Iowa State University of Science and Technology is a public land-grant and space-grant research university in Ames, Iowa. It is the largest university in the state of Iowa and the third largest university in the Big 12 athletic conference. Iowa State is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity." It is a member of the Association of American Universities. Founded in 1858 and coeducational from its start, Iowa State became the nation's first designated land-grant institution when the Iowa Legislature accepted the provisions of the 1862 Morrill Act on September 11, 1862, making Iowa the first state in the nation to do so. Iowa State's academic offerings are administered today through eight colleges, including the graduate college, that offer over 100 bachelor's degree programs, 112 master's degree programs, 83 at the Ph. D. level, plus a professional degree program in Veterinary Medicine. Iowa State University's athletic teams, the Cyclones, compete in Division I of the NCAA and are a founding member of the Big 12.
The Cyclones have won numerous NCAA national championships. In 1856, the Iowa General Assembly enacted legislation to establish the Iowa Agricultural College and Model Farm; this institution was established on March 22, 1858, by the General Assembly. Story County was chosen as the location on June 21, 1859, beating proposals from Johnson, Kossuth and Polk counties; the original farm of 648 acres was purchased for a cost of $5,379. Iowa was the first state in the nation to accept the provisions of the Morrill Act of 1862. Iowa subsequently designated Iowa State as the land-grant college on March 29, 1864. From the start, Iowa Agricultural College focused on the ideals that higher education should be accessible to all and that the university should teach liberal and practical subjects; these ideals are integral to the land-grant university. The institution was coeducational from the first preparatory class admitted in 1868; the formal admitting of students began the following year, the first graduating class of 1872 consisted of 24 men and two women.
The Farm House, the first building on the Iowa State campus, was completed in 1861 before the campus was occupied by students or classrooms. It became the home of the superintendent of the Model Farm and in years, the deans of Agriculture, including Seaman Knapp and "Tama Jim" Wilson. Iowa State's first president, Adonijah Welch stayed at the Farm House and penned his inaugural speech in a second floor bedroom; the college's first farm tenants primed the land for agricultural experimentation. The Iowa Experiment Station was one of the university's prominent features. Practical courses of instruction were taught, including one designed to give a general training for the career of a farmer. Courses in mechanical, civil and mining engineering were part of the curriculum. In 1870, President Welch and I. P. Roberts, professor of agriculture, held three-day farmers' institutes at Cedar Falls, Council Bluffs and Muscatine; these became the earliest institutes held off-campus by a land grant institution and were the forerunners of 20th century extension.
In 1872, the first courses were given in domestic economy and were taught by Mary B. Welch, the president's wife. Iowa State became the first land grant university in the nation to offer training in domestic economy for college credit. In 1879, the School of Veterinary Science was organized, the first state veterinary college in the United States; this was a two-year course leading to a diploma. The veterinary course of study contained classes in zoology, anatomy of domestic animals, veterinary obstetrics, sanitary science. William M. Beardshear was appointed President of Iowa State in 1891. During his tenure, Iowa Agricultural College came of age. Beardshear developed new agricultural programs and was instrumental in hiring premier faculty members such as Anson Marston, Louis B. Spinney, J. B. Weems, Perry G. Holden, Maria Roberts, he expanded the university administration, added Morrill Hall, the Campanile, Old Botany, Margaret Hall to the campus, all of which stand today. In his honor, Iowa State named its central administrative building after Beardshear in 1925.
In 1898, reflecting the school's growth during his tenure, it was renamed Iowa State College of Agricultural and Mechanic Arts, or Iowa State for short. Today, Beardshear Hall holds the offices of the President, Vice-President, Secretary, Registrar and student financial aid. Catt Hall is named after alumna and famed suffragette Carrie Chapman Catt, is the home of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. In 1912 Iowa State had its first Homecoming celebration; the idea was first proposed by Professor Samuel Beyer, the college's “patron saint of athletics,” who suggested that Iowa State inaugurate a celebration for alumni during the annual football game against rival University of Iowa. Iowa State's new president, Raymond A. Pearson, liked the idea and issued a special invitation to alumni two weeks prior to the event: “We need you, we must have you. Come and see what a school you have made in Iowa State College. Find a way.” In October 2012 Iowa State marked its 100th Homecoming with a "CYtennial" Celebration.
In social psychology, self-assessment is the process of looking at oneself in order to assess aspects that are important to one's identity. It is one of the motives that drive self-evaluation, along with self-verification and self-enhancement. Sedikides suggests that the self-assessment motive will prompt people to seek information to confirm their uncertain self-concept rather than their certain self-concept and at the same time people use self-assessment to enhance their certainty of their own self-knowledge. However, the self-assessment motive could be seen as quite different from the other two self-evaluation motives. Unlike the other two motives, through self-assessment people are interested in the accuracy of their current self view, rather than improving their self-view; this makes self-assessment the only self-evaluative motive that may cause a person's self-esteem to be damaged. In educational psychology and education, self-assessment "involves a wide variety of mechanisms and techniques through which students describe and assign merit or worth to the qualities of their own learning processes and products".
