The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Republican Party of Iowa
The Republican Party of Iowa is the affiliate of the United States Republican Party in Iowa. The State Central Committee is led by Chairman Jeff Kaufmann; the RPI operates the Republican side of the Iowa caucuses and sponsored the Iowa Straw Poll. As of 2018, the Republican Party controls four of the seven statewide offices in Iowa and holds a majority in the Iowa House of Representatives. Republicans hold both of the state's U. S. Senate seats and only one of its four U. S. House seats. Chuck Grassley Joni Ernst Steve King, 4th District Governor: Kim Reynolds Lieutenant Governor: Adam Gregg Secretary of State: Paul Pate Secretary of Agriculture: Mike Naig The State Central Committee of the Republican Party of Iowa is composed of the National Committeeman and National Committeewoman, representatives elected by the District Caucus from each congressional district; the number of Central Committee members that each congressional district is allotted is based on the following table:. The Republican Party of Iowa's State Central Committee consists of several executive officers, including Chairman, Co-Chairman, State Finance Chair, State Co-Finance Chair.
These executive members do not need to be seated members of the state central committee. These members do not have a vote on standard proceedings; the State Chairman may vote only in the case of a tie or to create a tie during a meeting which he is presiding over. The Republican Party of Iowa is unique in that it has committees of the state party that can conduct local business. In particular, the party can have a Legislative Campaign Committee in each Congressional District with the purpose of helping Republicans win legislative races. In addition to the Legislative Campaign Committee there are several other standing committees of the Republican Party of Iowa they include: the Budget Committee, the Campaign Committee, the Organization Committee, the Personnel Committee; each county in Iowa may form a County Central Committee. These committees include two members elected by each precinct in the county, though additional members may be elected based on the number of votes for Republican candidates in the previous general election from each precinct.
Additionally, the county central committee elects a: Chairman, Co-Chairman and Secretary from either seated members of the county central committee or from Republicans within the county. The Republican Party of Iowa develops an in-depth platform about what the state party stands for. In general this statement is a general document cementing the principle of the Republican Party while leaving some issues up to individual party voters; the RPI was founded on an anti-slavery platform in 1856 by citizens dissatisfied with the existing Whig and Democratic Parties. Samuel J. Kirkwood and Iowa's Civil War governor, is credited as one of the principal founders. Summoned from his mill at Coralville and still coated in flour dust, Kirkwood gave a rousing speech at the founding meeting of the Republican Party of Iowa in February 1856 in Iowa City. Many people credited Kirkwood's speech and subsequent work with the success of the party in Iowa. Another principal founder was Edward Russell, an outspoken abolitionist editor who turned the Davenport Gazette into an award-winning Republican newspaper and one of the largest dailies in Iowa.
At the Republican State Convention in 1865, Russell introduced the resolution declaring negro suffrage in Iowa and carried it by a decisive majority. His more famous son, Charles Edward Russell, went on to found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Pro-Union sentiment during and after the Civil War helped the party to expand in importance. Between 1858 and 1932 the Republicans won every Iowa gubernatorial election, with the exception of 1890, when Horace Boies, a former Republican, was elected because of his opposition to Prohibition. In 1932 electoral frustration with the Great Depression and Prohibition led to the re-emergence of the Democratic Party in Iowa; the party has held the Governor's office – 30 of Iowa's 41 governors have been Republicans. Since 1979, the RPI has held a straw poll in Iowa in each year preceding a presidential election, except when there is a Republican incumbent; this straw poll is separate from the Republican caucuses. The straw poll includes a dinner, multiple speeches by candidates, a variety of booths set up by various candidates and causes, in addition to an actual straw poll of participants' presidential preferences.
