Catherine of Aragon
Catherine of Aragon was Queen of England from June 1509 until May 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII. The daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, Catherine was three years old when she was betrothed to Arthur, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the English throne, they married in 1501. She held the position of ambassador of the Aragonese Crown to England in 1507, the first female ambassador in European history. Catherine subsequently married Arthur's younger brother, the ascended Henry VIII, in 1509. For six months in 1513, she served as regent of England. During that time the English won the Battle of Flodden, an event in which Catherine played an important part with an emotional speech about English courage. By 1525, Henry VIII was infatuated with Anne Boleyn and dissatisfied that his marriage to Catherine had produced no surviving sons, leaving their daughter, the future Mary I of England, as heir presumptive at a time when there was no established precedent for a woman on the throne.
He sought to have their marriage annulled, setting in motion a chain of events that led to England's schism with the Catholic Church. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, Henry defied him by assuming supremacy over religious matters. In 1533 their marriage was declared invalid and Henry married Anne on the judgement of clergy in England, without reference to the Pope. Catherine refused to accept Henry as Supreme Head of the Church in England and considered herself the King's rightful wife and queen, attracting much popular sympathy. Despite this, she was acknowledged only as Dowager Princess of Wales by Henry. After being banished from court, she lived out the remainder of her life at Kimbolton Castle, died there on 7 January 1536. English people held Catherine in high esteem, her death set off tremendous mourning; the controversial book The Education of a Christian Woman by Juan Luis Vives, which claimed women have the right to an education, was commissioned by and dedicated to her in 1523.
Such was Catherine's impression on people that her enemy, Thomas Cromwell, said of her, "If not for her sex, she could have defied all the heroes of History." She appealed for the lives of the rebels involved in the Evil May Day, for the sake of their families. Catherine won widespread admiration by starting an extensive programme for the relief of the poor, she was a patron of Renaissance humanism, a friend of the great scholars Erasmus of Rotterdam and Thomas More. Catherine was born at the Archbishop's Palace of Alcalá de Henares near Madrid, on the night of 16 December 1485, she was the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Queen Isabella I of Castile. Catherine was quite short in stature with long red hair, wide blue eyes, a round face, a fair complexion, she was descended, from the English royal house. She was third cousin of her father-in-law, Henry VII of England, fourth cousin of her mother-in-law Elizabeth of York. Catherine was educated by a tutor, Alessandro Geraldini, a clerk in Holy Orders.
She studied arithmetic and civil law, classical literature and heraldry, philosophy and theology. She had a strong religious upbringing and developed her Roman Catholic faith that would play a major role in life, she learned to speak and write in Spanish and Latin, spoke French and Greek. She was taught domestic skills, such as cooking, drawing, good manners, lace-making, needlepoint, sewing and weaving. Scholar Erasmus said that Catherine "loved good literature which she had studied with success since childhood". At an early age, Catherine was considered a suitable wife for Arthur, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the English throne, due to the English ancestry she inherited from her mother. By means of her mother, Catherine had a stronger legitimate claim to the English throne than King Henry VII himself through the first two wives of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster: Blanche of Lancaster and Constance of Castile. In contrast, Henry VII was the descendant of Gaunt's third marriage to Katherine Swynford, whose children were born out of wedlock and only legitimised after the death of Constance and the marriage of John to Katherine.
The children of John and Katherine, while legitimised, were barred from inheriting the English throne, a stricture, ignored in generations. Because of Henry's descent through illegitimate children barred from succession to the English throne, the Tudor monarchy was not accepted by all European kingdoms. At the time, the House of Trastámara was the most prestigious in Europe, due to the rule of the Catholic Monarchs, so the alliance of Catherine and Arthur validated the House of Tudor in the eyes of European royalty and strengthened the Tudor claim to the English throne via Catherine of Aragon's ancestry, it would have given a male heir an indisputable claim to the throne. The two were married by proxy on 19 May 1499 and corresponded in Latin until Arthur turned fifteen, when it was decided that they were old enough to be married; when Catherine of Aragon travelled to London, she brought a group of her African attendants with her, including one identified as the trumpeter John Blanke. They are the first Africans recorded to have arrived in London at the time, were considered luxury servants.
