Melton Mowbray is a town in Leicestershire, England, 19 miles north-east of Leicester, 20 miles south-east of Nottingham. It lies on the River Eye and the River Wreake and has a population of 25,554; the town is best known for the Melton Mowbray pork pie. In addition, it includes one of the six makers of Stilton cheese. Melton Mowbray is promoted as Britain's "Rural Capital of Food"; the name comes from the early English word Medeltone – meaning "Middletown surrounded by small hamlets". Mowbray is a Norman family name – the name of early Lords of the Manor – namely Robert de Mowbray. In and around Melton, there are 28 scheduled ancient monuments, around 705 buildings listed as having special architectural or historical interest, 16 sites of special scientific interest, several deserted village sites. There is industrial archaeology, including the Grantham Canal and the remains of the Melton Mowbray Navigation. Windmill sites, ironstone working and smelting archaeological evidence suggest that Melton borough was densely populated in Bronze and Iron Ages.
Many small village communities existed and strategic points at Burrough Hill and Belvoir were fortified. There is evidence to suggest that the site of Melton Mowbray in the Wreake Valley was inhabited before Roman occupation. In Roman times, Melton benefited from the proximity of the Fosse Way and other important Roman roads, of military centres at Leicester and Lincoln. Intermediate camps were established, for example, at Six Hills on the Fosse Way. Other Roman trackways in the locality passed north of Melton along the top of the Vale of Belvoir scarp, linking Market Harborough to Belvoir, the Fosse Way to Oakham and Stamford. Evidence of settlement throughout Anglo-Saxon and Danelaw period is reflected in many place names. Along the Wreake Valley, the Danish suffix "-by" is common, as is evident in Asfordby, Frisby, Hoby and Gaddesby. In addition, a cemetery of 50–60 graves, of Pagan Anglo-Saxon origin, has been found in Melton Mowbray. Although most villages and their churches had origins before the Norman Conquest of 1066, stone crosses at Asfordby and Sproxton churches and Anglo-Saxon cemeteries as found at Goadby Marwood and Stapleford pre-date the Conquest.
Melton Mowbray itself had six recorded crosses, whose construction spanned several centuries: Kettleby Cross,. All the original crosses were removed or destroyed during the Reformation and other iconoclastic periods, or to make room for traffic or other development; the effects of the Norman Conquest are recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book. This indicates that settlements at Long Clawson and Bottesford were of noteworthy size, that Melton Mowbray was a thriving market town of some 200 inhabitants, with weekly markets, two water mills and two priests; the water mills, still in use up to the 18th century, are remembered in the present names of Beckmill Court and Mill Street. So Melton Mowbray has been a market town for over 1,000 years. Recorded as Leicestershire's only market in the 1086 Domesday Survey, it is the third oldest market in England. Tuesday has been market day since royal approval was given in 1324; the market was established with tolls before 1077. Legacies from the Medieval period include consolidation of market town patterns.
The latter had a market in medieval times that continued until 1921, an annual fair of horses and cattle. Many buildings in Melton Market Place, Nottingham Street, Church Lane, King Street and Sherrard Street have ancient foundations. Alterations to No. 16 Church Street revealed a medieval circular stone wall subjected to considerable heat. This is the'Manor Oven' mentioned in 13th century documents. Surveys of 5 King Street show it to be part of an early medieval open-halled house, it fortified Manor of the Mowbrays, which existed in the 14th century. King Richard I and King John may have stayed at an earlier castle. In 1549 following the Dissolution of the chantries and religious guilds, church plate was sold and land purchased for the town. Resulting rents were used to maintain Melton School, first recorded in 1347, as one of the oldest educational establishments in Britain. Funds were used to maintain roads, bridges and to repair the church clock. Anne of Cleves House, now a public house, During the English Civil War, Melton was a Roundhead garrison commanded by a Colonel Rossiter.