The Iowa Caucuses are the kickoff for the national presidential selection process. Iowa holds a powerful position in that process because it can serve as a sounding board for the strength of a candidate's campaign. A win in the Iowa Caucuses can propel them from relative obscurity. In particular the Iowa Republican Caucuses hold the most power when either the GOP is not the party in the presidency or an incumbent is not on the ballot; as Iowa is the first state to cast its votes on the nominee the media focus on opinion polls from the state to determine which way Republican voters are leaning. In 2008 former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee grew in name recognition because of his Iowa victory and grew his national profile. In 2000 with a heated nomination fight between Texas Governor George W. Bush and Arizona Senator John McCain, who carried the state with 41% of the vote, set the tone for his campaign and set up a successful run for the Republican nomination and the presidency. During the 2012 Republican primaries the Republican Party of Iowa partnered with various news organizations such as Fox News to bring a series of debates that were nationally televised, but directed toward voters in Iowa.
This national attention is a potential poli
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. The house formally designated as the upper house is smaller and has more restricted power than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the Australian Senate, Brazil's Senado Federal, the Canadian Senate, France's Sénat, Germany's Bundesrat, India's Rajya Sabha, Ireland's Seanad, Malaysia's Dewan Negara, the Netherlands' Eerste Kamer, Pakistan's Senate of Pakistan, Russia's Federation Council, Switzerland's Council of States, United Kingdom's House of Lords and the United States Senate. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral. An upper house is different from the lower house in at least one of the following respects: Powers: In a parliamentary system, it has much less power than the lower house. Therefore, in certain countries the Upper House votes on only limited legislative matters, such as constitutional amendments, cannot initiate most kinds of legislation those pertaining to supply/money, cannot vote a motion of no confidence against the government, while the lower house always can.
In a presidential system: It may have nearly equal power with the lower house. It may have specific powers not granted to the lower house. For example: It may give consent to some executive decisions, it may have the sole power to try impeachment cases against officials of the executive or judicial branch, following enabling resolutions passed by the lower house. It may have the sole power to ratify treaties. In a semi-presidential system, like France It may have less power than the lower house: in France, the Government can decide to legislate a normal law without the Sénat's agreement, but It may have equal power to the lower house regarding the constitution or the territorial collectivities, it may not vote a motion of no confidence against the government, but it may investigate State cases. It may make proposals of laws to the lower house. Status: In some countries, its members are not popularly elected, its members may be elected with a different voting system than that used to elect the lower house.
Less populated states, provinces, or administrative divisions may be better represented in the upper house than in the lower house. Members' terms may be for life. Members may be elected in portions, for staggered terms, rather than all at one time. In some countries, the upper house cannot be dissolved at all, or can be dissolved only in more limited circumstances than the lower house, it has fewer members or seats than the lower house. It has a higher age of candidacy than the lower house. In parliamentary systems the upper house is seen as an advisory or "revising" chamber; some or all of the following restrictions are placed on upper houses: Lack of control over the executive branch. No absolute veto of proposed legislation, though suspensive vetoes are permitted in some states. In countries where it can veto legislation, it may not be able to amend the proposals. A reduced or absent role in initiating legislation. No power to block supply, or budget measures In parliamentary democracies and among European upper houses the Italian Senate is a notable exception to these general rules, in that it has the same powers as its lower counterpart: any law can be initiated in either house and must be approved in the same form by both houses.
Additionally, a Government must have the consent of both to remain in office, a position, known as "perfect bicameralism" or "equal bicameralism". The role of a revising chamber is to scrutinise legislation that may have been drafted over-hastily in the lower house and to suggest amendments that the lower house may reject if it wishes to. An example is the British House of Lords. Under the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, the House of Lords can no longer prevent the passage of most bills, but it must be given an opportunity to debate them and propose amendments, can thereby delay the passage of a bill with which it disagrees. Bills can only be delayed for up to one year before the Commons can use the Parliament Act, although economic bills can only be delayed for one month, it is sometimes seen as having a special role of safeguarding the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom and important civil liberties against ill-considered change. The British House of Lords has a number of ways to block legislation and to reject it, the House of Commons can use the Parliament Act to force something through.
