Universalism is a philosophical and theological concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability. A community that calls itself universalist may emphasize the universal principles of most religions, accept others in an inclusive manner, it is centered on the belief in a universal reconciliation between the divine. Christian Universalism is focused on the idea of universal reconciliation. Known as universal salvation, it is a doctrine stating that every human soul will be reconciled to God because of divine love and mercy. A belief in one fundamental truth is another important tenet in Universalism; the living truth is seen as more far-reaching than the national, cultural, or religious boundaries or interpretations of that one truth. As the Rig Veda states, "Truth is one. Unitarian Universalism emphasizes that religion is a universal human quality, focuses on the universal principles of most religions, it accepts all religions in an inclusive manner. In philosophy, universality is the notion that universal facts can be discovered and is therefore understood as being in opposition to relativism.
In certain religions, universalism is the quality ascribed to an entity whose existence is consistent throughout the universe. Moral universalism is the meta-ethical position; that system is inclusive of all individuals, regardless of culture, sex, nationality, sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature. Moral universalism is opposed to moral relativism. However, not all forms of moral universalism are absolutist, nor do they value monism. Many forms of universalism, such as utilitarianism, are non-absolutist. Other forms such as those theorized by Isaiah Berlin, may value pluralist ideals. Universalism is not only a set of values, but a worldview to which any can subscribe if they observe and believe in the universality of the human experience—and that of all sentient life—and work to uphold the principles and actions that safeguard these fundamental things. Indeed, many Universalists may be attracted to the logic of universally applicable principles, rather than any belief or dogma.
Human unity and the perceived need for a sustainable and conscious global order are among the tendencies of non-religious Universalist thought. In Bahá'í belief, a single God has sent all the historic founders of the world religions in a process of progressive revelation; as a result, the major world religions are seen as divine in origin and are continuous in their purpose. In this view, there is unity among the founders of world religions, but each revelation brings a more advanced set of teachings in human history and none are syncretic. Within this universal view, the unity of humanity is one of the central teachings of the Bahá'í Faith; the Bahá'í teachings state that since all humans have been created in the image of God, God does not make any distinction between people with regard to race, colour or religion. Thus, because all humans have been created equal, they all require equal opportunities and treatment. Hence the Bahá'í view promotes the unity of humanity, that people's vision should be world-embracing and that people should love the whole world rather than just their nation.
The teaching, does not equate unity with uniformity. Operating on a worldwide basis this cooperative view of the peoples and nations of the planet culminates in a vision of the practicality of the progression in world affairs towards, the inevitability of, world peace; the fundamental idea of Christian Universalism is universal reconciliation – that all humans will be saved. They will enter God's kingdom in Heaven, through the grace and works of the lord Jesus Christ. Christian Universalism teaches that an eternal Hell does not exist, that it was not what Jesus had taught, they point to historical evidence showing that some early fathers of the church were universalists, attribute the perpetuating idea of hell to eternal mistranslation. Universalists cite numerous Biblical passages. In addition, they argue that an eternal hell is both unjust, against the nature and attributes of a loving God; the remaining beliefs of Christian Universalism are compatible with the fundamentals of Christianity God is the loving Parent of all peoples, see Love of God.
Jesus Christ reveals the nature and character of God, is the spiritual leader of humankind. Humankind is created with an immortal soul, which death can not end—or a mortal soul that shall be resurrected and preserved by God. A soul which God will not wholly destroy. Sin has negative consequences in this life or the afterlife. All of God's punishments for sin are remedial. None of such punishments will result in the permanent destruction of a soul; some Christian Universalists believe in the idea of a Purgatorial Hell, or a temporary place of purification that some must undergo before their entrance into Heaven. In 1899 the Universalist General Convention called the Universalist Church of America, adopted the Five Principles: the belief in God, Jesus Christ, the immortality of the human soul, the reality of sin and universal reconciliation. Universalist writers such as George T. Knight have claimed that Universalism was a held view among theologians in Early Christianity; these included such important figures such as Alexan
Turquerie was the Orientalist fashion in Western Europe from the 16th to 18th centuries for imitating aspects of Turkish art and culture. Many different Western European countries were fascinated by the exotic and unknown culture of Turkey, the center of the Ottoman Empire, at the beginning of the period the only power to pose a serious military threat to Europe; the West had a growing interest in Turkish-made products and art, including music, visual arts and sculptures. This fashionable phenomenon became more popular through trading routes and increased diplomatic relationships between the Ottomans and the European nations, exemplified by the Franco-Ottoman alliance in 1715. Ambassadors and traders returned home with tales of exotic places and souvenirs of their adventures; the movement was reflected in the art of the period. Music, paintings and artifacts were inspired by the Turkish and Ottoman styles and methods. Paintings in particular portrayed the Ottomans with bright colours and sharp contrasts, suggesting their interesting peculiarity and exotic nature.