Two battles were fought in the town: in November 1643, Royalists caught the garrison unaware and carried away prisoners and booty. Around 300 men were said to have been killed. According to legend a hillside where the battle was thought to have been fought was ankle deep in blood, hence the name'Ankle Hill'. However, this name is alre
Kedleston is a village and civil parish in the Amber Valley district of Derbyshire. It lies to the north-west of Derby, nearby places include Quarndon, Weston Underwood and Kirk Langley; the population at the 2011 Census was less than 100. Details are included in the civil parish of Amber Valley. Kedleston was mentioned in the Domesday book as having a mill, it was valued at 20 shillings. The name of the village derives from Ketel’s tūn, the homestead belonging to Ketel, from the Old Norse Ketill The village is the site of Kedleston Hall, the historic residence of the Curzon family and now run by the National Trust; the parish church is All Saints, in the care of the Churches Conservation Trust. Robert of Courçon, English cardinal, was born here in the 12th century; the Lord Curzon of Kedleston, Viceroy of India. Golf club Sundial on the church All Saints Church
The Dorchester is a Brunei-owned five-star luxury hotel on Park Lane and Deanery Street in London, to the east of Hyde Park. It is one of the world's most expensive hotels; the Dorchester opened on 18 April 1931, it still retains its 1930s furnishings and ambiance despite being modernised. Throughout its history, the hotel has been associated with the rich and famous. During the 1930s, it became known as a haunt of numerous writers and artists such as poet Cecil Day-Lewis, novelist Somerset Maugham, the painter Sir Alfred Munnings, it has held prestigious literary gatherings, such as the "Foyles Literary Luncheons", an event the hotel still hosts today. During the Second World War, the strength of its construction gave the hotel the reputation of being one of London's safest buildings, a host of political and military luminaries chose it as their London residence. Queen Elizabeth II attended the Dorchester when she was a princess on the day prior to the announcement of her engagement to Philip Mountbatten on 10 July 1947.
The hotel has since become popular with film actors and rock stars, Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton stayed at the hotel throughout the 1960s and 1970s. The hotel became a Grade II Listed Building in January 1981, was subsequently purchased by the Sultan of Brunei in 1985, it belongs to the Dorchester Collection, which in turn is owned by the Brunei Investment Agency, an arm of the Ministry of Finance of Brunei. In the 1950s, the stage set designer Oliver Messel made a number of changes to the interior of the hotel. Between 1988 and 1990, the hotel was renovated at a cost of US$100 million by Bob Lush of the Richmond Design Group. Today The Dorchester has five restaurants: The Grill, Alain Ducasse, The Spatisserie, The Promenade, China Tang. Alain Ducasse's restaurant is one of the UK's four 3-Michelin-starred restaurants. Afternoon tea, a tradition which has taken place at the hotel since its opening in 1931, is served every day of the week at five in the afternoon in The Promenade and the Spatisserie.
Harry Craddock, a well-known barman in the 1930s, invented the "Dorchester of London" cocktail here at the Dorchester Bar. A well-lit plane tree stands at the edge of the hotel in the front garden, was named one of the Great Trees of London by the London Tree Forum and Countryside Commission in 1997; the site was part of the Manor of Hyde, given to William the Conqueror by Geoffrey de Mandeville. Joseph Damer acquired it in the 18th century and a large building was constructed in 1751, it was named Dorchester House in 1792. In the early 19th century it became the Hertford House after it was purchased by Francis Seymour-Conway, the 3rd Marquess of Hertford, alterations were made to it, inspired by the Villa Farnese of Rome. Following the death of Hertford, it was converted into a mansion by Captain Robert Stayner Holford; the background to the development of the Dorchester Hotel is complicated. Sir Malcolm McAlpine, a partner in the building company, Sir Robert McAlpine & Sons, Sir Frances Towle, the managing director of Gordon Hotels Ltd. shared a vision of creating the'perfect hotel': ultramodern and ultra-efficient, with all the conveniences modern technology could supply.
The two companies purchased Hertford House in 1929 and demolished it. The British Broadcasting Corporation had shown an interest in purchasing it and had done so prior to the McAlpine acquisition, but instead they turned their attention to Foley House; the purchase and destruction of Hertford House was part of significant redevelopment which took place on Park Lane during this period. Sir Owen Williams was commissioned to design the new hotel, using reinforced concrete to allow the creation of large internal spaces without support pillars, but he abandoned the project in February 1930 and was replaced with William Curtis Green. James Maude Richards, hired by Williams, served as an architectural assistant within the all-engineer staff. Percy Morley Horder, consulting architect to Gordon's Hotels, had not been consulted during the design process and, after seeing the plan, resigned from the project, remarking to The Observer that the design was ill-suited for the location, assuming the concrete was to be left unpainted and that the insulation would be minimal.