The Commons will bargain and negotiate with the Lords such as wh
Iowa General Assembly
The Iowa General Assembly is the legislative branch of the state government of Iowa. Like the federal United States Congress, the General Assembly is a bicameral body, composed of the upper house Iowa Senate and the lower Iowa House of Representatives respectively; the Senate consists of four year terms and the House consists of two year terms. The General Assembly convenes within the Iowa State Capitol in Des Moines; the IGA consists of 100 representatives. Each senator represents about 60,927 people and each representative about 30,464 people as of the 2010 United States Census; the last redistricting was enacted on April 2011 for the 2012 elections 85th General Assembly. The IGA convenes annually on the second Monday in January. Leaders in the Senate are President Charles Schneider, President Pro Tempore Jerry Behn. Partisan Senate leadership includes Majority Leader Jack Whitver, Minority Leader Janet Petersen. In the House, the Speaker is Linda Upmeyer, the Speaker Pro Tempore Matt Windschitl.
Partisan House leadership includes Majority Leader Chris Hagenow, Minority Leader Todd Prichard. Iowa Senate Iowa House of Representatives Governor of Iowa Iowa Legislature official government website Iowa General Assembly official website Iowa Code Iowa Constitution
Iowa Democratic Party
The Iowa Democratic Party is the affiliate of the United States Democratic Party in the state of Iowa. While existing when Iowa was granted statehood in 1846 it has only had electoral success from the mid-1950s to the present day. Iowa Democrats are in power at both the federal and state level; the party's platform was last updated in 2016. The Iowa Democratic Party organizes the Democratic Iowa Caucuses in presidential elections. Democrats hold a majority in Iowa's U. S. House delegation, holding three out of the state's four seats, they hold three of the seven statewide offices and hold minorities in the Iowa House of Representatives and Iowa State Senate. None Abby Finkenauer, 1st District Dave Loebsack, 2nd District Cindy Axne, 3rd District Attorney General Tom Miller Treasurer Michael Fitzgerald Auditor Rob Sand Harold E. Hughes – 36th Governor of Iowa, January 17, 1963 – January 1, 1969 Tom Vilsack – 40th Governor of Iowa, January 15, 1999 – January 12, 2007 Chet Culver – 41st Governor of Iowa, January 12, 2007 – January 14, 2011 Harold E. Hughes – January 3, 1969 – January 3, 1975 Tom Harkin – January 3, 1985 – January 3, 2015.
He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1975 to 1985. Considered the official start of the presidential election season; the Iowa Caucuses have been the first official votes cast in the Democratic Presidential nomination process since 1972. That year the Iowa Democratic Party scheduled its caucus to occur before the New Hampshire Primary. South Dakota Senator George McGovern used his win that year to propel him to claim the party's nomination over Maine Senator Edmund Muskie; the Iowa Caucuses would help Jimmy Carter claim the Democratic nomination in 1976. From 1984 to 1996 the winner of the Iowa Caucus, excluding incumbents, did not go on to win their party's nomination. However, in 2008 Senator Barack Obama won the caucus over Senator Hillary Clinton and used the win's momentum to win the Democratic nomination. 2016: Hillary Clinton – eventual party nominee 2008: Barack Obama – eventual party nominee 2004: John Kerry – eventual party nominee 2000: Al Gore – eventual party nominee 1992: Tom Harkin 1988: Dick Gephardt 1984: Walter Mondale – eventual party nominee 1976: "Uncommitted" 1972: "Uncommitted" The Iowa Democratic Party re-adopts its platform every two years, most on June 16, 2018.
In the order of votes received from Democratic delegates seven issues were chosen based on the number of votes received. The first plank is the opposition to corporate personhood; the second plank is the support of a single-payer health care for the United States. The third plank is opposition to the Defense of Marriage Act; the fourth plank states that the Party supports the separation of state. The fifth plank supports energy independence by using renewable and eco-sustainable resources from Iowa; the sixth plank supports removing the cap on Social Security contributions and the seventh plank supports repealing "right to work" laws. The Iowa Democratic Party supports: Gay Marriage; the IDP supports: Revoking tax breaks for and imposing heavy tax penalties on corporations sending jobs out of the country. The IDP supports: Removing cap on Social Security contributions; the IDP supports: Fair, reasonable gun ownership. The IDP supports: Energy independence with eco-sustainable sources. Carbon/mercury sequestration.
