Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Geopolitically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. As of 2016, 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland, 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The geography of Ireland comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant land mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Ireland and Éire derive from Old Irish Ériu, a goddess in Irish mythology first recorded in the ninth century; the etymology of Ériu is disputed but may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root *h2uer, referring to flowing water. During the last glacial period, until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice.
Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe. By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels caused by ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. By about 8000 BC, more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber buildings, stone monuments. The earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Ferriter's Cove, County Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies; the most recent genetic research associates the spread of Indo-European languages through Western Europe with a people bringing a composite Beaker culture, with its arrival in Britain and Ireland dated to around the middle of the third millennium BC. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed.
This contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallst
Overwatch is a team-based first-person shooter developed by Blizzard Entertainment and released for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, Xbox One in May 2016. The game, while having several different play modes features two teams of six players each, selecting pre-made heroes from the game's roster, to either attack or defend various objective points on the game's maps; the game supports causal game modes as well as ranked competitive play. Since release, Overwatch has been both critically and financially successful, with a player base of 35 million players as of October 2017; the development of Overwatch started in the fallout following Blizzard's decision to cancel continued development of the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Titan around 2013. After most of the rest of the team was transferred to other projects, the remaining team members, led by director Jeff Kaplan, came up with the concept of a team-based shooter that borrowed elements from other online shooters like Team Fortress 2 and multiplayer online battle arenas.
Many of Overwatch's early assets were borrowed from Titan to obtain a proof-of-concept to greenlight further development. The consequences of Titan's cancellation led into creating a narrative of an optimistic near-future setting for the game, taking place some decades after the formation of the peacekeeping Overwatch team, created in response to a robotic uprising known as the Omnic War. Since release, the Overwatch developments continue to produce more content, released free for all, for the title, including new hero characters, game modes, seasonal events, customization options for the characters, external media such as digital comics and shorts to help support the narrative and character's backstories. Blizzard has made changes to make Overwatch more compatible for professional eSports, including support for its Overwatch League that started its first season in January 2018. Development of Overwatch followed after the cancellation of the ambitious massively multiplayer online role-playing game Titan, a game, in development at Blizzard for seven years since around 2007.
Overwatch director Jeff Kaplan said that Titan was a class-based shooter game, with each class having a core set of abilities that the player would expand upon via a skill tree progression. Blizzard co-founder Michael Morhaime stated. We didn't find the passion." After re-evaluating the project. Titan had been canceled internally by May 2013, though this wasn't publicly reported until 2014; the large Titan team of 140 members was broken up: 80 were permanently relocated to other divisions in Blizzard, twenty put on loan to other Blizzard projects, the remaining 40 tasked to come up with a new project within six weeks, otherwise they would be assigned to other groups within Blizzard. Among ideas tossed suggested by this time was Crossroads, an MMO set in an outpost in space that would have been a crossroads for many different alien species; this game would have featured several different character classes, upwards of fifty, which Kaplan thought would be difficult but remained a core concept of Crossroads.
They considered developing a tie-in to the Starcraft universe, focused around individual characters within that universe. Creative director Chris Metzen noted that to avoid the same failure that Titan became, their group had to rethink how Blizzard's more successful games had come about, ignoring the scale and business opportunity of the end result and instead understand what tools and skills they had to build from. In brainstorming ideas, the team thought about the current state of first-person shooters, a genre that many on the team had played throughout their careers, which has enjoyed many groundbreaking titles but still has a potential for innovation, according to Kaplan. Kaplan stated that some of the ideas in the current FPS they wanted to emulate were the use of in-game maneuvers like rocket jumping and grappling hooks that helped players move with fluidity across maps and team-based shooters such as Team Fortress Classic and Team Fortress 2. At the same time, multiplayer online battle arena games were starting to take off, which required players to cooperate with others to win the match.
Kaplan said that their team considered how to adapt the large-scale and fast-paced gameplay of Team Fortress 2 with the smaller scale and cooperative nature of MOBAs, forming the basis of Overwatch. Metzen commented that the concept of teamwork in Overwatch was influenced by their own team's current morale following the cancellation of Titan. Metzen said that during Titan's development, the team was fractured which impacted the project's cancellation. On starting Overwatch with a smaller group, they all wanted to come together and support each other to make their next game a success, "a redemption story for us as people and as craftsmen". Morhaime described Overwatch's intention as to "create an awesome experience that's more accessible to a much wider audience while delivering the action and depth that shooter fans love." On the FPS nature of the game, Kaplan commented that "the real focus of the shooting in the game is not to chase realism. We don't have real world guns in the game. You're not playing a soldier in a present-day military conflict."
Simplicity of design was a high-value goal, taking cues from the success of the simple approach used in Blizzard's Hearthstone. From a narrative and artistic standpoint, Overwatch' approach came out of emotional impact of the failed Titan development. Kaplan said his small team was "very nervous about our future" when tasked to come up wi
The Christian Herald was an American weekly newspaper reporting on topics relevant to Evangelical Christianity, with an emphasis on engaging with humanitarian causes at home and abroad. A take on the London-based newspaper of the same name, the American Herald was started in 1878 in New York City by business manager Joseph Spurgeon and editor Dr. B. J. Fernie after they conceived the idea with Rev. Michael P. Baxter, the founder of the original London-based paper. Along with the newspaper, Spurgeon ran a charity under the same auspices devoted to poor relief and evangelizing. Thomas De Witt Talmage served as editor from 1890 to 1902. In 1898, the Herald was purchased by Louis Klopsch, who further expanded the charitable operations and spread the publication to overseas locations; the magazine dealt with domestic inequality, Christian–Muslim encounters abroad, Americans’ ambivalent attitudes about the suffering of distant others. Klopsch operated a summer camp in the New York suburbs for Christian youth activities.
In 1927, Reverend Daniel A. Poling became the editor, a post he held until 1966. In 1948, the Herald started the "Family Bookshelf," a book subscription group of Christian-friendly literature; the summer camp was relocated to the Poconos in 1961 as suburban development encroached on the original location. Declining circulation forced the Herald to relocate from Manhattan to Chappaqua, New York, in 1971. By 1992, the newspaper ceased publication, but the charitable outreach arm still exists, having relocated back to Manhattan in 1998. In the early months of 2006, The Christian Herald, having ceased any and all publications, was dissolved, its continued impact on the Bowery Mission in New York City has been cited as one of its "most significant and enduring effects" of its humanitarian commitments. Conroy-Krutz, E.. Review of Holy humanitarians: American Evangelicals and global aid. Church History, 87, 1241-1243. Doi:10.1017/S0009640719000349The Rev. Michael P. Baxter dead.. The Christian Herald, 33, 98.
Curtis, Heather D. Holy Humanitarians: American Evangelicals and Global Aid, Focus on The Christian Herald 1890-1920s. Balmer, Randall Herbert, ed.. "Christian Herald". Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism. Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press. P. 164. ISBN 1-932792-04-X