Clytemnestra was the wife of Agamemnon and queen of Mycenae in ancient Greek legend. In the Oresteia by Aeschylus, she murdered Agamemnon – said by Euripides to be her second husband – and the Trojan princess Cassandra, whom he had taken as a war prize following the sack of Troy, her Greek name Klytaimnḗstra is sometimes Latinized as Clytaemnestra. It is glossed as "famed for her suitors". However, this form is a misreading motivated by an erroneous etymological connection to the verb mnáomai; the original name form is believed to have been Klytaimḗstra without the -n-. The present form of the name does not appear before the middle Byzantine period. Aeschylus, in certain wordplays on her name, appears to assume an etymological link with the verb mḗdomai. Clytemnestra was the daughter of Tyndareus and Leda, the King and Queen of Sparta, making her a Spartan Princess. According to the myth, Zeus appeared to Leda in the form of a swan and impregnating her. Leda produced four offspring from two eggs: Castor and Clytemnestra from one egg, Helen and Polydeuces from the other.
Therefore and Clytemnestra were fathered by Tyndareus, whereas Helen and Polydeuces were fathered by Zeus. Her other sisters were Philonoe and Timandra. Agamemnon and his brother Menelaus were in exile at the home of Tyndareus. In a late variation, Euripides's Iphigenia at Aulis, Clytemnestra's first husband was Tantalus, King of Pisa. In another version, her first husband was King of Lydia; the kings of Lydia, according to Plutarch's The Greek Questions, 45, having succeeded Omphale who had received from Herakles Hippolyte's axe, carried this axe as one of their sacred insignia of office. In the tradition following the Sicilian lyric poet Stesichorus's Oresteia Clytemnestra used such a double-edged ax to assist her lover Aegisthus in the killing of Agamemnon, as depicted on the mixing bowl with the killing of Agamemnon by the Dokimasia Painter. After Helen went from Sparta to Troy, her husband, asked his brother Agamemnon for help. Greek forces gathered at Aulis; however weak winds prevented the fleet from sailing.
Through a subplot involving the gods and omens, the priest Calchas said the winds would be favorable if Agamemnon sacrificed his daughter Iphigenia to the goddess Artemis. Agamemnon persuaded Clytemnestra to send Iphigenia to him, telling her he was going to marry her to Achilles; when Iphigenia arrived at Aulis, she was sacrificed, the winds turned, the troops set sail for Troy. The Trojan War lasted ten years. During this period of Agamemnon's long absence, Clytemnestra began a love affair with Aegisthus, her husband's cousin. Whether Clytemnestra was seduced into the affair or entered into it independently differs according to the respective author of the myth. Clytemnestra and Aegisthus began plotting Agamemnon's demise. Clytemnestra was enraged by Iphigenia's murder. Aegisthus saw his father Thyestes betrayed by Agamemnon's father Atreus. In old versions of the story, on returning from Troy, Agamemnon is murdered by Aegisthus, the lover of his wife, Clytemnestra. In some versions Clytemnestra helps him or does the killing herself in his own home.
The best-known version is that of Aeschylus: Agamemnon, having arrived at his palace with his concubine, the Trojan princess Cassandra, in tow and being greeted by his wife, entered the palace for a banquet while Cassandra remained in the chariot. Clytemnestra waited until he was in the bath, entangled him in a cloth net and stabbed him. Trapped in the web, Agamemnon could neither resist his murderer. Meanwhile, Cassandra saw Agamemnon being murdered, her attempts to elicit help failed. She realized she was fated to die, resolutely walked into the palace to receive her death. After the murders, Aegisthus replaced Agamemnon as king and ruled for seven years with Clytemnestra as his queen. In some traditions they have three children: a son Aletes, daughters Erigone and Helen. Clytemnestra was killed by her son by Agamemnon, Orestes; the infant Helen was killed. Aletes and Erigone grow up at Mycenae, but when Aletes comes of age, Orestes returns from Sparta, kills his half-brother, takes the throne.