Cap and trade on carbon dioxide emissions. National smart-grid with standardized interconnect agreement. Net-metering, front-end declining for consumer investment of renewable energy production. Improved "Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency" standards for all vehicles. Green public transportation. Passage of "Land and Water Legacy Constitutional Amendment". Industrial hemp production Iowa Democrats support President Obama's job plans and are urging their Republican colleagues to back the proposal. Chair of the Education committee State Senator Herman Quirmback spoke favorably about Iowa Democrats supporting Governor Terry Branstad's education proposals. Governor Tom Vilsack issued a governor's order in 2005 that restored voting rights to felons who completed serving their sentences; the order's anticipated result would be returning the right to vote to over 80,000 Iowans. In 2011, Governor Terry Branstand rescinded this order. Governor Tom Vilsack signed a governor's order in 2000 that created the Iowa Food Policy Council.
In 2007, Governor Chet Culver signed legislation easing limitations on stem-cell research. In 2009 and 2010, Governor Culver signed into law $875 million to go towards the I-Jobs program. Analysis from both Minnesota State Colleges and Universities and Southern Illinois University estimate that through 2011 the I-Jobs program will create 32,000–36,000 jobs. Governor Chet Culver signed legislation in 2007; the fund spent a total of $70 million on 49 projects related to renewable energy. The largest project dealt with experimenting with cellulosic ethanol at an ethanol plant in Emmetsburg, Iowa. In June 2011, the project was ended by Governor Terry Branstad. Governor Chet Culver's first Executive Order in 2007 orders that the United States flag be flown at half staff to honor members of the Iowa National Guard, Iowa Air National Guard, or resident of Iowa, serving as a member of the U. S. military and was killed in the line of duty. In 2010
Jack Whitver is an American businessman and politician, the Iowa State Senator for the 19th District. Whitver played college football starting at wide receiver. Whitver founded Acceleration Iowa in 2004 with business partner Geoff Jensen, they added new locations in 2007 and 2009. Acceleration Iowa is a sports training business, which develops speed and overall athletic ability for young athletes. In 2012, Whitver opened North Ankeny CrossFit. Whitver was an assistant coach for the Iowa Barnstormers of the Arena Football League from 2008 to 2011. Whitver is an attorney with the Des Moines law firm Whitaker Hagenow & Gustoff. Whitver was elected to the Iowa State Senate from District 35 on January 18, 2011 in a special election. District 35 covered Ankeny, Grimes, Polk City and the entire northern part of Polk County, he defeated John Calhoun by a margin of 63%-37%. After the redistricting of 2012, Whitver now represents District 19 in the State Senate, which covers Ankeny, Saylor Township, a small part of Des Moines.
Whitver was sworn into the Iowa Senate on January 24, 2011 and was named to the Judiciary, Economic Growth and Human Resource committees. In 2013 Whitver was named Ranking Member of the Appropriations Committee as well as serving on the Economic Growth, Human Resource and State Government committees. Jack Whitver Stats, Photos – Iowa State Cyclones – NCAA College Football – ESPN Acceleration Iowa
Iowa State Capitol
The Iowa State Capitol called the Iowa Statehouse, is in Iowa's capital city, Des Moines. As the seat of the Iowa General Assembly, the building houses the Iowa Senate, Iowa House of Representatives, the Office of the Governor, the Offices of the Attorney General, Auditor and Secretary of State; the building includes a chamber for the Iowa Supreme Court, although court activities take place in the neighboring Iowa Supreme Court building. The building was constructed between 1871 and 1886, is the only five-domed capitol in the country. Located at East 9th Street and Grand Avenue, the Capitol is set atop a hill and offers a panoramic view of the city's downtown and the West Capitol Terrace. Various monuments and memorials are to its sides and front, including the Soldiers and Sailors' Monument and the Lincoln and Tad statue. Not long after achieving statehood, Iowa recognized that the Capitol should be moved farther west than Iowa City, the 1st General Assembly, in 1846, authorized a commission to select a location.
