Ionia was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, Smyrna. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period, settled the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea. Ionian states were identified by their use of Eastern Greek. Ionia proper comprised a narrow coastal strip from Phocaea in the north near the mouth of the river Hermus, to Miletus in the south near the mouth of the river Maeander, included the islands of Chios and Samos, it was bounded by Aeolia to Lydia to the east and Caria to the south. The cities within the region figured large in the strife between the Persian Empire and the Greeks. According to Greek tradition, the cities of Ionia were founded by colonists from the other side of the Aegean, their settlement was connected with the legendary history of the Ionic people in Attica, which asserts that the colonists were led by Neleus and Androclus, sons of Codrus, the last king of Athens.

In accordance with this view the "Ionic migration", as it was called by chronologers, was dated by them one hundred and forty years after the Trojan War, or sixty years after the return of the Heracleidae into the Peloponnese. Ionia was of small extent, not exceeding 150 kilometres in length from north to south, with a breadth varying from 60 to 90 kilometres, but to this must be added the peninsula of Mimas, together with the two islands. So intricate is the coastline that the voyage along its shores was estimated at nearly four times the direct distance. A great part of this area was, occupied by mountains. Of these the most lofty and striking were Mimas and Corycus, in the peninsula which stands out to the west, facing the island of Chios. None of these mountains attains a height of more than 1,200 metres; the district comprised three fertile valleys formed by the outflow of three rivers, among the most considerable in Asia Minor: the Hermus in the north, flowing into the Gulf of Smyrna, though at some distance from the city of that name.

With the advantage of a peculiarly fine climate, for which this part of Asia Minor has been famous in all ages, Ionia enjoyed the reputation in ancient times of being the most fertile of all the rich provinces of Asia Minor. The geography of Ionia placed it in a strategic position, both advantageous and disadvantageous. Ionia was always a maritime power founded by a people who made their living by trade in peaceful times and marauding in unsettled times; the coast was rocky and the arable land slight. The native Luwians for the most part kept their fields further inland and used the rift valleys for wooded pasture; the coastal cities were placed in defensible positions on islands or headlands situated so as to control inland routes up the rift valleys. The people of those valleys were of different ethnicity; the populations of the cities came from many civilizations in the eastern Mediterranean. Ancient demographics are available only from literary sources. Herodotus states that in Asia the Ionians kept the division into twelve cities that had prevailed in Ionian lands of the north Peloponnese, their former homeland, which became Achaea after they left.

These Asian cities were Miletus, Priene, Colophon, Teos, Erythrae and Phocaea, together with Samos and Chios. Smyrna an Aeolic colony, was afterwards occupied by Ionians from Colophon, became an Ionian city — an event which had taken place before the time of Herodotus; these cities do not match those of Achaea. Moreover, the Achaea of Herodotus' time spoke Doric, but in Homer it is portrayed as being in the kingdom of Mycenae, which most spoke Mycenaean Greek, not Doric. If the Ionians came from Achaea, they departed during or after the change from East Greek to West Greek there. Mycenaean continued to evolve in the mountainous region of Arcadia. There is no record of any people named Ionians in Late Bronze Age Anatolia but Hittite texts record the Achaeans of Ahhiyawa, of location not certain, but in touch with the Hittites of that time. Miletus and some other cities founded earlier by non-Greeks received populations of Mycenaean Greeks under the name of Achaeans; the tradition of Ionian colonizers from Achaea suggests that they may have been known by both names then.