Orestes and Erigone are said to have had Penthilus. She is one of the main characters in Aeschylus's Oresteia, is central to the plot of all three parts, she murders Agamemnon in the first play, is murdered herself in the second. Her death leads to the trial of Orestes by a jury composed of Athena and 10 Athenians in the final play. Alexandre Soumet's tragedy Clytemnestre was produced in 1822; the fictional protagonist Becky Sharp plays Clytemnestra in a charade described in chapter 51 of William M. Thackeray's novel Vanity Fair. In Ferdinando Baldi's The Forgotten Pistolero, a Spaghetti Western adaptation of the Oresteia, Clytemnestra is named Anna Carrasco and
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
The Venice Biennale refers to an arts organization based in Venice and the name of the original and principal biennial exhibition the organization presents. The organization changed its name to the Biennale Foundation in 2009, while the exhibition is now called the Art Biennale to distinguish it from the organisation and other exhibitions the Foundation organizes; the Art Biennale, a contemporary visual art exhibition and so called because it is held biennially, is the original biennale on which others in the world have been modeled. The Biennale Foundation has a continuous existence supporting the arts as well as organizing the following separate events: On April 19, 1893 the Venetian City Council passed a resolution to set up an biennial exhibition of Italian Art to celebrate the silver anniversary of King Umberto I and Margherita of Savoy. A year the council decreed "to adopt a'by invitation' system; the first exhibition was seen by 224,000 visitors. The event became international in the first decades of the 20th century: from 1907 on, several countries installed national pavilions at the exhibition, with the first being from Belgium.
In 1910 the first internationally well-known artists were displayed- a room dedicated to Gustav Klimt, a one-man show for Renoir, a retrospective of Courbet. A work by Picasso was removed from the Spanish salon in the central Palazzo because it was feared that its novelty might shock the public. By 1914 seven pavilions had been established: Belgium, Germany, Great Britain and Russia. During World War I, the 1916 and 1918 events were cancelled. In 1920 the post of mayor of Venice and president of the Biennale was split; the new secretary general, Vittorio Pica brought about the first presence of avant-garde art, notably Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. 1922 saw an exhibition of sculpture by African artists. Between the two World Wars, many important modern artists had their work exhibited there. In 1928 the Istituto Storico d'Arte Contemporanea opened, the first nucleus of archival collections of the Biennale. In 1930 its name was changed into Historical Archive of Contemporary Art. In 1930, the Biennale was transformed into an Ente Autonomo by Royal Decree with law no. 33 of 13-1-1930.
Subsequently, the control of the Biennale passed from the Venice city council to the national Fascist government under Benito Mussolini. This brought on a restructuring, an associated financial boost, as well as a new president, Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata. Three new events were established, including the Biennale Musica in 1930 referred to as International Festival of Contemporary Music. In 1933 the Biennale organised an exhibition of Italian art abroad. From 1938, Grand Prizes were awarded in the art exhibition section. During World War II, the activities of the Biennale were interrupted: 1942 saw the last edition of the events; the Film Festival restarted in 1946, the Music and Theatre festivals were resumed in 1947, the Art Exhibition in 1948. The Art Biennale was resumed in 1948 with a major exhibition of a recapitulatory nature; the Secretary General, art historian Rodolfo Pallucchini, started with the Impressionists and many protagonists of contemporary art including Chagall, Braque, Delvaux and Magritte, as well as a retrospective of Picasso's work.
Peggy Guggenheim was invited to exhibit her collection to be permanently housed at Ca' Venier dei Leoni. 1949 saw the beginning of renewed attention to avant-garde movements in European—and worldwide—movements in contemporary art. Abstract expressionism was introduced in the 1950s, the Biennale is credited with importing Pop Art into the canon of art history by awarding the top prize to Robert Rauschenberg in 1964. From 1948 to 1972, Italian architect Carlo Scarpa did a series of remarkable interventions in the Biennales exhibition spaces. In 1954 the island San Giorgio Maggiore provided the venue for the first Japanese Noh theatre shows in Europe. 1956 saw the selection of films following an artistic selection and no longer based upon the designation of the participating country. The 1957 Golden Lion went to Satyajit Ray's Aparajito. 1962 included Arte Informale at the Art Exhibition with Jean Fautrier, Hans Hartung, Emilio Vedova, Pietro Consagra. The 1964 Art Exhibition introduced continental Europe to Pop Art.
The American Robert Rauschenberg was the first American artist to win the Gran Premio, the youngest to date. The student protests of 1968 marked a crisis for the Biennale. Student protests hindered the opening of the Biennale. A resulting period of institutional changes opened and ending with a new Statute in 1973. In 1969, following the protests, the Grand Prizes were abandoned; these resumed in 1980 in 1986 for the Art Exhibition. In 1972
Hamptons International Film Festival
The Hamptons International Film Festival is an international film festival founded in 1993, the festival has since taken place every year in East Hampton, New York. It is an annual five-day event in mid-October and is held in theatre venues located in the Long Island area of New York, United States. 18,000 visitors attend each festival and close to a hundred films are featured each year, including an annual representation of at least twenty countries and an awards package worth over $200,000. HIFF was founded as a celebration of independent film in a variety of forms, to provide a forum for independent filmmakers with differing global perspectives; the festival places a particular emphasis upon new filmmakers with a diversity of ideas, as a means to not only provide public exposure for festival content and its creators, but to inspire and enlighten audiences. The festival has presented films that have subsequently been considered successful productions; the festival is involved with other events during the remainder of the year, including screenings in other parts of New York State and an annual Screenwriters Lab.
