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Ionia County, Michigan

Ionia County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 63,905; the county seat is Ionia. The Ionia County Courthouse was designed by a prominent southern Michigan architect. Ionia County comprises the Ionia, MI Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Grand Rapids-Wyoming-Muskegon, MI Combined Statistical Area; the county is named for a historic area of Greece. It was defined by act of the Territorial Legislature in 1831, was organized in 1837. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 580 square miles, of which 571 square miles is land and 8.7 square miles is water. Gratiot County – northeast Montcalm County – north Clinton County – east Kent County – west Eaton County – southeast Barry County – southwest I-96 M-21 M-44 M-50 M-66 M-91 As of the 2000 census, there were 61,518 people, 20,606 households, 15,145 families residing in the county; the population density was 107 people per square mile. There were 22,006 housing units at an average density of 38 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the county was 91.96% White, 4.56% Black or African American, 0.56% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.04% from other races, 1.55% from two or more races. 2.78 % of the population were Latino of any race. 29.0% were of German, 14.7% American, 11.6% English, 8.9% Irish and 5.3% Dutch ancestry, 96.3% spoke English and 2.6% Spanish as their first language. There were 20,606 households out of which 38.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.70% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.50% were non-families. 21.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.15. The county's population spread included 26.90% under the age of 18, 11.50% from 18 to 24, 31.00% from 25 to 44, 20.50% from 45 to 64, 10.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years.

For every 100 females, there were 115.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,074, the median income for a family was $49,797. Males had a median income of $36,995 versus $25,443 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,451. About 6.80% of families and 8.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.40% of those under age 18 and 8.10% of those age 65 or over. Ionia County has been reliably Republican from the beginning. Since 1884, the Republican Party nominee has carried the county vote in 82% of the elections; the county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services. The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions—police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc.—are the responsibility of individual cities and townships.

Belding Ionia Portland List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Ionia County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Ionia County, Michigan Ionia County official website Ionia Montcalm Magazine website Ionia County Historical Society website "Bibliography on Ionia County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University

Sartell Dam

The Sartell Dam is a dam across the Mississippi River in Sartell, Minnesota in the United States. The dam was used to generate hydroelectric power for the adjoining Sartell Paper Mill before it burned down in 2012; the dam is referred to as the Champion Dam in official documentation. Construction of the structure was begun by the Watab Pulp and Paper Company in 1907 and finished in 1911. Seven workers died during construction, most from drowning as a result of washouts on the site's cofferdam. A cave-in on the dam's west end killed the son of the project's foreman; the dam was constructed of wooden planks, local granite, field stones as well as 25,000 barrels concrete. Between 1960 and 1964, the dam was rebuilt by the St. Regis Corporation which had purchased the adjoining paper mill in 1946; the mill and dam are owned by Verso Paper. Construction of the dam resulted in the formation of Little Rock Lake five miles upriver; the dam itself is 20 feet tall. Verso Paper Sartell Mill

1943 VFL season

The 1943 Victorian Football League season was the 47th season of the elite Australian rules football competition. Geelong were still unable to field a team due to the war, so the bye was retained. A new system was introduced. There were still 16 rounds; the first 11 had every team competing - after round 11, the bottom placed team would drop out, a new byeless draw would be made. In 1942, the VFL competition consisted of eleven teams of 18 on-the-field players each, plus one substitute player, known as the 19th man. A player could be substituted for any reason. Teams played each other in a home-and-away season of 16 rounds. During the first 11 rounds each team had one bye. At round 11, the eleventh team on the ladder dropped out of the competition. In the remaining rounds, the other ten teams played 5 matches each. During the 1943 season, the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the Lake Oval, the Junction Oval were all appropriated for military use. Melbourne shared the Punt Road Oval with Richmond as their home ground, South Melbourne now shared Princes Park with Carlton as their home ground, St. Kilda now played their home games at Toorak Park.

Footscray, were able to return to the Western Oval as it was vacated by the defence authorities after a year. Once the 16 round home-and-away season had finished, the 1943 VFL Premiers were determined by the specific format and conventions of the Page-McIntyre System. Richmond defeated Essendon 12.14 to 11.15, in front of a crowd of 42,100 people.. The 1943 VFL Premiership team was Richmond; the VFL's leading goalkicker was Fred Fanning of Melbourne with 62 goals. No Brownlow Medal was awarded in 1943. St Kilda took the "wooden spoon" in 1943; the seconds premiership was won by St Kilda for the second consecutive season. St Kilda 11.14 defeated Fitzroy 8.6 in the Grand Final, played as a stand-alone match on 18 September at Victoria Park. Hawthorn's coach Roy Cazaly renames the club "The Hawks" from "The Mayblooms". In the spiteful round 1 match between Essendon and South Melbourne, a vicious brawl broke out in the last quarter when South Melbourne's Jack "Basher" Williams felled Ted Leehane which involved a dozen players, team officials, trainers and police.

Three players were reported: Williams received an eight-week suspension for striking Leehane, Dick Reynolds, Gordon Lane, Perc Bushby, 1940 Brownlow Medal winner Herbie Matthews was suspended for four weeks for striking Allan Hird, Bushby was suspended for two weeks for striking Williams in retaliation. Entering Round 11, St Kilda and South Melbourne were tenth and eleventh on the ladder with two premiership points separating them. South Melbourne won the game by 35 points; the VFL suspended its round 12 matches and conducted a one-day lightning carnival amongst the top four teams. In round 5, Denis Cordner makes his debut for Melbourne in a team that contains his brothers Don and Ted. Munitions worker Bob Chitty plays for Carlton in round 15 despite losing the top of his finger during the week in a workplace accident. Richmond's centre half-forward Jack Broadstock went Absent Without Leave from his Army duties in order to play in the 1943 Grand Final, he was arrested by the Military Police upon his arrival at Princes Park, it was only after some persuasive talking by Richmond captain Jack Dyer, himself a policeman with the Victorian Police Force, that Broadstock's commanding officer dropped the matter and allowed him to play in the match.

