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Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War began on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, it ended on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire. Iraq wanted to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state, was worried the 1979 Iranian Revolution would lead Iraq's Shi'ite majority to rebel against the Ba'athist government; the war followed a long history of border disputes, Iraq planned to annex the oil-rich Khuzestan Province and the east bank of the Shatt al-Arab. Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of Iran's post-revolutionary chaos, it made limited progress and was repelled. For the next six years, Iran was on the offensive until near the end of the war. There were a number of proxy forces—most notably the People's Mujahedin of Iran siding with Iraq and the Iraqi Kurdish militias of the KDP and PUK siding with Iran; the United States, the Soviet Union and most Arab countries provided political and logistic support for Iraq, while Iran was isolated. After eight years, war-weariness, economic problems, decreased morale, repeated Iranian military failures, recent Iraqi successes, lack of international sympathy for the Iraqi use of weapons of mass destruction against civillians, increased U.

S.–Iran military tension all led to a ceasefire brokered by the United Nations. The conflict has been compared to World War I in terms of the tactics used, including large-scale trench warfare with barbed wire stretched across fortified defensive lines, manned machine gun posts, bayonet charges, Iranian human wave attacks, extensive use of chemical weapons by Iraq, deliberate attacks on civilian targets. A special feature of the war can be seen in the Iranian cult of the martyr, developed in the years before the revolution; the discourses on martyrdom formulated in the Iranian Shiite context led to the tactics of "human wave attacks" and thus had a lasting impact on the dynamics of the war. An estimated 500,000 Iraqi and Iranian soldiers died, in addition to a smaller number of civilians; the end of the war resulted in border changes. The Iran–Iraq War was referred to as the Persian Gulf War until the Persian Gulf War of 1990 and 1991, after which it was known as the First Persian Gulf War; the Iraq–Kuwait conflict, known as the Second Persian Gulf War became known as the Persian Gulf War.

The Iraq War from 2003 to 2011 has been called the Second Persian Gulf War. In Iran, the war is known as the Holy Defense. State media in Iraq dubbed the war Saddam's Qadisiyyah, in reference to the seventh-century Battle of al-Qādisiyyah, in which Arab warriors overcame the Sasanian Empire during the Muslim conquest of Iran; the relationship between the governments of Iran and Iraq improved in 1978, when Iranian agents in Iraq discovered plans for a pro-Soviet coup d'état against Iraq's government. When informed of this plot, Saddam ordered the execution of dozens of his army's officers, in a sign of reconciliation, expelled from Iraq Ruhollah Khomeini, an exiled leader of clerical opposition to the Shah. Nonetheless, Saddam considered the 1975 Algiers Agreement to be a truce, rather than a definite settlement, waited for an opportunity to contest it. Tensions between Iraq and Iran were fuelled by Iran's Islamic revolution and its appearance of being a Pan-Islamic force, in contrast to Iraq's Arab nationalism.

Despite Iraq's goal of regaining the Shatt al-Arab, the Iraqi government seemed to welcome the Iranian Revolution, which overthrew Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, seen as a common enemy. It is difficult to pinpoint when tensions began to build, but there were frequent cross-border skirmishes at Iran's instigation. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini called on Iraqis to overthrow the Ba'ath government, received with considerable anger in Baghdad. On 17 July 1979, despite Khomeini's call, Saddam gave a speech praising the Iranian Revolution and called for an Iraqi-Iranian friendship based on non-interference in each other's internal affairs; when Khomeini rejected Saddam's overture by calling for Islamic revolution in Iraq, Saddam was alarmed. Iran's new Islamic administration was regarded in Baghdad as an irrational, existential threat to the Ba'ath government because the Ba'ath party, having a secular nature, discriminated against and posed a threat to the fundamentalist Shia movement in Iraq, whose clerics were Iran's allies within Iraq and whom Khomeini saw as oppressed.