HIFF showcases short films and narrative films and is a qualifying festival for the Academy Awards. The festival offers special presentations, including: "Breakthrough Performers" program, showcasing new, emerging acting talent. "A Conversation With…", presenting a "Q&A" session with a film luminary. "Conflict & Resolution" program, featuring films that explore contemporary global issues of a social and political nature. Narrative Feature Film Award: $145,000 in-kind goods and services Documentary Feature Film Award: $3,000 cash Short Film Award: $500 cash and qualification for consideration at the Academy Awards in the Live Action or Animation The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Feature Film Prize in Science and Technology: $25,000 cashh The Victor Rabinowitz & Joanne Grant Award for Social Justice: $1,500 cash prize Wouter Barendrecht Pioneering Vision Award: $1,000 cash prize Zelda Penzel “Giving Voice to the Voiceless” Award: $1,000 cash prize The Jeremy Nussbaum Prize for Provocative Fiction: $5,000 cash price Tangerine Entertainment Juice Fund Award: $1,000 cash prize Suffolk County Film Commission Next Exposure Grant: $6,000 The Brizzolara Family Foundation Award for a Film of Conflict & Resolution: 5,000 cash prize Best Narrative Feature Best Documentary Feature Best Family Feature Film Best Short Film The Hamptons Screenwriters’ Lab is an intimate gathering that takes place each Spring in East Hampton.
The Lab seeks to develop new screenwriting talent by introducing established writers to emerging screenwriters, the latter having been chosen by the organizers of the film festival and key industry contacts. The mentors advise in a "one-on-one" laboratory setting, whilst scheduled daily events allow participants to engage with board members, the local creative community and other festival supporters; the Lab facilitates the improvement of participating screenwriters' work, as the selected writers consult with industry professionals to attain insight into the mechanisms of the film industry. Recent mentors include: Michael Cunningham; the Lab seeks a broad selection of screenplays that cumulatively address a diversity of subject matter. The Lab encourages the submission of fresh, innovative screenplays that explore science, mathematics and engineering as part of its partnership with The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation’s initiative to further the public understanding of science. Official website Hamptons International Film Festival on IMDb
Electra (1962 film)
Electra is a 1962 Greek film based on the play Electra, written by Euripides. It was directed by Michael Cacoyannis, as the first installment of his "Greek tragedy" trilogy, followed by The Trojan Women in 1971 and Iphigenia in 1977, it starred Irene Papas in the lead role as Elektra, Giannis Fertis as Orestis. King Agamemnon is murdered by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover and Agememnon's cousin and childhood playmate Aegisthus. Of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra's children, Orestes goes into exile and safety while Electra is confined to the palace for some years and forced to marry a peasant to disgrace her and any children; some years the daughter Electra seeks revenge some years with the help of her brother Orestes and their cousin Pylades. Orestes and Pylades goes to a festival to Bacchus hosted by Aegisthus and, when Aegisthes challenges Orestes to a mock knife fight, Orestes uses the opportunity to kill him. Electra invites Clytemnestra to her house on a pretext where, despite Clytemnestra explaining to Electra her reasons for killing her husband and apologising for her actions towards Electra, Electra enables Orestes to stab her to death as well.
At the end, the siblings feel remorseful and realise that they will be social outcasts for their action. They depart in different directions. Irene Papas as Elektra Giannis Fertis as Orestes Aleka Katselli as Klytaemnistra Manos Katrakis as the tutor Notis Peryalis as Elektra's husband Fivos Razi as Aegisthus Takis Emmanuel as Pylades Theano Ioannidou as chorus leader Theodoros Dimitriou as Agamemnon Elsie Pittas as young Elektra Petros Ampelas as young Orestes The film was entered into the 1962 Cannes Film Festival where it won the award of Best Cinematic Transposition; the film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. The film won three awards in Thessaloniki Film Festival, for best film and best director and best actress. List of historical drama films Greek mythology in popular culture List of submissions to the 35th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Greek submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Electra on IMDb
Marlon Brando Jr. was an American actor and film director. With a career spanning 60 years, he is well-regarded for his cultural influence on 20th-century film. Brando's Academy Award-winning performances include that of Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront and Don Vito Corleone in The Godfather. Brando was an activist for many causes, notably the civil rights movement and various Native American movements, he is credited with helping to popularize the Stanislavski system of acting, having studied with Stella Adler in the 1940s. He is regarded as one of the first actors to bring Method Acting to mainstream audiences, he gained acclaim and an Academy Award nomination for reprising the role of Stanley Kowalski in the 1951 film adaptation of Tennessee Williams' play A Streetcar Named Desire, a role that he originated on Broadway. He received further praise for his performance as Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront, his portrayal of the rebellious motorcycle gang leader Johnny Strabler in The Wild One proved to be a lasting image in popular culture.