Broadstock went on to be one of Richmond's best players. For the first time, no score of four or fewer goals was kicked in a VFL season; the only seasons since without a goal tally of four or fewer have been 1969, 1973, 1982, 1983, 2005 and 2008. Hogan, P; the Tigers Of Old, The Richmond Football Club, 1996. ISBN 0-646-18748-1 Maplestone, M. Flying Higher: History of the Essendon Football Club 1872-1996, Essendon Football Club, 1996. ISBN 0-9591740-2-8 Rogers, S. & Brown, A. Every Game Ever Played: VFL/AFL Results 1897-1997, Viking Books, 1998. ISBN 0-670-90809-6 Ross, J. 100 Years of Australian Football 1897-1996: The Complete Story of the AFL, All the Big Stories, All the Great Pictures, All the Champions, Every AFL Season Reported, Viking, 1996. ISBN 0-670-86814-0 1943 Season - AFL Tables

2006 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A

The 2006 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A was the 50th edition of the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A. It began on April 15, 2006, reached its end on December 3, 2006; the format was similar to the 2005 edition, though fielding two fewer teams. 20 teams competed. At the season finale, the team with the most accumulated points was declared champion. From April 15 through June 4, 10 rounds were played. From June 9 until July 9, the tournament was suspended for the FIFA World Cup 2006. Play resumed on July 12 and continued until December 3. Several teams had their attentions divided between other tournaments over the same duration: Copa do Brasil - Flamengo defeated Vasco da Gama Copa Libertadores - Internacional defeated São Paulo Copa Sudamericana - Atlético-PR was the best Brazilian team, losing in the semifinals. Campeonato Brasileiro Série A 2006 at RSSSF

Chorus frog

Pseudacris is a genus of frogs in the family Hylidae found in North America ranging from the Pacific coastline to the Atlantic. The name of the genus comes from the Greek pseudes and akris a reference to the repeated rasping trill of most chorus frogs, similar to that of the insect, it could mean ‘false Acris’, distinguishing it from another frog genus. The species in this genus are disputed. Molecular genetic research shows little consistency due to hybridization between species, making taxonomic organization difficult; the number of species in this genus is controversial, but Frost et al. list 18 species: Chorus frogs live anywhere in North America from southern Alaska to southern Baja California, from the Pacific to the Atlantic. AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation.. 2008. Berkeley, California: Pseudacris. AmphibiaWeb, available at Eol - Encyclopedia of Life taxon Pseudacris at ITIS - Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-line database Taxon Pseudacris at

GBIF - Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxon Pseudacris at

Theatre music

Theatre music refers to a wide range of music composed or adapted for performance in theatres. Genres of theatre music include opera and several forms of musical theatre, from pantomime to operetta and modern stage musicals and revues. Another form of theatre music is incidental music, which, as in radio and television, is used to accompany the action or to separate the scenes of a play; the physical embodiment of the music is called a score, which includes the music and, if there are lyrics, it shows the lyrics. Since the earliest days of the theatre, music has played an important part in stage drama. In Greek drama in the fifth century BC, choric odes were written to be chanted and danced between the spoken sections of both tragedies and comedies. Only fragments of the music have survived. Attempts to recreate the form for revivals from the Renaissance to modern times have branched in several directions. Composers from Andrea Gabrieli to Mendelssohn to Vaughan Williams have composed chorus music for productions of plays by Sophocles and others.

Playwrights including Racine and Brecht wrote original plays in styles derived from ancient drama, with sung commentaries by a chorus or narrator. In late 16th century Florence, attempts to revive ancient Greek drama, with sung vocal contributions, developed into the modern genre of opera. Folk theatre has always deployed dance song. In the 16th and 17th centuries, theatre music was performed during the action of plays and as afterpieces. Christopher R. Wilson, discussing Shakespeare's use of music, lists "stage music", "magic music", "character music" and "atmospheric music". By the early 18th century, music was established as part of all theatrical performances in Europe, whether of opera, dance, or spoken drama. Theatres were built with orchestra pits, music was either specially composed for the production or appropriated and arranged from existing material; the writer Roger Savage notes in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians: "The classic forms of Asian theatre from India to Japan rely on music, as do the dramatic rituals of sub-Saharan Africa and of the indigenous peoples of the Americas."

In Western theatre genres, Savage writes that music features in medieval liturgical drama, ballet de cour, ballet d'action, classical ballet, modern dance, comédie-ballet, semi-opera, 18th-century pantomime, ballad opera, Singspiel, opéra comique, Victorian burlesque, music hall, variety show, Edwardian musical comedy, the modern musical including rock musicals, other forms of musical theatre. In common with radio and television, the theatre has long made use of incidental music to accompany spoken drama. Show tune Aria Sheet music Film score Stanley. Encyclopedia of the Musical Theatre. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1976 International Music Score Library Project — A public domain music library featuring original scores scanned to PDF; the European Library — digital images of the most important pieces of music published in Europe, free access. Project Gutenberg