The educational research has identified different types of self-assessment implementations, considering different features. Over the years, there has been a focus for "summative" purposes of self-assessment; however for the last two decades since the inception of formative assessment, more attention has been paid to formative purposes, where the focus is on using self-assessment to increase students' learning and self-regulated learning. Two meta-analyses support the effect of self-assessment interventions in achievement and self-regulated learning and self-efficacy. If through self-assessing there is a possibility that a person's self-concept, or self-esteem is going to be damaged why would this be a motive of self-evaluation it would be better to only self-verify and self-enhance and not to risk damaging self-esteem? Trope in his paper "Self-Enhancement and Self Assessment in Achievement Behaviour" suggests that self-assessment is a way in which self-esteem can be enhanced in the future. For example, self-assessment may mean that in the short-term self-assessment may cause harm to a person's self-concept through realising that they may not have achieved as as they may like.
Within the self-evaluation motives however there are some interesting interactions. Self-assessment is found a lot of the time to be associated with self-enhancement as the two motives seem to contradict each other with opposing aims. In 1993, Constantine Sedikides performed an experiment investigating the roles of each of the self-evaluation motives, investigated if one was stronger and held more weight than others and tried to draw out the self-assessment and self-verification motives; the first experiment conducted the results showed that when choosing what questions they wanted to be asked they were more to request those that would verify their self-concept rather than assess it. This finding supports the idea that certain traits are more central to a person's self-concept, however shows little support for the self-assessment motive; when considering the interaction between how strong and how central certain traits are to a person's self-concept Sedikides again found evidence in support of the self-verification and self-enhancement motives, though again none for the self-assessment motive.
The second experiment conducted by Sedikides investigated the possibility that the ability for greater reflection than experiment one may show greater levels of self-assessment in the participants. However the results of this experiment showed that though through some analysis there was evidence of some self-verification there was no real evidence pointing towards self-assessment and all the results supported self-enhancement; the third experiment again tried to draw out evidence for self-verification and self-assessment and though, as with experiment two, there was some evidence to support the self-verification motive most of the results pointed towards the self-enhancement method and not self-assessment. In experiment four Sedikides suggests that the reason past experiments have not supported self-assessment is because participants reflect more on the central traits than peripheral traits, which are ones that are assessed so as to be able to improve at the same time as not harming the self-concept too much.
This experiment therefore looked at whether this was true and whether it was the central traits that were being looked at in this study rather than peripheral. The results showed what Sedikides expected, though because of this the results of the other parts of the experiment gave support to the self-enhancement motive rather than self-assessment of self-verification; the fifth experiment carried out by Sedikides suggests that in the past experiments the possibility of self-assessing was less than self-verification or self-enhancement as the participants would not have been objective in their self-evaluation. For this experiment therefore the experimental group were asked to approach their reflections in an objective way, as if they were approaching their self-concept as a scientist, bringing each of their traits under sc
Tina Lifford is an American actress and playwright. She is best known for her leading role as single mother Joan Mosley in the critically acclaimed but short-lived Fox comedy-drama series, South Central, her recurring role as Renee Trussell in the NBC drama series, Parenthood, she has starring roles in the feature films Grand Canyon, Blood Work, Hostage. In 2016, Lifford began starring as Violet Bordelon in the Oprah Winfrey Network drama series, Queen Sugar. Lifford graduated from the Santa Monica City College, she began her career in 1980s, appearing on television shows include Hill Street Blues, Cagney & Lacey, Murder, She Wrote. From 1983 to 1988, she had the recurring role on Knots Landing. In film, she made her debut in The Ladies Club; the following years, she had appeared in films include Nuts, Paris Trout, Grand Canyon, Letters from a Killer, Pay It Forward, Joe Somebody, Blood Work and Catch and Release. Lifford played the leading role as single mother Joan Mosley in the critically acclaimed but short-lived Fox comedy-drama series, South Central.
In addition to her leading role on South Central, Lifford was regular cast member on the short-lived NBC drama, Crisis Center. She had number of starring roles on the made-for-television movies, include The Ernest Green Story, Run for the Dream: The Gail Devers Story playing Jackie Joyner-Kersee, Mandela and de Klerk as Winnie Mandela, The Temptations, The Loretta Claiborne Story starring Kimberly Elise. During her career, Lifford had guest starring roles in over 50 shows, include Touched by an Angel, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Any Day Now, NYPD Blue, NCIS, ER, Nip/Tuck, she had the recurring roles on Family Law, CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, Lincoln Heights, Parenthood as Joy Bryant's mother, Scandal. In 2016, Lifford was cast in her first series regular role as of 1990s, in the Oprah Winfrey Network drama Queen Sugar produced by Ava DuVernay and Oprah Winfrey, she plays the role of Violet Bordelon, the aunt to the Bordelon siblings Nova, Ralph Angel and Charley. Violet is a spunky woman involved in a long-term relationship with a younger man.