In the absence of archaeological evidence of discontinuity at Miletus the Achaean population whatever their name appears to have descended to archaic Ionia, which does not exclude the possibility of another colonizing and founding event from Athens. In the Indian historic literary texts, the Ionians are referred to as "yavana" or "yona", are described as wearing leather and wielding whips. In modern Turkish, the people of that region and the Greeks were called "yunan" (plural "yu

Richard Nickel

Richard Stanley Nickel was a Polish American architectural photographer and historical preservationist, based in Chicago, Illinois. He is best known for his efforts to preserve and document the buildings of architect Louis Sullivan, the work of the architecture firm of Adler & Sullivan. Richard Nickel was born in the Chicago neighborhood of Humboldt Park in a two-flat located at 4327 W. Haddon, he was raised by first-generation Polish Americans with his grandfather John Nikiel, born in Posen, Germany in 1880. Richard's father, Stanley, a driver for the Polish Daily News, Americanized the surname to Nickel in the face of Anti-Polish sentiment; the family soon moved to 4329 W. Crystal where a young Richard attended grammar school at St. Cyril and Methodius, it was here that Richard first became fascinated by light as he stared at the saintly figures drawn in stained glass. Nickel would tell a reporter in 1969 "That makes an impression on you that you never forget, it might be subconscious and, at some point, something triggers it".

The family moved to a second floor apartment at 2457 N. Rockwell in the Logan Square community, while Nickel was in fifth grade and enrolled at St. John Berchman's School. At the time the neighborhood was predominately Polish, years Nickel described it as the "Polish neighborhood where I became abnormal"; the family lived near Logan Boulevard, an area lined with historic mansions and wide parkways that would become recognized as a Chicago Landmark. More important was his father Stanley's acute interest in photography which Richard would take up as well. In 1948 after leaving the Army, Nickel was given a victory medal and subsequently enrolled at the Institute of Design, which became part of IIT- The Illinois Institute of Technology; the school was housed in the former Chicago Historical Society building, located at 632 N. Dearborn Street. Nickel married a young Polish American girl named Adrienne Dembo at St. Wenceslaus church, noted for its Art Deco design, on June 10, 1950. Shortly after Richard was recalled to serve in the Korean War.

After Richard's return a few years he was a changed man, with recurring nightmares he was still in Korea. His mother-in law commented that she saw him as a "casualty of war." The marriage ended in divorce. During the urban regeneration of the 1960s and 1970s, scores of 19th century buildings in Chicago were being demolished. Among these were the works of Louis Sullivan and of other architects designing in the Prairie School style. By this time many of the buildings were neglected, with little public interest in their retention. Nickel encountered Sullivan's work while photographing the architect's buildings for a school project at the IIT Institute of Design in Chicago under Aaron Siskind. Studying and photographing Sullivan's buildings became an obsession for him, he devoted much of his life to photographing them, hoping to produce a comprehensive photographic compendium. Some were documentation projects for the federal HABS—Historic American Buildings Survey. Richard Nickel came to believe that such buildings were an important part of Chicago's architectural and cultural heritage.

Realizing that the pace of urban renewal and development threatened many of these historic buildings, Nickel campaigned and lobbied for their preservation. Celebrated buildings such as the Garrick Theater and the Chicago Stock Exchange were torn down despite the best efforts of Nickel and others to preserve them. However, after Nickel's death, his crusade gained momentum and was responsible for many of Sullivan's buildings being spared. Of the ongoing threat to Chicago's buildings Nickel said "Great architecture has only two natural enemies: water and stupid men." In the cases where he was unable to protect a building, Nickel extensively photographed both its interior and exterior to archive the craftsmanship and attempt to preserve the buildings' character in his images. He stripped some of the doomed buildings of their distinctive ornamentation before their destruction. Dozens of such items were sold to Southern Illinois University Edwardsville and are still on display. Richard Nickel documented many of the architectural masters of Chicago, photographing the work of Burnham & Root, Holabird & Roche, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, C. F. Murphy Associates, Frank Lloyd Wright, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.