In 1847, the town of Monroe City, in Jasper County was selected as the new location of the capitol and platted out, but the 1848 Legislature decided not to move the capitol from Iowa City. In 1854, the General Assembly decreed a location “within two miles of the Raccoon fork of the Des Moines River.” The exact spot was chosen when Wilson Alexander Scott gave the state nine and one-half acres where the Capitol now stands. Final legislative approval for the construction of a permanent statehouse was given on April 8, 1870. A three-story brick building served as a temporary Capitol and was in use for 30 years until destroyed by fires, but in the meantime, the permanent Capitol was being built. In 1870, the General Assembly established a Capitol commission to employ an architect, choose a plan for a building, proceed with the work, but only by using funds available without increasing the tax rate. John C. Cochrane and Alfred H. Piquenard were designated as architects, a cornerstone was laid on November 23, 1871.
However, much of the original stone deteriorated through waterlogging and severe weather and had to be replaced. The cornerstone was relaid on September 29, 1873. Although the building could not be constructed for $1.5 million as planned, the Cochrane and Piquenard design was retained and modifications were undertaken. Cochrane resigned in 1872, but Piquenard continued until his death in 1876, he was succeeded by two of his assistants, Mifflin E. Bell and W. F. Hackney. Bell redesigned the dome. Hackney was the only architect; the capitol building was dedicated on January 17, 1884, it was completed sometime in 1886. The building commission made its final report on June 29, 1886, with a total cost of $2,873,294.59. The audit showed. On January 4, 1904, a fire was started; the fire swept through the areas that housed the Supreme Iowa House of Representatives. A major restoration was performed and documented, with the addition of electrical lighting, a telephone system. Little information is available about.
However, Elmer Garnsey created the ceiling artwork in the House Chamber. These earlier efforts to preserve the Capitol dealt with maintaining and upgrading its interior, it was not until 1965, when the dome was regilded, that legislators made significant investments in preserving the building's exterior. By the early 1980s, the exterior of the Capitol had noticeably deteriorated. Sandstone pieces had begun falling from the building, prompting the installation of steel canopies at all entrances of the building to protect pedestrians. Decorative stone, whose deterioration had first been documented as early as the start of the 20th century, had eroded. Work on the exterior restoration was completed in nine phases. Phase 9 work began in the spring of 1998, the entire project was completed in the fall of 2001, at a cost of $41 million. While its primary use is as the house of the legislative branch of Iowa government, the Capitol functions as a living museum and state and international cultural facility.
Since 1987, the World Food Prize laureate award ceremony is held annually in October in the House of Representatives chamber of the statehouse. The ceremony rivals that of the Nobel Prize; each year, world-class performers take the stage to honor the World Food Prize Laureate. Past performers have included Ray Charles, John Denver, Noa to name a few. Following the ceremony, the celebration continues at a laureate award dinner held in the Capitol rotunda; the architectural design of the Capitol, rectangular in form, with great windows and high ceilings, follows the traditional pattern of 19th-century planning for public buildings. A modified and refined Renaissance style gives the impression of strength and dignity combined with utility; the building measures 364 feet from north to south and 247 feet from east to west. The exterior of the building is of stone with elaborate columns and handsomely designed cornices and capitals. Iowa stone is the foundation for the many porticoes of the building.
The building is brick with limestone from Iowa, Minnesota and Illinois. The substructure is of dark Iowa stone topped by a heavy course of wari-colored granite cut from glacial boulders gathered from the Iowa prairie; the superstructure, or main part of the building, is of bluff colored sandstone from quarries along th