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Iranian rial

The rial is the currency of Iran. Although the "toman" is no longer an official unit of Iranian currency, Iranians express amounts of money and prices of goods in tomans. For this purpose, one toman equals ten rials. Despite this usage, amounts of money and prices of goods are always written in rials. For example, the sign next to a loaf of bread in a store would state the price in rials, e.g. 10,000 rials though the clerk, if asked, would say that the bread costs 1,000 tomans. There is no official symbol for the currency but the Iranian standard ISIRI 820 defined a symbol for use on typewriters and the two Iranian standards ISIRI 2900 and ISIRI 3342 define a character code to be used for it; the Unicode Standard has a compatibility character defined U+FDFC ﷼ RIAL SIGN. The Iranian Rial was devalued in July 2013 to half its previous value as the government reduced subsidisation of the exchange rate against the dollar. In December 2016, the Iranian government announced the country's currency would be changed from the Rial to the used Toman.

Such a move requires the approval of the Iranian Parliament. In 2019, Iranian government ministers passed a bill to drop four zeros, as well as revalue one toman to equal one hundred parsehs instead of the previous ten rials; the rial was first introduced in 1798 as a coin worth one eighth of a toman. In 1825, the rial ceased to be issued, with the qiran subdivided into 20 shahi or 1,000 dinar and was worth one tenth of a toman, being issued as part of a decimal system; the rial replaced the qiran at par in 1932, subdivided into 100 new dinars. Prior to decimalisation in 1932, these coins and currencies were used, some of these terms still have wide usage in Iranian languages and proverbs: In 1932, the rial was pegged to the British pound at 1 pound = 59.75 rials. The exchange rate was 80.25 in 1936, 64.350 in 1939, 68.8 in 1940, 141 in 1941 and 129 in 1942. In 1945, the rial was pegged to the U. S. dollar at 1 dollar = 32.25 rials. The rate was 1 dollar = 75.75 rials in 1957. Iran did not follow the dollar's devaluation in 1973, leading to a new peg of 1 dollar = 68.725 rials.

The peg to USD was dropped in 1975. In 1979, 70 rials equalled US$1; the value of the rial declined precipitously after the Islamic revolution because of capital flight from the country. Studies estimate that the flight of capital from Iran shortly before and after the revolution in the range of $30 to $40 billion. Whereas on 15 March 1978, 71.46 rials equalled US$1, in US$1 equalled 9,430 rials. Injecting sudden foreign exchange revenues in the economic system forms the phenomenon of "Dutch disease" in a country. There are two main consequences for a country with Dutch disease: loss of price competitiveness in its production goods, hence the exports of those goods. Both cases are visible in Iran; the solution is to direct the extra revenues from oil into the National Development Fund for use in productive and efficient projects. Although described as an "market rate", the value of the Iranian rial is controlled by the central bank; the state ownership of oil export earnings and its large reserves, supervision of letters of credit, together with current - and capital outflow account - outflows allows management of demand.

The central bank has allowed the rial to weaken in nominal terms in order to support the competitiveness of non-oil exports. There is an active black market in foreign exchange, but the development of the TSE rate and the ready availability of foreign exchange during 2000 narrowed the differential to as little as IR100 in mid-2000. However, the spread increased again in September 2010 because channels for transferring foreign currency to and from Iran being blocked because of international sanctions. Monetary policy is facilitated by a network of 50 Iranian-run forex dealers in Iran, the rest of the Middle East and Europe. According to the Wall Street Journal and dealers, the Iranian government was selling $250 million daily to keep the rial exchange rate against the US dollar between 9,700 and 9,900 in 2009. At times the authorities weakened the national currency intentionally by withholding the supply of hard currency to earn more rial-denominated income at times when the government faced a budget deficit.

The widening of the gap between official and unofficial exchange rates stood at over 20% in November 2011. This shows the correlation between the value of foreign currencies and the domestic inflationary environment; the unofficial rial to US dollar rate underwent severe fluctuations in January 2012 settling at 17,000 rials at the end of the period. Besides all the bad effects on the economy in general, this had the effect of boosting the competitiveness of Iran's domestic industries abroad. Following President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's decision to liberalize the mechanism by which bank interest rates are set, CBI announced that it would be fixing the official rate of the rial against the dollar at 12,260 rials from 28 January 2012 and seek to meet all demand for foreign currency through banks. On 25 September 2012, the rial fell to a new low of 26,500 to the USD; the drop followed the government's launch of a foreign exchange center a day before, that would provide importers of some basic goods with foreign exchanges, at a rate about 2% cheaper than the open market rate on a given day.

