Ion Antonescu was a Romanian soldier and authoritarian politician who, as the Prime Minister and Conducător during most of World War II, presided over two successive wartime dictatorships. After the war, he was executed. A Romanian Army career officer who made his name during the 1907 peasants' revolt and the World War I Romanian Campaign, the antisemitic Antonescu sympathized with the far right and fascist National Christian and Iron Guard groups for much of the interwar period, he was a military attaché to France and Chief of the General Staff serving as Defense Minister in the National Christian cabinet of Octavian Goga as well as the subsequent First Cristea cabinet, in which he served as Air and Marine Minister. During the late 1930s, his political stance brought him into conflict with King Carol II and led to his detainment. Antonescu rose to political prominence during the political crisis of 1940, established the National Legionary State, an uneasy partnership with the Iron Guard's leader Horia Sima.
After entering Romania into an alliance with Nazi Germany and the Axis and ensuring Adolf Hitler's confidence, he eliminated the Guard during the Legionary Rebellion of 1941. In addition to being Prime Minister, he served as his own Foreign Defense Minister. Soon after Romania joined the Axis in Operation Barbarossa, recovering Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Antonescu became Marshal of Romania. An atypical figure among Holocaust perpetrators, Antonescu enforced policies independently responsible for the deaths of as many as 400,000 people, most of them Bessarabian and Romanian Jews, as well as Romanian Romani; the regime's complicity in the Holocaust combined pogroms and mass murders such as the Odessa massacre with ethnic cleansing, systematic deportations to occupied Transnistria and widespread criminal negligence. The system in place was characterized by singular inconsistencies, prioritizing plunder over killing, showing leniency toward most Jews in the Old Kingdom, refusing to adopt the Final Solution as applied throughout Nazi-occupied Europe.
This was made possible by the fact that Romania, as a junior ally of Nazi Germany, was able to avoid being occupied by Hitler and preserve a degree of political autonomy. Aerial attacks on Romania by the Allies occurred in 1944 and Romanian troops suffered heavy casualties on the Eastern Front, prompting Antonescu to open peace negotiations with the Allies, ending with inconclusive results. On August 23, 1944, Michael I led a coup d'état against Antonescu, arrested; this was part of a series of trials that passed sentences on his various associates, as well as his wife Maria. The judicial procedures earned much criticism for responding to the Romanian Communist Party's ideological priorities, a matter that fuelled nationalist and far right attempts to have Antonescu posthumously exonerated. While these groups elevated Antonescu to the status of a national hero, his involvement in the Holocaust was reasserted and condemned following the 2003 Wiesel Commission report. Born in the town of Pitești, north-west of the capital Bucharest, Antonescu was the scion of an upper-middle class Romanian Orthodox family with some military tradition.
He was close to his mother, Lița Baranga, who survived his death. His father, an army officer, wanted Ion to follow in his footsteps and thus sent him to attend the Infantry and Cavalry School in Craiova. During his childhood, his father divorced his mother to marry a woman, a Jewish convert to Orthodoxy; the breakup of his parents' marriage was a traumatic event for the young Antonescu, he made no secret of his dislike of his stepmother, whom he always depicted as a femme fatale who destroyed what he saw as his parents' happy marriage. According to one account, Ion Antonescu was a classmate of Wilhelm Filderman, the future Romanian Jewish community activist whose interventions with Conducător Antonescu helped save a number of his coreligionists. After graduation, in 1904, Antonescu joined the Romanian Army with the rank of Second Lieutenant, he spent the following two years attending courses at the Special Cavalry Section in Târgoviște. Antonescu was a zealous and goal-setting student, upset by the slow pace of promotions, compensated for his diminutive stature through toughness.
In time, the reputation of being a tough and ruthless commander, together with his reddish hair, earned him the nickname Câinele Roșu. Antonescu developed a reputation for questioning his commanders and for appealing over their heads whenever he felt they were wrong. During the repression of the 1907 peasants' revolt, he headed a cavalry unit in Covurlui County. Opinions on his role in the events diverge: while some historians believe Antonescu was a violent participant in quelling the revolt, others equate his participation with that of regular officers or view it as outstandingly tactful. In addition to restricting peasant protests, Antonescu's unit subdued socialist activities in Galați port, his handling of the situation earned him praise from King Carol I, who sent Crown Prince Ferdinand to congratulate him in front of the whole garrison. The following year, Antonescu was promoted to Lieutenant, between 1911 and 1913, he attended the Advanced War School, receiving the rank of Captain upon graduation.