In the wake of the Age of Exploration between the 15th and 18th centuries, there was an explosion in the number of commodities and availability of products. People were using these maps to explore the world on paper. There was a desire for more acquisitions. Coupling this, there was the value of exoticism, valuing things. Europeans and Ottomans alike were developing a consciousness of themselves in relation to the broader world. At the same time the Ottomans were ceasing to be regarded as a serious military threat to Western Europe, despite their continuing occupation of the Balkans, campaigns such as that ended by the Battle of Vienna as late as 1683. New patterns of consumption were arising with trading ships being able to navigate around Africa. Commodities that were once expensive were becoming more affordable. Products define people in terms of gender and availability of access; this notion of social definition outlines the main theme of the explosion of commodities from 16th century and onwards.
The exchange system had to do with accessibility and availability of commodities on a grand scale. It is important to note; the Europeans were not the only people who developed a sensibility of how consuming different things could define their relationships domestically and abroad. In this context, there was one's place within the world. A person would consume. Coffee is an example of a commodity that became more popular as Europeans "discovered" it in Ottoman lands and experienced it. Europeans developed an appetite for exoticism as greater emphasis was put on empire building and colonization in other nations. There was a growing fashion for Turkish styles in Europe in the 16th centuries. Europeans did not regard Ottomans as rivals that they had to contend with and imitate militarily, politically, or diplomatically, but rather as an exotic foreign people possessing quaint and strange fashions that could be consumed. Consuming these exotic fashions would show one’s elite place in society as well as display their open-mindedness and interest in the world.
These "obsessions" with Turkish aesthetics were in part brought on by the presence of Europeans in the Ottoman Court and the acts of bringing back their products to Europe. The increased mercantile relationships between the Turkish people and the Europeans aided this process. Brightly colored Turkish styles of decoration were used on many types of objects, including timepieces. Many of those imported had religious names in Arabic characters. A person who owned one of these timepieces was one with an increased social status; the Turkish grandeur portrayed by the sultans was attractive to Europeans. Agostino Veneziano made a portrait of Suleyman the Magnificent, sultan of the Ottoman Empire in 1520, he was known as the “grand Turk” and disrupted European balance. The image portrays the sultan as a gentle, yet barbaric person, he was most known for executing the wishes of the sultana, who wanted their children murdered to secure the throne for one of their sons. Fabrics were bright and embroidered, as depicted in the painting, Himan de la Grande Mosquee by Joseph-Marie Vien in 1748.
In the context of turquerie, Turkish textiles were a luxury in the elitist European homes. They had velvet grounds with stylized floral motifs, they were woven in Asia Minor for the European market or, more as Venetian, under Turkish influence. Italian-styled textiles were woven by the Ottoman Turks for the Venetians because of their cheap labour and continued business relationships. Social position was something important in the 18th century so things like dress and props were selected in order to communicate one's status; this need to express status mixed with a new interest for Turkish style allowed for Turkish dress and decorations to become important props. This included wearing loose, flowing gowns belted with ornate bands of embroidered cloth and ermine-trimmed robes with tasseled turbans. Women abandoned their corsets and attached strings of pearls to their hair for much more freeing material; the loose clothing and the unorthodox styles added to the lewd perceptions of the Ottomans. This interest was something that motivated the creation of many portraits were Turkish people were
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England, part of the City of Brighton and Hove, located 47 miles south of London. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age and Anglo-Saxon periods; the ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" was documented in the Domesday Book. The town's importance grew in the Middle Ages as the Old Town developed, but it languished in the early modern period, affected by foreign attacks, storms, a suffering economy and a declining population. Brighton began to attract more visitors following improved road transport to London and becoming a boarding point for boats travelling to France; the town developed in popularity as a health resort for sea bathing as a purported cure for illnesses. In the Georgian era, Brighton developed as a fashionable seaside resort, encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent King George IV, who spent much time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion in the Regency era. Brighton continued to grow as a major centre of tourism following the arrival of the railways in 1841, becoming a popular destination for day-trippers from London.