Some 40,000 tonnes of earth were excavated to make room for the hotel's extensive basement, one-third of the size of the hotel above the surface. The upper eight floors were erected in just 10 weeks, supported on a massive 3 feet thick reinforced concrete deck that forms the roof of the first floor. With the development of the Dorchester, concerns were raised that Park Lane would soon become New York City's Fifth Avenue; the new Dorchester Hotel was feted with a grand opening on 18 April 1931 by Lady Violet Astor. The Dorchester gained reputation as a luxury hotel. During the 1930s it became known as a haunt of numerous writers and artists such as poet Cecil Day-Lewis, novelist Somerset Maugham, the painter Sir Alfred Munnings. There were prestigious literary gatherings, including "Foyles Literary Luncheons", an event the hotel still hosts. Shortly after the opening, Sir Percival David, a leading admirer of Chinese porcelain, moved his growing collection from the Mayfair Hotel to the Dorchester, where he kept it in his suites for many years.
Danny Kaye began appearing in cabaret at the hotel in the 1930s earning £50 a week. Many blues and jazz artists appeared at the hotel, including Alberta Hunter and the Jack Jackson Orchestra. In 1934, Hunter and her orchestra record
The Young Men's Christian Association, sometimes regionally called the Y, is a worldwide organization based in Geneva, with more than 64 million beneficiaries from 120 national associations. It was founded on 6 June 1844 by Sir George Williams in London and aims to put Christian principles into practice by developing a healthy "body and spirit". From its inception, it grew and became a worldwide movement founded on the principles of muscular Christianity. Local YMCAs deliver projects and services focused on youth development through a wide variety of youth activities, including providing athletic facilities, holding classes for a wide variety of skills, promoting Christianity, humanitarian work. YMCA globally operates on a federation model, with each independent local YMCA voluntarily affiliated to their national organizations; the national organizations, in turn, are part of both an Area Alliance and the World Alliance of YMCAs. With regard to the history and purpose of the founding, this "organization and its female counterpart were established to provide low-cost housing in a safe Christian environment for rural young men and women journeying to the cities."
It was associated with the movement of young people to cities to work. The YMCA "combined preaching in the streets and the distribution of religious tracts with a social ministry. Philanthropists saw them as places for wholesome recreation that would preserve youth from the temptations of alcohol and prostitution and that would promote good citizenship." The YMCA was founded by three men, led by George Williams, a London draper, typical of the young men drawn to the cities by the Industrial Revolution. His co-founders included Rev John Stewart FEIS who served as the association's first Secretary under Williams' chairmanship; the three were concerned about the lack of healthy activities for young men in major cities. Williams's idea grew out of meetings he held for prayer and Bible-reading among his fellow-workers in a business in the city of London, on 6 June 1844, he founded the first YMCA in London with the purpose of "the improving of the spiritual condition of young men engaged in the drapery and other trades."
By 1851, there were YMCAs in the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, the Netherlands and the United States. In 1855, 99 YMCA delegates from Europe and North America met in Paris at the First World Conference of YMCAs, held before the 1855 Paris World Exposition of the same year, they discussed joining together in a federation to enhance cooperation amongst individual YMCA societies. This marked the beginning of the World Alliance of YMCAs; the conference adopted a common mission for all present and future national YMCAs. Its motto was taken from the Bible, "That they all may be one". Other ecumenical bodies, such as the World YWCA, the World Council of Churches, the World Student Christian Federation have reflected elements of the Paris Basis in their founding mission statements. In 1865 The Fourth World Conference of YMCAs, held in Germany, affirmed the importance of developing the whole individual in spirit and body; the concept of physical work through sports, a new concept for the time, was recognized as part of this "muscular Christianity".
Two themes resonated during the council: the need to respect the local autonomy of YMCA societies, the purpose of the YMCA: to unite all young, male Christians for the extension and expansion of the Kingdom of God. The former idea is expressed in the preamble: The delegates of various Young Men's Christian Associations of Europe and America, assembled in Conference at Paris, the 22nd August, 1855, feeling that they are one in principle and in operation, recommend to their respective Societies to recognize with them the unity existing among their Associations, while preserving a complete independence as to their particular organization and modes of action, to form a Confederation of secession on the following fundamental principle, such principle to be regarded as the basis of admission of other Societies in future; the YMCA was influential during the 1870s and 1930s, during which times they most promoted "evangelical Christianity in weekday and Sunday services, while promoting good sportsmanship in athletic contests in gyms and swimming pools."
In this period, continuing on through the 20th century, the YMCA had "become interdenominational and more concerned with promoting morality and good citizenship than a distinctive interpretation of Christianity." Today the YMCA is more focused on their families to exercise and be healthy. In 1878, World Alliance of YMCAs offices were established in Switzerland. In 1900, North American YMCAs, in collaboration with the World Alliance, set up centres to work with emigrants in European ports, as millions of people were leaving for the USA. In 1880, the YMCA became the first national organization to adopt a strict policy of equal gender representation in committees and national boards, with Norway being the country that first adopted it. In 1885, Camp Baldhead, the first residential camp in the United States and North America, was established by A. Sanford and Sumner F. Dudley, both of whom worked for the YMCA; the camp located near Orange Lake in New Jersey, moved to Lake Wawayanda in Sussex County the following year, to the shore of Lake Champlain near Westport, New York, in 1891.