The announced rate at the center on

Daan Remmerts de Vries

Daan Remmerts de Vries is a Dutch writer and illustrator. Remmerts de Vries made his debut in 1990 with a collection of short stories, he won the Gouden Griffel award twice: in 2003 for his book Godje and in 2010 for his book Voordat jij er was. He won the Zilveren Griffel award in 2015 for Soms laat ik je achter and in 2017 for T.rex Trix in Naturalis. Remmerts de Vries has illustrated books written by several authors, including Ted van Lieshout, Sjoerd Kuyper and Francine Oomen, he has illustrated many of his own books. 1997: Vlag en Wimpel, Mijn tuin, mijn tuin 2000: Vlag en Wimpel, Willis 2003: Gouden Griffel, Godje 2005: Zilveren Griffel, De Noordenwindheks 2009: Vlag en Wimpel, Bernie King en de magische cirkels 2010: Gouden Griffel, Voordat jij er was 2015: Zilveren Griffel, Soms laat ik je achter 2017: Zilveren Griffel, T.rex Trix in Naturalis 2018: Vlag en Wimpel, De cycloop Daan Remmerts de Vries, Digital Library for Dutch Literature

Kraken (Marvel Comics)

Kraken is a name or title shared among several characters in Marvel Comics. While the original Kraken is the creature of the same name, the rest have been people who have used the name as their persona; the creature and one of the characters has appeared in other media. The first Kraken made multiple appearances in Marvel continuity, including The Avengers #27, Tales to Astonish #93 and Sub-Mariner #27, before returning years in the second issue of the limited series Fallen Son: The Death of Captain America, and in The New Invaders #4 from April 2014. A Kraken appeared in the short story "When Strikes The Kraken!" in Kull The Destroyer #17, was reprinted in Chronicles of Kull 2: The Hell Beneath Atlantis and Other Stories. Another Kraken debuted in the black and white Bizarre Adventures #26. A creature called The Black Kraken debuted in the short story "Red Shadows and Black Kraken!" in Conan The Barbarian Annual #7. Another version of the Kraken debuted in Marvel Comics Presents #121, it returned in Marvel Action Hour featuring the Fantastic Four #2-4 and in the one shot title Namora #1.

A Kraken appeared in the 2009 one-shot comic Sub-Mariner Comics: 70th Anniversary Special. While another appeared in Fantomex Max issues #2 and #3; this Kraken was modified into a remote controlled cyborg to protect an underwater base of a brilliant scientist. Another Kraken appeared in Jean-Grey #3. in 2017. Two additional versions possessed ties to Greek mythology; the first served the Olympian Gods and debuted in the one shot Chaos War: God Squad #1 before returning in Incredible Hulk #622. The second Kraken appeared in the four-part limited series Wolverine/Hercules: Myths, Monsters & Mutants. Spirited away by the god Poseidon after a defeat by Greek hero Perseus, the creature is revived in modern times by King Eurystheus to battle the heroes Hercules and Wolverine; the original Kraken is based on the mythical creature of the same name. Within the Marvel Universe, it is established that the creature can be called upon through the use of the Proteus Horn. During the Hyborian Age following the Great Cataclysm, one black Kraken lurked near the Barachan Islands.

Sailing nearby while investigating the massive kidnappings, Conan the Barbarian was attacked by the Black Kraken. Conan was able to use his axe to slash one of the Black Kraken's eyes; the Black Kraken's other eye is slashed by Conan enough to blind it as it disappears underwater. The creature has been called upon by Commander Kraken to fight Namor on one occasion; the creature at one point went up against Hercules. Daniel Whitehall is a British Intelligence agent, part of The Great Wheel of the Zodiac, collaborating with other major agents such as Nick Fury, Dum Dum Dugan and Baron Strucker, they were betrayed by two other agents Viktor Uvarov and Vasili Dassaiev. Whitehall continued as Kraken, a dangerous Hydra operative who for years remained a mystery. Many S. H. I. E. L. D. Agents lost their lives trying to unearth information regarding the Kraken with little to no success, he trained many of the most well known Hydra agents including Viper. Whitehall continued to aid up and coming meta humans such as Tomi Shishido by giving him the God Killer Sword turning him into Gorgon as well as transforming an unknown Hydra agent into the Inhuman parasite Hive.

Whitehall came to Strucker to inform him that he was dying and that he was retiring as the Kraken. While waiting to die in a London hospital, Jake Fury visited him and revealed that he knew everything, he took Whitehall's Kraken armor and killed him. Jacob "Jake" Fury was born in New York City; as a young man, he came to resent his brother Nick Fury. As the original Scorpio, he operated as a spy and criminal. Using his secret identity as Scorpio, he first battled Nick at a Las Vegas S. H. I. E. L. D. Base, he again battled his brother in Manhattan disguised himself as Nick Fury to infiltrate the New York S. H. I. E. L. D. Base, although his real identity was discovered by his brother. Nick Fury went undercover as Scorpio, took his brother's place in the Zodiac, who battled the Avengers. Disguised as Jacque LaPoint, he played a minor role in the Zodiac's attempt to kill all Manhattan residents born under the sign of Gemini, he attempted to kidnap Kyle Richmond, battled the Defenders. Scorpio constructed a set of android Zodiac members to serve him, in his base at Belleville, New Jersey.

However, his plan was thwarted by the Defenders, he committed suicide through self-inflicted gunshot wound in despair. In the final arc of the Secret Warriors series, it was revealed that Jake's death and much of his villainy was all part of a long-game plan of Nick Fury's, he remained underground and discovered the journals of Daniel Whitehall, the previous Kraken, tracked him down to London. He took the costume and killed Whitehall and planted the seeds that would destroy Hydra and Leviathan from the inside; as his final mission, he disappeared. A third member of Hydra identifying himself as Kraken, was inducted by Elisa Sinclair, the new Madame Hydra and the former lover of Whitehall. With Hydra havin