Many of the major attractions were built in the Victorian era, including the Metropole Hotel Grand Hotel, the West Pier, the Brighton Palace Pier. The town continued to grow into the 20th century, expanding to incorporate more areas into the town's boundaries before joining the town of Hove to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove in 1997, granted city status in 2000. Today and Hove district has a resident population of about 288,200 and the wider Brighton and Hove conurbation has a population of 474,485. Brighton's location has made it a popular destination for tourists, renowned for its diverse communities, quirky shopping areas, large cultural and arts scene and its large LGBT population, leading to its recognition as the "unofficial gay capital of the UK". Brighton attracted 7.5 million day visitors in 2015/16 and 4.9 million overnight visitors, is the most popular seaside destination in the UK for overseas tourists. Brighton has been called the UK's "hippest city", "the happiest place to live in the UK".
Brighton's earliest name was Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries."Brighton" was an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660. The name is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Most scholars believe that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn—the homestead of Beorthelm, a common Old English name associated with villages elsewhere in England; the tūn element is common in Sussex on the coast, although it occurs infrequently in combination with a personal name. An alternative etymology taken from the Old English words for "stony valley" is sometimes given but has less acceptance. Brighthelm gives its name to, among other things, a church and a pub in Brighton and some halls of residence at the University of Sussex. Writing in 1950, historian Antony Dale noted that unnamed antiquaries had suggested an Old English word "brist" or "briz", meaning "divided", could have contributed the first part of the historic name Brighthelmstone.
The town was split in half by the Wellesbourne, a winterbourne, culverted and buried in the 18th century. Brighton has several nicknames. Poet Horace Smith called it "The Queen of Watering Places", still used, "Old Ocean's Bauble". Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray referred to "Doctor Brighton", calling the town "one of the best of Physicians". "London-by-the-Sea" is well-known, reflecting Brighton's popularity with Londoners as a day-trip resort, a commuter dormitory and a desirable destination for those wanting to move out of the metropolis. "The Queen of Slaughtering Places", a pun on Smith's description, became popular when the Brighton trunk murders came to the public's attention in the 1930s. The mid 19th-century nickname "School Town" referred to the remarkable number of boarding and church schools in the town at the time; the first settlement in the Brighton area was Whitehawk Camp, a Neolithic encampment on Whitehawk Hill, dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC. It is one of six causewayed enclosures in Sussex.
Archaeologists have only explored it, but have found numerous burial mounds and bones, suggesting it was a place of some importance. There was a Bronze Age settlement at Coldean. Brythonic Celts arrived in Britain in the 7th century BC, an important Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury Castle on Hollingbury Hill; this Celtic Iron Age encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. 1,000 feet. Cissbury Ring 10 miles from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal "capital". There was a Roman villa at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, much physical evidence of Roman occupation has been discovered locally. From the 1st century AD, the Romans built a number of villas in Brighton and Romano-British Brythonic Celts formed farming settlements in the area. After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton area returned to the control of the native Celts. Anglo-Saxons invaded in the late 5th century AD, the region became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, founded in 477 AD by king Ælle.
