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Iranian National Jewels

The Iranian National Jewels the Iranian Crown Jewels, include elaborate crowns, thirty tiaras, numerous aigrettes, a dozen bejeweled swords and shields, a number of unset precious gems, numerous plates and other dining services cast in precious metals and encrusted with gems, several other more unusual items collected or worn by the Persian monarchs from the 16th century on. The collection is housed at The Treasury of National Jewels, situated inside the Central Bank of Iran on Tehran's Ferdowsi Avenue; the majority of the items now in the collection were acquired by the Safavid dynasty, which ruled Iran from 1502 to 1736 AD. Afghans invaded Iran in 1719 and sacked the capital of Isfahan and took the Iranian crown jewels as plunder. By 1729, after an internal struggle of nearly a decade, Nader Shah Afshar drove the Afghans from Iran. In 1738, the Shah launched his own campaign against the Afghan homeland. After taking and raiding the cities of Kandahar and Kabul as well as several principalities in far-off northern India, sacking Delhi, the victorious Nader Shah returned to Iran with what remained of the plundered crown jewels as well as several other precious objects now found in the Iranian Treasury.

These included diamonds, rubies and other precious gemstones. Four of the most prominent acquisitions from this conquest were the Koh-i-Noor and Darya-ye Noor diamonds, the Peacock Throne, the Samarian Spinel; the crown jewels were last used by the last to rule Iran. The splendor of the collection came to the attention of the western world through their use by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his Shahbanu Farah Pahlavi during official ceremonies and state visits; the Iranian crown jewels are considered so valuable that they are still used as a reserve to back Iranian currency. In 1937, during the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi, ownership of the Imperial treasury was transferred to the state; the jewels were placed in the vaults of the National Bank of Iran, where they were used as collateral to strengthen the financial power of the institution and to back the national monetary system. This important economic role is one reason why these jewels, undeniable symbols of Iran's monarchic past, have been retained by the current Islamic Republic.

Because of their great value and economic significance, the Iranian crown jewels were for centuries kept far from public view in the vaults of the Imperial treasury. However, as the first Pahlavi Shah had transferred ownership of the crown jewels to the state, his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, decreed that the most spectacular of the jewels should be put on public display at the Central Bank of Iran; when the Iranian revolution toppled the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979, it was feared that in the chaos the Iranian crown jewels had been stolen or sold by the revolutionaries. Although in fact some smaller items were stolen and smuggled across Iran's borders, the bulk of the collection remained intact; this became evident when the revolutionary government under the presidency of Hashemi Rafsanjani re-opened the permanent exhibition of the Iranian crown jewels to the public in the 1990s. They remain on public display; the Royal Mace of Iran is a part of the Iranian Crown Jewels. It was a favorite of Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar, shown holding it in his miniature portraits.

The mace is encrusted from end to end. It is 73 cm long; the largest diamond weighs 17 carats, is located on the top of the mace. The largest spinels are the six surrounding the top of each weighing 40 carats. Princess Ashraf Ruby Tiara Empress Farah Emerald Tiara The Sword of Fath-Ali Shah Qajar The Great Globe The Sun Throne Sword of Nader Shah Shield of Nader Shah Media related to Crown jewels of Iran at Wikimedia Commons Crown jewels Treasury of National Jewels National Museum of Iran Saltman Culture of Iran History of Iran Tourism in Iran Geography of Iran International rankings of Iran Category:Crown jewels of Iran Malecka, A. "The Mystery of the Nur al-Ayn Diamond", in: Gems & Jewellery: The Gemmological Association of Great Britain vol. 23, no. 6, July 2014, pp. 20–22. Https://issuu.com/jeweller/docs/jeweller_g_j__sept_2014_/58 Malecka, A. "Daryā-ye Nur: History and Myth of a Crown Jewel of Iran", Iranian Studies vol. 51, https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00210862.2017.1362952 Meen, V. B, Tushingham, A.

D. Crown jewels of Iran, Toronto 1968. Treasury of National Jewels Amazing Iran Iran Crown Jewels with Photos Imperial Iran of the Pahlavi Dynasty The Imperial Jewels of Iran Treasury of National Jewels of Iran Sara Mashayekh, The Breathtaking Jewelry Museum of Iran, Rozaneh Magazine, January–February 2006. Crown jewels of Iran

Pirna 014

The Pirna 014 was an axial turbojet designed in East Germany in the mid- to late 1950s by former Junkers engineers, who were repatriated to East Germany in 1954 after being held in custody in the Soviet Union following World War II. After the remaining groups of German aircraft technology engineers, those which were not yet about to be repatriated back home, had been concentrated in Sawjelowo north of Moscow in December 1953, development planning for a four jet engine-powered civilian airliner started; the role of head of engine research & development was assigned to Ferdinand Brandner, whereas Brunolf Baade was given the general project lead. Before Brandner went back to his family in Austria, after being forced to stay in the Soviet Union for 9 years, he selected his deputy Rudolf Scheinost to continue his work and to lead development of the engine; the engine project 014, a continuation of the numbering sequence of previous Jumo jet engines, was at this time named Dwigatel 014 and given high priority.

