost part of Yosemite National Park is located in the countys northeast. Madera County was formed in 1893 from the part of Mariposa County during a special election held on May 16,1893. Citizens residing in the area that was to become Madera County voted 1,179 to 358 for establishment of the new county, Madera is the Spanish term for wood. The county derives its name from the town of Madera, named when the California Lumber Company built a log flume to carry lumber to the Central Pacific Railroad there in 1876. The Madera County Sheriffs Department employed the first woman in California to die in the line of duty as a law enforcement officer—Tulare native Lucille Helm.
For 15 years, the Madera housewife and mother of four worked on call as a matron assisting with female transfers. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 2,153 square miles. Madera County is part of the Madera AVA wine region, devils Postpile National Monument Inyo National Forest Sierra National Forest Yosemite National Park The 2010 United States Census reported that Madera County had a population of 150,865. The racial makeup of Madera County was 94,456 White,5,629 African American,4,136 Native American,2,802 Asian,162 Pacific Islander,37,380 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 80,992 persons. As of the census of 2000, there are 123,109 people in the county, organized into 36,155 households, the population density is 58 people per square mile. There are 40,387 housing units at a density of 19 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county is 62. 2% White,4. 1% Black or African American,2. 6% Native American,1. 3% Asian,0. 2% Pacific Islander,24. 4% from other races, and 5. 2% from two or more races. 44.
3% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race,8. 0% were of German,5. 9% English,5. 4% American and 5. 3% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 63. 6% spoke English and 33. 7% Spanish as their first language,16. 5% of all households are made up of individuals and 7. 7% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 3.18 and the family size is 3.52. In the county, the population is out with 29. 6% under the age of 18,9. 9% from 18 to 24,29. 1% from 25 to 44,20. 4% from 45 to 64