William Bruce Ellis Ranken
William Bruce Ellis Ranken was a British artist and Edwardian aesthete. He was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, to Robert Burk Ranken, a wealthy and successful lawyer, his wife Mary, he attended Eton College and proceeded to the Slade School of Art, under the tutelage of Henry Tonks. A fellow student was the actor Ernest Thesiger. Ranken's first exhibition in 1904 at the Carfax Gallery in London was well received by artists and art critics, he befriended John Singer Sargent. At the outbreak of World War I, Ranken was living at his studio in Chelsea, a short distance from Sargent's studio, with whom he may have ventured to America during the war years. While in America, Sargent introduced him to Isabella Stewart Gardner, he received commissions to paint portraits of the wealthy, including the Whitneys and Havermeyers, his output became prodigious as he worked in watercolors and pastels. Returning to Britain in the 1920s, he painted many portraits of the British royal family and the aristocracy, as well as the interiors of their homes.
In 1917, Ernest Thesiger married Ranken's sister, Janette Mary Fernie Ranken. In her biography of Thesiger's friend, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Hilary Spurling suggests that Thesiger and Janette wed out of their mutual adoration of Ranken, who shaved his head when he learned of the engagement. On the other hand, it has been said that Janette Ranken was in love with Compton-Burnett's companion, Margaret Jourdain, a fellow Oxford student. Janette Ranken left Jourdain to marry Thesiger. Ranken purchased Warbrook House, Hampshire, in 1918 after the success of his first visit to America; the maintenance and costs associated with the property proved to be too much in the depression of the early 1930s, he was forced to give up his beloved house. Ranken died in London in 1941 and was buried near Warbrook, at St Mary. Following his unexpected death from a cerebral haemorrhage, his sister Janette gifted over 200 works to be distributed amongst UK public galleries and museums. Ranken's paintings are held in a large number of museum and public collections, including Southampton City Art Gallery, Portsmouth Museum, Bradford Museum, Reading Museum, Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, Northampton Museum, Derby Museum, Leeds City Museum, National Museums Northern Ireland, Glasgow Museums, City of Edinburgh Council and the Government Art Collection
Lady Cynthia Mosley
Lady Cynthia Blanche Mosley, nicknamed "Cimmie", was a British politician of Anglo-American parentage and the first wife of the British Fascist and New Party politician Sir Oswald Mosley, a Member of Parliament in the Conservative and Labour parties. Born Cynthia Blanche Curzon at Kedleston Hall, she was the second daughter of Hon. George Curzon and his first wife, Mary Victoria Leiter, an American department-store heiress; as the daughter of an Earl, she was styled Lady Cynthia beginning in 1911. On 11 May 1920, Cynthia married Oswald Mosley, he was her only lover. They had three children: Vivien Elizabeth Mosley, who on 15 January 1949 married Desmond Francis Forbes Adam, killed in a car crash nine years laterand had issue Nicholas Mosley, 3rd Baron Ravensdale, a successful novelist who wrote a biography of his father and edited his memoirs for publication. After both joined the Labour Party in 1924, she was elected Labour Member of Parliament for Stoke-on-Trent in 1929, her husband having been elected MP for Smethwick in 1926.
Frustrated with the ruling Labour Party's complacent and conservative response to high levels of unemployment, Oswald Mosley formed the New Party on 1 March 1931 which his wife joined. The party failed to win any seats at the 1931 general election. After that Mosley started his move towards fascist policies, losing many of those who had joined the New Party as a result. During their marriage her younger sister Lady Alexandra was a mistress of Mosley, as was their stepmother, Grace Curzon, Marchioness Curzon of Kedleston. All the New Party's candidates in the 1931 election lost their seat or failed to win in constituencies, instead seeing a unified coalition government which involved the Conservatives, Liberals and a breakaway from the main Labour Party amid the Great Depression. Cynthia Mosley herself did not stand in the election. From on she drifted away from her husband politically, having no sympathy for his move towards fascism, she died in 1933 at 34 in London. 23 August–20 October 1898: Miss Cynthia Blanche Curzon 20 October 1898–2 November 1911: The Hon. Cynthia Blanche Curzon 2 November 1911–11 May 1920: Lady Cynthia Blanche Curzon 1928–30 May 1929: Lady Cynthia Blanche, Lady Mosley 30 May 1929–27 October 1931: The Rt.