Sir John Raynsford was an English politician. John Raynsford was the only son of Sir John Raynsford of Bradfield Hall and his first wife, Anne Starkey, widow of John Writtle and daughter and coheir of Sir Humphrey Starkey of Littlehall in Wouldham, Chief Baron of the Exchequer. After the death of Anne, Raynsford's father married Margaret Ilam, widow of Sir John Shaa, Lord Mayor of London, daughter of Thomas Ilam and Jane Verdon, by whom he had a daughter, Julian Raynsford, who married Sir William Waldegrave of Smallbridge, Suffolk. Raynsford succeeded his father in 1521, he was knighted on 1 July 1523 for his services. He served as a Justice of the Peace for Essex from 1523 to 1530 and from 1536 until his death and was appointed High Sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire for 1537–38, he was elected Member of Parliament for Colchester in 1529. Raynsford married firstly Elizabeth or Isabel Knyvet, the daughter and heiress of Edward Knyvet of Suffolk, secondly Winifred Pympe, the daughter and heiress of John Pympe of Nettlestead, Kent.
He had no issue by either of his marriages. Richardson, Douglas. Everingham, Kimball G.. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. I. Salt Lake City. P. 565. ISBN 1449966373. "RAYNSFORD, Sir John, of Bradfield, Essex". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 12 June 2013
Joseph M. Uliana is an American politician from Pennsylvania who served as a Republican member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives for the 135th district from 1991 to 1994 and the Pennsylvania State Senate for the 18th district from 1995 to 1998. Uliana was born in Pennsylvania, he graduated from Bethlehem Catholic High School in 1983 and received a B. A. from Lehigh University in 1987. He was elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives for the 135th district in 1990 and served from 1991 to 1994, he had an unsuccessful campaign for U. S. Congress in 1998, he worked as a lobbyist for Malady & Wooten from 2000 to 2009 and for J. M. Uliana & Associates since 2009
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor. It is a nonprofit organization and the most prominent provider of educational television programming to public television stations in the United States, distributing series such as American Experience, America's Test Kitchen, Antiques Roadshow, Barney & Friends, Clifford the Big Red Dog, Downton Abbey, Finding Your Roots, The Magic School Bus, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, Nova, the PBS NewsHour, Reading Rainbow, Sesame Street and This Old House. PBS is funded by a combination of member station dues, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, National Datacast, pledge drives, donations from both private foundations and individual citizens. All proposed funding for programming is subject to a set of standards to ensure the program is free of influence from the funding source. Since the mid-2000s, Roper Opinion Research polls commissioned by PBS have placed the service as the most-trusted national institution in the United States.
A 2016–2017 study by Nielsen Media Research found 80% of all US television households view the network's programs over the course of a year. However, PBS is not responsible for all programming carried on public television stations, a large proportion of which may come from its member stations, including WGBH-TV, WETA-TV, WNET, WTTW, WHYY-TV, Twin Cities PBS, American Public Television, independent producers; this distinction regarding the origin of different programs on the service present a frequent source of viewer confusion. PBS has more than 350 member television stations, many owned by educational institutions, nonprofit groups both independent or affiliated with one particular local public school district or collegiate educational institution, or entities owned by or related to state government. Established on November 3, 1969 by Hartford N. Gunn Jr. John Macy, James Day, Kenneth A. Christiansen,PBS began operations on October 5, 1970, taking over many of the functions of its predecessor, National Educational Television, which merged with Newark, New Jersey station WNDT to form WNET.