Brando received Academy Award nominations for playing Emiliano Zapata in Viva Zapata!. Brando was included in a list of Top Ten Money Making Stars three times in the 1950s, coming in at number 10 in 1954, number 6 in 1955, number 4 in 1958; the 1960s saw. He directed and starred in the cult western film One-Eyed Jacks, a critical and commercial flop, after which he delivered a series of box-office failures, beginning with the 1962 film adaptation of the novel Mutiny on the Bounty. After 10 years, during which he did not appear in a successful film, he won his second Academy Award for playing Vito Corleone in Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather, a role critics consider among his greatest; the Godfather was one of the most commercially successful films of all time. With that and his Oscar-nominated performance in Last Tango in Paris, Brando re-established himself in the ranks of top box-office stars, placing sixth and tenth in the Money Making Stars poll in 1972 and 1973, respectively. Brando took a four-year hiatus before appearing in The Missouri Breaks.
After this, he was content with being a paid character actor in cameo roles, such as in Superman and The Formula, before taking a nine-year break from motion pictures. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, Brando was paid a record $3.7 million and 11.75% of the gross profits for 13 days' work on Superman. He finished out the 1970s with his controversial performance as Colonel Kurtz in another Coppola film, Apocalypse Now, a box-office hit for which he was paid and which helped finance his career layoff during the 1980s. Brando was ranked by the American Film Institute as the fourth-greatest movie star among male movie stars whose screen debuts occurred in or before 1950, he was one of six professional actors, along with Charlie Chaplin, U. S. President Ronald Reagan, Lucille Ball, Frank Sinatra, Marilyn Monroe, named in 1999 by Time magazine as one of its 100 Most Important People of the Century. Brando was born on April 3, 1924, in Omaha, Nebraska, to Marlon Brando, Sr. a pesticide and chemical feed manufacturer, Dorothy Julia.
Brando had Jocelyn Brando and Frances. His ancestry was German, Dutch and Irish, his patrilineal immigrant ancestor, Johann Wilhelm Brandau, arrived in New York in the early 1700s from the Palatinate in Germany. Brando was raised a Christian Scientist, his mother, known as Dodie, was unconventional for her time. An actress herself and a theatre administrator, she helped Henry Fonda begin his acting career. However, she was an alcoholic and had to be brought home from Chicago bars by her husband. In his autobiography, Songs My Mother Taught Me, Brando expressed sadness when writing about his mother: "The anguish that her drinking produced was that she preferred getting drunk to caring for us." Dodie and Brando's father joined Alcoholics Anonymous. Brando harbored far more enmity for his father, stating, "I was his namesake, but nothing I did pleased or interested him, he enjoyed telling me I couldn't do anything right. He had a habit of telling me I would never amount to anything." Brando's parents moved to Evanston, when his father's work took him to Chicago, but separated when Brando was 11 years old.
His mother took the three children to Santa Ana, where they lived with her mother. In 1937, Brando's parents reconciled and moved together to Libertyville, Illinois, a small town north of Chicago. In 1939 and 1941, he worked as an usher at The Liberty. Brando, whose childhood nickname was "Bud", was a mimic from his youth, he developed an ability to absorb the mannerisms of children he played with and display them while staying in character. He was introduced to neighborhood boy Wally Cox and the two were unlikely closest friends until Cox's death in 1973. In the 2007 TCM biopic, Brando: The Documentary, childhood friend George Englund recalls Brando's earliest acting as imitating the cows and horses on the family farm as a way to distract his mother from drinking, his sister Jocelyn was the first to pursue an acting career, going to study at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City. She appeared on Broadway films and television. Brando's sister Frances left college in California to study art in New York.
Brando had been held back a year i