Hon. Lady Cynthia Blanche, Lady Mosley MP 27 October 1931–16 May 1933: Lady Cynthia Blanche, Lady Mosley De Courcy Anne "The Viceroy's Daughters, The Lives of the Curzon Sisters", Harper Collins.
European theatre of World War II
The European theatre of World War II known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945. The Allied powers fought the Axis powers on two major fronts as well as in a massive air war and in the adjoining Mediterranean and Middle East theatre. Germany was defeated in World War I, the Treaty of Versailles placed punitive conditions on the country, including significant financial reparations, the loss of territory, war guilt, military weakening and limitation, economic weakening. Germany was humiliated in front of the world and had to pay large war reparations. Many Germans blamed their country's post-war economic collapse and hyperinflation on the treaty's conditions; these resentments contributed to the political instability which made it possible for Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Party to come to power, with Hitler's appointment as Chancellor of Germany in 1933.
After Hitler took Germany out of the League of Nations, Mussolini of Fascist Italy and Hitler formed the Rome-Berlin axis, under a treaty known as the Pact of Steel. The Empire of Japan, under the government of Hideki Tojo, would join as an Axis power. Japan and Germany had signed the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1939, to counter the perceived threat of the communism of the Soviet Union. Other smaller powers later joined the Axis throughout the war. Germany and the Soviet Union were sworn enemies, but following the Munich Agreement, which handed over Czechoslovakia to Germany, political realities allowed the Soviet Union to sign a non-aggression pact including a secret clause partitioning Poland, the Baltic Republics and Finland between the two spheres of influence. Full-scale war in Europe began at dawn on 1 September 1939, when Germany used her newly formed Blitzkrieg tactics and military strength to invade Poland, to which both the United Kingdom and France had pledged protection and independence guarantees.
On 3 September 1939, Britain and France declared war on Germany and British troops were sent to France, however neither French nor British troops gave any significant assistance to the Poles during the entire invasion, the German–French border, excepting the Saar Offensive, remained calm, this period of the war is known as the Phoney War. On 17 September the Soviet forces joined the invasion of Poland, although remaining neutral with respect to Western powers; the Polish government evacuated the country for Romania. Poland fell within five weeks, with its last large operational units surrendering on October 5 after the Battle of Kock; as the Polish September Campaign ended, Hitler offered to Britain and France peace on the basis of recognition of German European continental dominance. On 12 October the United Kingdom formally refused. Despite the quick campaign in the east, along the Franco-German frontier the war settled into a quiet period; this non-confrontational and non-fighting period between the major powers lasted until May 10, 1940, was known as the Phoney War.
Several other countries, were drawn into the conflict at this time. By 28 September 1939, the three Baltic Republics felt they had no choice but to permit Soviet bases and troops on their territory; the Baltic Republics were occupied by the Soviet army in June 1940, annexed to the Soviet Union in August 1940. The Soviet Union wanted to annex Finland and offered a union agreement, but Finland rejected it, which caused the Soviet Union to attack Finland on November 30; this began the Winter War. After five months of hard fighting, Finns were only pushed from a strip of land bordering Russia, in spite of Soviet numerical superiority, the Soviet Union gave up attempts to subdue the whole country. In the Moscow Peace Treaty of 12 March 1940, Finland ceded 10% of her territory; the Finns were embittered over having lost more land in the peace than on the battlefields, over the perceived lack of world sympathy. Meanwhile, in western Scandinavia, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway in April 1940, in response, Britain occupied the Faroe Islands and invaded and occupied Iceland.
Sweden was able to remain neutral. On 10 May the Phoney War ended with a sweeping German invasion of the neutral Low Countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, into France bypassing the French fortifications of the Maginot Line along the border with Germany. After overrunning the Netherlands and Luxembourg, Germany turned against France, entering the country through the Ardennes on May 13—the French had left this area less well defended, believing its terrain to be impassable for tanks and other vehicles. Most Allied forces were in Flanders, anticipating a re-run of the World War I Schlieffen Plan, were cut off from the French mainland; as a result of this, the superior German communications and tactics, the Battle of France was shorter than all pre-war Allied thought could have conceived. It lasted only six weeks. On 10 June Italy declared war on both France and the United Kingdom, but did not gain any significant success in this campaign; the French government fled Paris, soon, France surrendered on 22 June.
In order to further the humiliation of the French people and the country itself, Hitler arranged for the surrender document to be signed in the Forest of Compiègne, in the