Nickel's home at 1810 West Cortland Street in Bucktown, Logan Square served as his base for photography and salvage operations. Infatuated with the brick building's front elevation, simple floor plan, history, Nickel referred to it as his "Polish Palazzo", he worked hard to restore the building. Richard Nickel was killed on April 13, 1972, while attempting to salvage more architectural items when a portion of the Old Chicago Stock Exchange building collapsed on him, he is buried in Chicago's Graceland Cemetery, not far from Louis Sullivan. The 1994 book by Richard Cahan, They All Fall Down: Richard Nickel's Struggle to Save America's Architecture, is about Nickel's lifelong effort, with friend and architect John Vinci, to preserve Chicago's architectural heritage. Richard Cahan and Michael Williams co-edited a collection of Nickel's photography, titled Richard Nickel's Chicago: Photographs of a Lost City. Nickel's black-and-white photos have been displayed at the Art Institute of elsewhere; the Richard Nickel Committee and Photographic Archive, a non-profit organization was devoted to preserving the photographer's work for more than 40 years, holds the copyrights for most of his pictures.

Nickel died without completing a book that he had begun in the 1950s, of his large collection of photogra

Club Monaco

Club Monaco is a Canadian-founded high-end casual clothing retailer owned by Ralph Lauren Corporation. With more than 140 locations worldwide, the retailer has locations in United States, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, the United Arab Emirates, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Sweden and United Kingdom; each month, Club Monaco brings in a new collection, alternating between casual styles during the northern spring and summer and more formal offerings during autumn and winter. The company was best known for its classic "black and white" styles, with which different colors are paired, but this is no longer a focus in each collection. In 1985, Canadians Joe Mimran, Saul Mimran and Alfred Sung opened the first store in Toronto on Queen Street West; this store, which still exists today included a cafe below the sales floor, their second location was in the Promenade Mall in Thornhill. The first US store opened in Santa Monica in 1989; until 1999, Club Monaco was a Canadian company and was based at Avenue Road and Bloor Street West along the Mink Mile in Toronto.

It is now owned and operated by Polo Ralph Lauren, which acquired Club Monaco in 1999. Polo has allowed Club Monaco to exist as an independent entity within the group. Club Monaco marketed an image of yachting apparel designing black and white clothing for men and women. Around 2011, Club Monaco abandoned the black-and-white motif, scaled back the high-fashion tailoring, eliminated their men's clothing line. Somewhat struggling through an identity crisis, as recent as 2015, Club Monaco--in a complete departure from their original vision--further scaled back their design to their most casual yet and reintroduced a men's line. Club Monaco has transitioned itself into an international lifestyle brand that offers what it calls "affordable luxury with modern sensibility"; each store has design as well as a mix of different products. Third-party brands carried in stores include Ray-Ban sunglasses, Citizens of Humanity jeans, Mackage leather goods and can include a variety of vintage goods from high-end designers such as Chanel and Hermès.

Club Monaco contracts with outside designers for products such as jewelry designed by Erickson Beamon and handbags from Jane Mayle. Club Monaco relies on social media to market itself, using sites such as Pinterest and Tumblr to present its "lookbooks" or "inspirations" which can be viewed on their website through their "Culture Club" page. Luxottica began distributing Club Monaco prescription frames and sunglasses in its retail outlets in 2007. In August 2013, Club Monaco launched their first footwear line consisting of leather flats and heels made in Italy. In the same month, the brand introduced a higher-end label titled'Collection'; the women's design team is headed by Steven Cateron. The men's design team was headed by Aaron Levine until he left for Fitch. Caban was a design-oriented furniture, home accessories and bath and apparel retailer launched by Club Monaco as its lifestyle brand in October 2000, in Toronto and Vancouver, with locations opening in Calgary and Edmonton. Caban was an offspring of Club Monaco, Joe Mimran, the founder of Club Monaco.

In 2000, just after the launch, Club Monaco/Caban was purchased by Ralph Lauren, began to lose focus and Mr. Mimran was ousted. In the summer of 2006, Ralph Lauren Corp. closed all of the Caban stores to focus on the Club Monaco in the United States. The last store to close was the flagship store on Queen St. West in Toronto. Caban opened its first lifestyle concept store in Montreal in the historical landmark Laurentian Bank building located at 777 St. Catherine Street Saturday, December 9, 2000, it closed the branch in 2006. Caban website, default Globe and Mail, caban closing Montreal Caban opening