SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Iraq

Iraq the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Mandeans and Kawliya. Around 99% of the country's 38 million citizens are Muslims, with tiny minorities of Christians, Yarsans and Mandeans present; the official languages of Iraq are Kurdish. Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf; these rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers known as Mesopotamia, is referred to as the cradle of civilisation.

It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian and Babylonian empires, it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Seljuk, Timurid, Safavid and Ottoman empires. The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire until the partition of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century, it was made up of three provinces, called vilayets in the Ottoman language: Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, Basra Vilayet. In April 1920 the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations. A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq; the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.

Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005; the US presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west, it has since been defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Kurdistan Region continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Kurdistan Region was held on 25 September 2017. On 9 December 2017, then-Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL after the group lost its territory in Iraq. Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of one autonomous region; the country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-Islamic as well as post-Islamic times and is known for its poets.

Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets. Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF; the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for "city", UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿAjamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran; the term included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq. Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term Eyraca Arabica was used to describe Iraq.

The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, عراق means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment", viz. at the south and east of the Jazira Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area. The Arabic pronunciation is. In English, it is either or, the American Heritage Dictionary, the Random House Dictionary; the pronunciation is heard in US media. In accordance with the 2005 Constitution, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq". Between 65,000 BC and 35,000 BC northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave This same region is the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from 11,000 BC. Since 10,000 BC, Iraq was one

Gmina Dąbrowa Białostocka

Gmina Dąbrowa Białostocka is an urban-rural gmina in Sokółka County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland. Its seat is the town of Dąbrowa Białostocka, which lies 30 kilometres north of Sokółka and 61 km north of the regional capital Białystok; the gmina covers an area of 263.95 square kilometres, as of 2006 its total population is 12,755. Apart from the town of Dąbrowa Białostocka, Gmina Dąbrowa Białostocka contains the villages and settlements of Bagny, Bity Kamień, Brzozowo-Kolonia, Brzozowy Borek, Grabowo, Grzebienie, Harasimowicze, Harasimowicze-Kolonia, Jaczno, Jałówka, Kirejewszczyzna, Krugło, Lewki, Łozowo, Łozowo-Kolonia, Małowista, Małyszówka-Kolonia, Miedzianowo, Mościcha, Nierośno, Nowa Kamienna, Nowa Wieś, Olsza, Osmołowszczyzna, Ostrowie-Kolonia, Ostrowo, Pięciowłóki, Prohalino, Reszkowce, Różanystok, Sadowo, Sławno, Stara Kamienna, Stara Kamienna-Kolonia, Suchodolina, Trzyrzeczki, Wesołowo, Wiązówka, Wroczyńszczyzna, Zwierzyniec Mały and Zwierzyniec Wielki. Gmina Dąbrowa Białostocka is bordered by the gminas of Janów, Nowy Dwór, Sidra and Sztabin.

Polish official population figures 2006

1998–99 Piacenza Calcio season

Piacenza Calcio had their most successful season with 41 points in 34 games, albeit just three points above the relegation zone. Much thanks to 15 times goal scorer Simone Inzaghi, Piacenza was able to secure a fifth consecutive season in the top flight; the remarkable finish with seven wins out of the last eleven, was key in determining the survival. Valerio Fiori Sergio Marcon Michele Nicoletti Mauro Barberini Giordano Caini Daniele Cozzi Daniele Delli Carri Gianluca Lamacchi Alessandro Lucarelli Gian Paolo Manighetti Stefano Sacchetti Pietro Vierchowod Renato Buso Paolo Cristallini Alessandro Mazzola Daniele Moretti Gianpietro Piovani Adolfo Speranza Francesco Statuto Giovanni Stroppa Stefano Turi Francesco Varrenti Davide Dionigi Simone Inzaghi Massimo Rastelli Ruggiero Rizzitelli Alberto Gilardino Simone Inzaghi 15 Davide Dionigi 5 Gianpietro Piovani 5 Massimo Rastelli 4 Pietro Vierchowod 3 RSSSF - Italy Championship 1998/99