Anthony Seldon identified five phases of development in pre-20th century Brighton. The village of Bristelmestune was founded by these
A stable is a building in which livestock horses, are kept. It most means a building, divided into separate stalls for individual animals. There are many different types of stables in use today; the term "stable" is used to describe a group of animals kept by one owner, regardless of housing or location. The exterior design of a stable can vary based on climate, building materials, historical period and cultural styles of architecture. A wide range of building materials can be used, including masonry and steel. Stables range in size, from a small building housing one or two animals to facilities at agricultural shows or race tracks that can house hundreds of animals; the stable is historically the second-oldest building type on the farm. The world’s oldest horse stables were discovered in the ancient city of Pi-Ramesses in Qantir, in Ancient Egypt, were established by Ramesses II; these stables covered 182,986 square feet, had floors sloped for drainage, could contain about 480 horses. Free-standing stables began to be built from the 16th century.
They were well built and placed near the house because these animals were valued and maintained. They were once vital to an indicator of their owners' position in the community. Few examples survive of complete interiors from the mid-19th century or earlier. Traditionally, stables in Great Britain had a hayloft on their first floor and a pitching door at the front. Doors and windows were symmetrically arranged, their interiors were divided into stalls and included a large stall for a foaling mare or sick horse. The floors were featured drainage channels. Outside steps to the first floor were common for farm hands to live in the building. For horses, stables are part of a larger complex which includes trainers and farriers. "Stable" is used metaphorically to refer to a group of people – sportspeople – trained, supervised or managed by the same person or organisation. For example, art galleries refer to the artists they represent as their stable of artists; the headquarters of a unit of cavalry, not their horses' accommodation, would be known as "a stable".
Media related to stables at Wikimedia Commons. Horse care: Barns and stables Glossary of equestrian terms Livery stable Nativity of Jesus Pen
Matthew Arnold was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools. He was the son of Thomas Arnold, the famed headmaster of Rugby School, brother to both Tom Arnold, literary professor, William Delafield Arnold and colonial administrator. Matthew Arnold has been characterised as a sage writer, a type of writer who chastises and instructs the reader on contemporary social issues; the Reverend John Keble stood as Godfather to Matthew. Thomas Arnold admired Keble's Christian Year, first published in 1827, but the elder Arnold became disappointed with Keble when he became a leader of the Oxford or Tractarian Movement, whose leaders had a plan for the renewal of the Church of England that Thomas Arnold regarded as too conservative and traditionalist. In 1828, Arnold's father was appointed Headmaster of Rugby School and his young family took up residence, that year, in the Headmaster's house. In 1831, Arnold was tutored by Rev. John Buckland in the small village of Laleham.
In 1834, the Arnolds occupied a holiday home, Fox How, in the Lake District. William Wordsworth was a close friend. In 1836, Arnold was sent to Winchester College, but in 1837 he returned to Rugby School where he was enrolled in the fifth form, he thus came under the direct tutelage of his father. He wrote verse for the manuscript Fox How Magazine co-produced with his brother Tom for the family's enjoyment from 1838 to 1843. During his years there, he won school prizes for English essay writing, Latin and English poetry, his prize poem, "Alaric at Rome," was printed at Rugby. In 1841, he won an open scholarship to Oxford. During his residence at Oxford, his friendship became stronger with Arthur Hugh Clough, another Rugby old boy, one of his father's favourites. Arnold did not join the Oxford Movement, his father died of heart disease in 1842, Fox How became his family's permanent residence. Arnold's poem Cromwell won the 1843 Newdigate prize, he graduated in the following year with a 2nd class honours degree in Literae Humaniores.
In 1845, after a short interlude of teaching at Rugby, he was elected Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. In 1847, he became Private Secretary to Lord President of the Council. In 1849, he published his first book of The Strayed Reveller. In 1850 Wordsworth died. Wishing to marry, but unable to support a family on the wages of a private secretary, Arnold sought the position of, was appointed, in April 1851, one of Her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools. Two months he married Frances Lucy, daughter of Sir William Wightman, Justice of the Queen's Bench; the Arnolds had six children: Thomas. Arnold described his duties as a school inspector as "drudgery," although "at other times he acknowledged the benefit of regular work." The inspectorship required him, at least at first, to travel and across much of England. "Initially, Arnold was responsible for inspecting Nonconformist schools across a broad swath of central England. He spent many dreary hours during the 1850s in railway waiting-rooms and small-town hotels, longer hours still in listening to children reciting their lessons and parents reciting their grievances.
