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Iona

Iona is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. It is known for Iona Abbey, though there are other buildings on the island. Iona Abbey was a centre of Gaelic monasticism for three centuries and is today known for its relative tranquility and natural environment, it is a place for spiritual retreats. Its modern Scottish Gaelic name means "Iona of Columba"; the Hebrides have been occupied by the speakers of several languages since the Iron Age, as a result many of the names of these islands have more than one possible meaning. Nonetheless few, if any, can have accumulated as many different names over the centuries as the island now known in English as "Iona"; the earliest forms of the name enabled place-name scholar William J. Watson to show that the name meant something like "yew-place"; the element Ivo-, denoting "yew", occurs in Ogham inscriptions and in Gaulish names and may form the basis of early Gaelic names like Eógan. It is possible that the name is related to the mythological figure, Fer hÍ mac Eogabail, foster-son of Manannan, the forename meaning "man of the yew".

Mac an Tàilleir lists the more recent Gaelic names of Ì, Ì Chaluim Chille and Eilean Idhe noting that the first named is "generally lengthened to avoid confusion" to the second, which means "Calum's Iona" or "island of Calum's monastery". The confusion results from ì, despite its original etymology as the name of the island, being confused with the Gaelic noun ì "island" of Old Norse origin (ey "island", Eilean Idhe means "the isle of Iona" known as Ì nam ban bòidheach; the modern English name comes of yet another variant, either just Adomnán's attempt to make the Gaelic name fit Latin grammar or else a genuine derivative from Ivova. Ioua's change to Iona, attested from c.1274, results from a transcription mistake resulting from the similarity of "n" and "u" in Insular Minuscule. Despite the continuity of forms in Gaelic between the pre-Norse and post-Norse eras, Haswell-Smith speculates that the name may have a Norse connection, Hiōe meaning "island of the den of the brown bear", The medieval English language version was "Icolmkill".

Murray claims that the "ancient" Gaelic name was Innis nan Druinich and repeats a Gaelic story that as Columba's coracle first drew close to the island one of his companions cried out "Chì mi i" meaning "I see her" and that Columba's response was "Henceforth we shall call her Ì". The geology of Iona is quite complex given the island’s size and quite distinct from that of nearby Mull. About half of the island’s bedrock is Scourian gneiss assigned to the Lewisian complex and dating from the Archaean eon making it some of the oldest rock in Britain and indeed Europe. Associated with these gneisses are mylonite and meta-anorthosite and melagabbro. Along the eastern coast facing Mull are steeply dipping Neoproterozoic age metaconglomerates, metasandstones and hornfelsed metasiltstones ascribed to the Iona Group, described traditionally as Torridonian. In the southwest and on parts of the west coast are pelites and semipelites of Archaean to Proterozoic age. There are small outcrops of Silurian age pink granite on southeastern beaches, similar to those of the Ross of Mull pluton cross the sound to the east.

Numerous geological faults cross the island, many in a E-W or NW-SE alignment. Devonian aged microdiorite dykes are found in places and some of these are themselves cut by Palaeocene age camptonite and monchiquite dykes ascribed to the ‘Iona-Ross of Mull dyke swarm’. More recent sedimentary deposits of Quaternary age include both present day beach deposits and raised marine deposits around Iona as well as some restricted areas of blown sand. Iona lies about 2 kilometres from the coast of Mull, it is about 2 km wide and 6 km long with a resident population of 125. Like other places swept by ocean breezes, there are few trees. Iona's highest point is Dùn Ì, 101 m, an Iron Age hill fort dating from 100 BC – AD 200. Iona's geographical features include the Bay at the Back of the Ocean and Càrn Cùl ri Éirinn, said to be adjacent to the beach where St. Columba first landed; the main settlement, located at St. Ronan's Bay on the eastern side of the island, is called Baile Mòr and is known locally as "The Village".

The primary school, post office, the island's two hotels, the Bishop's House and the ruins of the Nunnery are here. The Abbey and MacLeod Centre are a short walk to the north. Port Bàn beach on the west side of the island is home to the Iona Beach Party. There are numerous offshore islets and skerries: Eilean Annraidh and Eilean Chalbha to the north, Rèidh Eilean and Stac MhicMhurchaidh to the west and Eilean Mùsimul and Soa Island to the south are amongst the largest; the steamer Cathcart Park carrying a cargo of salt from Runcorn to Wick ran aground on Soa on 15 April 1912, the crew of 11 escaping in two boats. On a map of 1874, the following territorial subdivision is indicated: Ceann Tsear Sliabh Meanach Machar Sliginach Sliabh Siar Staonaig In the early Historic Period Iona lay within the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata, in the region controlled by the Cenél Loairn; the island was the site of a important monastery (s

Aimée Caroillon des Tillières

Marie Louise Angélique Aimée Caroillon des Tillières, was a wealthy French heiress who kept a salon during the July Monarchy. Marie Louise Angélique Aimée Caroillon des Tillières was born in 1797, only daughter of the wealthy entrepreneur Claude Caroillon Destillières and his wife, Françoise Aimée Magallon d'Amirail, her father was from a rich family, ennobled in 1786, who made his fortune during and after the revolution through real estate transactions. Claude Caroillon-Destillières died in May 1814 and Aimée Carvillon Destillères inherited his immense fortune. Since she was only seventeen, a minor, her family chose her maternal grandparents as guardians; this was the subject of lawsuits, not resolved until 22 November 1816. She kept the Château de Pontchartrain. Although not beautiful, she was courted by many men for her wealth. On 25 November 1817 Aimée married Charles-Eustache-Gabriel, called Rainulphe d'Osmond and Marquis d'Osmond and a Lieutenant-General of Cavalry, he was the brother of Countess de Boigne.

They had two children. Marie Charlotte Eustachine Jeanne married Jacquelin de Maillé de La Tour-Landry, Duke of Maillé. Rainulphe Marie Eustache d'Osmond married Marie Joséphine Tardieu de Maleyssie. Rainulphe's son Eustache Conrad d'Osmond died without marrying, so the descendants of the Duke of Maillé inherited the Caroillon Destillières fortune; the Marquise d'Osmond was gentle and beneficial. According to the gossip of the time she was whipped by her husband. Under the July Monarchy, she kept a brilliant salon. With the Duchess of Berry she helped launch the fashionable neo-gothic style, they decorated her Parisian hôtel at 8 Rue Basse du Rempart in neo-gothic style. It was destroyed and is known only by a watercolor by Ambroise Louis Garneray, she ordered beautiful neo-gothic furniture from Jacob Desmalter

Adrian Brunker

Adrian Brunker is an Australian former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1990s. He played at representative level for Queensland, at club level for Newcastle Knights, Gold Coast Seagulls, St George Dragons and Wakefield Trinity Wildcats, as a fullback, centre, or five-eighth. Brunker made his first grade debut for Newcastle in round 4 1990 against Penrith in a 6-6 draw. Brunker went on to play for Newcastle in the club's first finals appearance in 1992. In 1994, Brunker joined the Gold Coast and spent 2 years at the club as they finished near the bottom of the table in both seasons. In 1996, Brunker joined St George and played in the 1996 ARL Grand Final against Manly-Warringah which St George lost 20-8. Brunker played in St. George's final game before they formed a joint venture with the Illawarra Steelers to become St. George Illawarra. A semi-final loss to Canterbury-Bankstown at Kogarah Oval. In 1999, Brunker joined English side Wakefield Trinity and played one season with them before retiring.

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