As for the airliner, intended being powered by project 014, it was the Baade 152 passenger jet, to be developed and constructed as pre-production aircraft at VEB Industriewerke Dresden, part of, the VEB Flugzeugwerke Dresden. On 5 July 1954 the last group of 200 engineers but also the key technical leads and minds, arrived in the Saxon town of Pirna. While only some persons, for example Ferdinand Brandner or Günther Bock left again shortly afterwards for their final destinations in Austria and West Berlin, the majority were eager to continue with engine and aircraft development in the GDR. In a part of the town called Sonnenstein, work centered around planning of future operations / building factories and related to 152 and 014 started instantly. First they operated from the buildings of HV-18, until construction work for the engine development works started in the summer of 1955. A new design and administration building identical to the one in Dresden located at Factory 801, was constructed.

Two large assembly and manufacturing plants, several engine test stands, large underground tanks intended for test runs, other halls and social facilities, plus housing for the workers were finished. VEB Entwicklungsbau Pirna was founded there on 1 May 1955; the project documentation, begun before final return of the engineers involved to Germany, was extended by a new, enlarged team now being located in Pirna and prepared for prototyping. From the beginnings in 1954 until the completion of new factories in 1957, the premises in Pirna were operating as the spiritual center of aviation-related research, development & production in the GDR. Only from thereon, it was. Citations: Mewes 1997, p. 36-39. It was designed as a single-flow turbojet; the basic conception was a further development of the design applied with high perfection on Junkers Jumo 004 and Junkers Jumo 012, as well as the BMW 003 and BMW 018 engines. In this design, the compressor, combustion chamber and turbine are traversed in axial direction by the air taken directly from the inlet.

The experiences acquired by technical management in the Soviet Union during further development of mentioned Junkers and BMW engines, as well as new developments like TW-2, NK-2 / NK-4 along with the high-power turboprop NK-12 were considered during design and construction of components for this new engine project. This knowledge was now serving as a foundation for the enlarged Pirna team to develop a modern and robust jet engine from the existing project documentation, which would be suitable for a civilian airliner according to specific needs regarding power requirements, simple handling and low maintenance. CompressorThe twelve-stage axial compressor was coupled directly to the two-stage turbine, just like on the Jumo 012; this resulted in simple bearings construction and advantageous controllability. The compressor housing was a welded steel sheet construction, divided in two parts; the upper half contained the fuel- and engine control systems also the automated starter control and ignition coils for two ignitors located in the combustion chamber's upper area.

Engine controlEngine control was handled by a automatic, compact commando unit using a proven Junkers single-handed lever action. In various states of flight, fuel throughput can vary greatly. Therefore, fuel injectors located in the burners were given two stages, resulting in good efficiency over a large operational range. Combustion chamberThe chamber was a can-annular design. Based on experiences with Junkers' can-type chambers and BMW's annular-type chambers, this design choice was applied during the Soviet period. 12 burner cans and 60 air pockets were used, along with several more air canals. This construction proved an efficiency of about 98% burn-out grade inside the combustion chamber during bench-t

1762 in poetry

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature. James Bowdoin, four poems in the anthology Harvard Verses presented to George III in an attempt to gain royal support for Harvard College Thomas Godfrey, "The Court of Fancy: A Poem", Colonial America Francis Hopkinson: "An Exercise" "Science: A Poem" A Collection of Psalm Tunes James Boswell, The Cub at Newmarket, published by James Dodsley Elizabeth Carter, Poems on Several Occasions Charles Churchill, The Ghost, Books I-III Mary Collier, Poems, on Several Occasions John Cunningham, The Contemplatist Thomas Denton, The House of Superstition, prefixed to William Gilpin's Lives of the Reformers, written in imitation of Edmund Spenser William Falconer, The Shipwreck Edward Jerningham, The Nunnery: An elegy in imitation of the Elegy in a Churchyard, an imitation of Thomas Gray James Macpherson, Fingal, an Ancient Epic Poem Together with several other poems translated from the Galic language John Ogilvie, Poems on Various Subjects William Whitehead, A Charge to the Poets Edward Young, published anonymously.

March or October – Thomas Russell, English poet September 11 – Joanna Baillie, Scottish poet and dramatist September 24 – William Lisle Bowles, English poet and critic October 21 – George Colman the Younger, English dramatist and miscellaneous writer October 30 – André Chénier, French poet November 30 – Samuel Egerton Brydges, English bibliographer, poet and politician Approximate date – James Bisset, Scottish-born artist, writer, art dealer and poet Birth years link to the corresponding " in poetry" article: June 26 – Luise Gottsched, German poet August 21 – Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, English aristocrat and writer October 20 – Mary Collier, English poet and washerwoman Poetry List of years in poetry