But that meant that he, among the first generation of the railway age, travelled across more of England than any man of letters had done. Although his duties were confined to a smaller area, Arnold knew the society of provincial England better than most of the metropolitan authors and politicians of the day." In 1852, Arnold published his second volume of poems, Empedocles on Etna, Other Poems. In 1853, he published Poems: A New Edition, a selection from the two earlier volumes famously excluding Empedocles on Etna, but adding new poems and Rustum and The Scholar Gipsy. In 1854, Poems: Second Series appeared. Arnold was elected Professor of Poetry at Oxford in 1857, he was the first in this position to deliver his lectures in English rather than in Latin, he was re-elected in 1862. On Translating Homer and the initial thoughts that Arnold would transform into Culture and Anarchy were among the fruits of the Oxford lectures. In 1859, he conducted the first of three trips to the continent at the behest of parliament to study European educational practices.
He self-published The Popular Education of France, the introduction to, published under the title Democracy. In 1865, Arnold published Essays in Criticism: First Series. Essays in Criticism: Second Series would not appear until November 1888, shortly after his untimely death. In 1866, he published Thyrsis, his elegy to Clough who had died in 1861. Culture and Anarchy, Arnold's major work in social criticism was published in 1869. Literature and Dogma, Arnold's major work in religious criticism appeared in 1873. In 1883 and 1884, Arnold toured the United States and Canada delivering lectures on education and Ralph Waldo Emerson, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1883. In 1886, he retired from school
Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery and sometimes dance or ballet; the performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor. Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition. Understood as an sung piece, in contrast to a play with songs, opera has come to include numerous genres, including some that include spoken dialogue such as musical theater, Singspiel and Opéra comique. In traditional number opera, singers employ two styles of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style and self-contained arias; the 19th century saw the rise of the continuous music drama. Opera originated in Italy at the end of the 16th century and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century.
In the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Christoph Willibald Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his "reform" operas in the 1760s; the most renowned figure of late 18th-century opera is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, Così fan tutte, as well as Die Entführung aus dem Serail, The Magic Flute, landmarks in the German tradition. The first third of the 19th century saw the high point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini all creating works that are still performed, it saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer. The mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera and dominated by Giuseppe Verdi in Italy and Richard Wagner in Germany; the popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini and Richard Strauss in the early 20th century.
During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism and Minimalism. With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso and Maria Callas became known to much wider audiences that went beyond the circle of opera fans. Since the invention of radio and television, operas were performed on these mediums. Beginning in 2006, a number of major opera houses began to present live high-definition video transmissions of their performances in cinemas all over the world. Since 2009, complete performances are live streamed; the words of an opera are known as the libretto. Some composers, notably Wagner, have written their own libretti. Traditional opera referred to as "number opera", consists of two modes of singing: recitative, the plot-driving passages sung in a style designed to imitate and emphasize the inflections of speech, aria in which the characters express their emotions in a more structured melodic style.
Vocal duets and other ensembles occur, choruses are used to comment on the action. In some forms of opera, such as singspiel, opéra comique and semi-opera, the recitative is replaced by spoken dialogue. Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, are referred to as arioso; the terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in detail below. During both the Baroque and Classical periods, recitative could appear in two basic forms, each of, accompanied by a different instrumental ensemble: secco recitative, sung with a free rhythm dictated by the accent of the words, accompanied only by basso continuo, a harpsichord and a cello. Over the 18th century, arias were accompanied by the orchestra. By the 19th century, accompagnato had gained the upper hand, the orchestra played a much bigger role, Wagner revolutionized opera by abolishing all distinction between aria and recitative in his quest for what Wagner termed "endless melody". Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagner's example, though some, such as Stravinsky in his The Rake's Progress have bucked the trend.
The changing role of the orchestra in opera is described in more detail below. The Italian word opera means "work", both in the sense of the labour done and the result produced; the Italian word derives from the Latin opera, a singular noun meaning "work" and the plural of the noun opus. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Italian word was first used in the sense "composition in which poetry and music are combined" in 1639. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, it was writt