Saddam's primary interest in war may have stemmed from his desire to right the supposed "wrong" of the Algiers Agreement, in addition to achieving his desire of annexing Khuzestan and becoming the regional superpower. Saddam's goal was to replace Egypt as the "leader of the Arab world" and to achieve hegemony over the Persian Gulf, he saw Iran's increased weakness due to revolution and international isolation. Saddam had invested in Iraq's military since his defeat against Iran in 1975, buying large amounts of weaponry from the Soviet Union and Britain. By 1980, Iraq possessed 2,000 tanks and 450 aircraft. Watching the disintegration of the powerful Iranian army that frustrated him in 1974–1975, he saw an opportunity to attack, using the threat of Islamic Revolution as a pretext. On 8 March 1980, Iran announced it was withdrawing its ambassador from Iraq, downgraded its diplomatic ties to the charge d'affaires level, demanded that Iraq do the same; the following day, Iraq declared Iran's ambassador persona non-grata, demanded his withdrawal

Metro El Rosario

Metro El Rosario is a surface station on the Mexico City Metro. It is located in the northern reaches of Mexico City, it serves as the terminal for both Lines 6 and 7. The station logo depicts a set of rosary beads; the platforms for lines 6 and 7 are at the same level, separated only by a bridge. This terminal, like many others, is multimodal. Metro El Rosario connects with suburban buses that serve municipalities such as Cuautitlán Izcalli and Lechería, in neighbouring México state, it connects with trolleybus Line "I", which runs between El Rosario and Metro Chapultepec. This terminal was part of an intercity railway project, serving zones between El Rosario and Huehuetoca. Construction work on this railway line began in the 1990s. Today some stations still remain. Parque Tezozómoc, park. Unidad Habitacional El Rosario, estate. East: Tierra Colorada street and Avenida El Rosario, El Rosario West: Tierra Colorada street and Avenida El Rosario, El Rosario North: Tierra Caliente street and Avenida El Rosario, Colonia Tierra Nueva South: Tierra caliente street and Tres Culturas avenue, Colonia Tierra Nueva

Haus Altenberg

Haus Altenberg is a house for education and meetings of young people of the Diocese of Cologne, located in Altenberg, now part of Odenthal, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It was the centre of the Katholische Jugendbewegung in Germany from 1926 to 1954, interrupted only during World War II. Owned by the diocese, it is run by the association Jugendbildungsstätte Haus Altenberg; the abbey around the Altenberger Dom, founded in 1133, was closed in 1803. In 1863, a house called. Ludwig Wolker developed the house from 1926 to a centre of the Katholische Jugendbewegung for the training of young men for work with groups of young people, he declared the statue of Mary in the church as Königin des Bundes. From 1934, Catholic youth organisations were restricted by the Nazi regime to religious actions, they focused therefore on light pilgrimages. Altenberg became the destination of youth pilgrimages to the statue of Mary. Georg Thurmair wrote a Marian song in 1935, "Nun, Brüder, sind wir frohgemut", which became with the melody by Adolf Lohmann the "Altenberger Wallfahrtslied".

Haus Altenberg was occupied by police and Gestapo twelve time, closed in 1942. It was used as a home for senior citizens from Cologne whose house was bombed. After World War II, Wolker renewed the work of the youth organisation, he founded in 1946 the association Verlag Haus Altenberg, which has published material related to pedagogy since. Cardinal Joseph Frings appointed Wolker Rektor of Haus Altenberg in 1948 the leader of a new organisation, Bischöflichen Hauptstelle für Jugendseelsorge. In 1954, that organisation returned to the restored Jugendhaus Düsseldorf. Haus Altenberg has been a house for young people of the Diocese of Cologne, hosting both events of the diocese as more general conferences and educational events. From 1976, the buildings were designed by Paul Georg Hopmann. From 2013, the buildings were adjusted to meet demands for energy preservation, they are barrier-free. It was reopened on 14 August 2016. Altenberger Blätter Landschaft und Geschichte: Auf Spurensuche in Altenberg.

Landschaft und Geschichte im Herzen des Bergischen Landes. Gaasterland Verlag, o. O 2006, ISBN 3-935873-06-9, darin Spuren der Jugend, pp 40ff. Tanja Junggeburth: Chronik der Jugendbildungsstätte Haus Altenberg, 2016 Official website Verlag Haus Altenberg