In 1973, it merged with Educational Television Stations. Following public disclosure of the Watergate scandal, on May 17, 1973, the United States Senate Watergate Committee commenced proceedings. For seven months, nightly "gavel-to-gavel" broadcasts drew great public interest, raised the profile of the fledgling PBS network. Unlike the five major commercial broadcast television networks in the United States, ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox and The CW, PBS is technically not a network but a program distributor that provides television content and related services to its member stations; each station is charged with the responsibility of programming local content such as news, interviews and public affairs programs for their individual market or state that supplements content provided by PBS and other public television distributors. In a television network structure, affiliates give up portions of their local advertising airtime in exchange for carrying network programming, the network pays its affiliates a share of the revenue it earns from advertising.
By contrast, PBS member stations pay fees for the shows acquired and distributed by the national organization. Under this relationship, PBS member stations have greater latitude in local scheduling than their commercial broadcasting counterparts. Scheduling of PBS-distributed series may vary depending on the market; this can be a source of tension as stations seek to preserve their localism, PBS strives to market a consistent national lineup. However, PBS has a policy of "common carriage", which requires most stations to clear the national prime time programs on a common programming schedule to market them nationally more effectively. Management at former Los Angeles member KCET cited unresolvable financial and programming disputes among its major reasons for leaving PBS after over 40 years in January 2011, although it would return to PBS in 2019. Although PBS has a set schedule of programming in regard to its prime time schedule, member stations reserve the right to schedule PBS-distributed programming in other time slots or not clear it at all if they choose to do so.
Most PBS stations timeshift some distributed programs. Once PBS accepts a program offered for distribution, PBS, rather than the originating member station, retains exclusive rebroadcasting rights during an agreed period. Suppliers retain the right to sell the program in non-broadcast media such as DVDs, sometimes PBS licensed merchandise. In 1991, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting resumed funding for most PBS shows that debuted prior to 1977, with the exceptions of Washington Week in Review and Wall Street Week. In 1994, The Chronicle of Philanthropy released the results of the largest study on the popularity and credibility of charitable and non-profit organizations. PBS ranked as the 11th "most popular charity/non-profit in America" from over 100 charities researched in the study conducted by the industry publication, with 38.2% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing "love" and "like a lot" for PBS. In December 2009, PBS signed up for the Nielsen ratings audience measurement reports, began to be included in its primetime and daily "Television Index" reports, alongside the major commercial broadcast networks.
In May 2011, PBS announced that it would incorporate br
Pentti Airikkala was one of the "Flying Finns" who dominated world rallying in the past four decades. His career was more sporadic than many of his contemporaries, he competed in only three World Rally Championship events regularly. Airikkala was born in Finland. Most of his top flight competitive experience was behind the wheel of various rear wheel drive Vauxhall/Opels like the Chevette HS and Magnum coupé, but his greatest success came in the twilight of his career, when he won the 1989 RAC Rally in a Group A Mitsubishi Galant VR-4, he is still the third oldest driver to win a WRC event. Altogether he competed in 36 WRC events between 1973 and 1990, a 37th in 2003, scoring 102 points and achieving a best of 9th overall in the 1981 Drivers' Championship, he contested the British Rally Championship in the 1970s/80s, becoming British Rally Champion in 1979. Since retiring from full-time international competition he operated a successful rally driving school in Oxfordshire teaching left-foot braking, where his roster of pupils included subsequent World Champions Colin McRae and Richard Burns.
Airikkala died at Bray, Berkshire, UK, aged 64. He had been battling illness in recent years and was admitted to hospital shortly before his death after suffering liver problems and a fall. Pentti Airikkala's UK-based rally driving school Profile of Airikkala at World Rally Archive Profile of Airikkala at Rallybase Memorial page
Van Keurens is a hamlet in the town of Poughkeepsie, Dutchess County, New York. It was established by Matheus Van Keuren in the eighteenth century; the Van Keurens lived in Kingston, New York, but Matheus owned a foundry on a parcel of land on the Hudson River, close to what is now IBM, in the community of Spackenkill. Matheus forged at his foundry at Spackenkill many of the links of the chain used during the Revolutionary War as part of the Hudson River Chain around Fort Montgomery; the hamlet is now a wooded, unpopulated area between IBM and the Clinton Point Quarry owned by Tilcon, Inc. and part of land that rests on a Spackenkill residential community known informally as Crown Heights. About the Van Keurens Topographic map showing Van Keurens land from USGS The National Map