England national football team
The England national football team represents England in senior men's international football and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England. England is one of the two oldest national teams in football, alongside Scotland, whom they played in the world's first international football match in 1872. England's home ground is Wembley Stadium and their headquarters are at St George's Park, Burton upon Trent; the team's manager is Gareth Southgate. Although part of the United Kingdom, England's representative side plays in major professional tournaments, but not the Olympic Games. Since first entering the tournament in 1950, England has qualified for the FIFA World Cup 15 times, they won the 1966 World Cup, when they hosted the finals, finished fourth in 1990 and 2018. Since first entering in 1964, England have never won the UEFA European Championship, with their best performances being a third-place finish in 1968 and 1996, the latter as hosts; the England national football team is the joint-oldest in the world.
A representative match between England and Scotland was played on 5 March 1870, having been organised by the Football Association. A return fixture was organised by representatives of Scottish football teams on 30 November 1872; this match, played at Hamilton Crescent in Scotland, is viewed as the first official international football match, because the two teams were independently selected and operated, rather than being the work of a single football association. Over the next 40 years, England played with the other three Home Nations—Scotland and Ireland—in the British Home Championship. At first, England had no permanent home stadium, they joined FIFA in 1906 and played their first games against countries other than the Home Nations on a tour of Central Europe in 1908. Wembley Stadium became their home ground; the relationship between England and FIFA became strained, this resulted in their departure from FIFA in 1928, before they rejoined in 1946. As a result, they did not compete in a World Cup until 1950, in which they were beaten in a 1–0 defeat by the United States, failing to get past the first round in one of the most embarrassing defeats in the team's history.
Their first defeat on home soil to a foreign team was a 0–2 loss to the Republic of Ireland, on 21 September 1949 at Goodison Park. A 6–3 loss in 1953 to Hungary, was their second defeat by a foreign team at Wembley. In the return match in Budapest, Hungary won 7–1; this stands as England's largest defeat. After the game, a bewildered Syd Owen said, "it was like playing men from outer space". In the 1954 FIFA World Cup, England reached the quarter-finals for the first time, lost 4–2 to reigning champions Uruguay. England got to the semi final in 2018. Although Walter Winterbottom was appointed as England's first full-time manager in 1946, the team was still picked by a committee until Alf Ramsey took over in 1963; the 1966 FIFA World Cup was hosted in England and Ramsey guided England to victory with a 4–2 win against West Germany after extra time in the final, during which Geoff Hurst famously scored a hat-trick. In UEFA Euro 1968, the team reached the semi-finals for the first time, being eliminated by Yugoslavia.
England qualified for the 1970 FIFA World Cup in Mexico as reigning champions, reached the quarter-finals, where they were knocked out by West Germany. England had been 2–0 up, but were beaten 3–2 after extra time, they failed in qualification for the 1974, leading to Ramsey's dismissal, 1978 FIFA World Cups. Under Ron Greenwood, they managed to qualify for the 1982 FIFA World Cup in Spain; the team under Bobby Robson fared better as England reached the quarter-finals of the 1986 FIFA World Cup, losing 2–1 to Argentina in a game made famous by two goals by Maradona for contrasting reasons, before losing every match in UEFA Euro 1988. They next went on to achieve their second best result in the 1990 FIFA World Cup by finishing fourth – losing again to West Germany in a semi-final finishing 1–1 after extra time 3–4 in England's first penalty shoot-out. Despite losing to Italy in the third place play-off, the members of the England team were given bronze medals identical to the Italians'; the England team of 1990 were welcomed home as heroes and thousands of people lined the streets, for a spectacular open-top bus parade.
However, the team did not win any matches in UEFA Euro 1992, drawing with tournament winners Denmark, with France, before being eliminated by host nation Sweden. The 1990s saw four England managers, each in the role for a brief period. Graham Taylor was Robson's successor, but resigned after England failed to qualify for the 1994 FIFA World Cup after losing a controversial game against the Netherlands in Rotterdam. At UEFA Euro 1996, held in England, Terry Venables led England, equalling their best performance at a European Championship, reaching the semi-finals as they did in 1968, before exiting via a penalty shoot-out loss to Germany, he resigned following investigations into his financial activities. His successor, Glenn Hoddle left the job for non-footballing reasons after just one international tournament – the 1998 FIFA World Cup — in which England were eliminated in the second round again by Argentina and again on penalties. Following Hoddle's departure, Kevin Keegan took England to UEFA Euro 2000, but performances were disappointing and he resigned shortly afterwards.
Sven-Göran Eriksson took charge between 2001 and 2006, was the team's first non-English manager. He guided England to the quarter-finals of the 2002 FIFA World C
Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry
Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry, styled Viscount Castlereagh between 1872 and 1884, was a British Conservative politician and benefactor, who served in various capacities in the Conservative administrations of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After succeeding his father in the marquessate in 1884, he was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland between 1886 and 1889, he held office as Postmaster General between 1900 and 1902 and as President of the Board of Education between 1902 and 1905. A supporter of the Protestant causes in Ulster, he was an opponent of Irish Home Rule and one of the instigators of the formal alliance between the Conservative Party and the Liberal Unionists in 1893.. Born Charles Vane-Tempest in London, UK, he was the eldest son of George Vane-Tempest, 5th Marquess of Londonderry, by Mary Cornelia, only daughter of Sir John Edwards, 1st Baronet, who lived at Plas Machynlleth, he was the grandson of the third Marquess and the great-nephew of the second Marquess, better known as the statesman Lord Castlereagh.
To mark his 21st birthday, the people of Machynlleth erected a clock tower in the centre of the town. George Spencer-Churchill, 8th Duke of Marlborough and his brother Lord Randolph Churchill were his first cousins, he was educated at the National University of Ireland and Christ Church, Oxford. He became known by the courtesy title of Viscount Castlereagh when his father succeeded to the marquessate of Londonderry in 1872. In 1885, he assumed the additional surname of Stewart by Royal licence, he was returned to parliament as one of two representatives for Down in 1878, a seat he held until 1884, when he succeeded his father in the marquessate and entered the House of Lords. After the Conservatives came to power in 1886 under Lord Salisbury, Lord Londonderry was sworn of the Privy Council and appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland; this was a time of difficulties in Ireland. Gladstone's first Home Rule Bill had just been rejected by parliament and national feelings ran high in Ireland. According to the Dictionary of National Biography, Londonderry "... filled the viceroyalty with tact and courage, so that when he left Dublin in 1889 the discontent had abated and some measure of prosperity had been restored."
He was appointed a Knight of the Garter in 1888 and admitted to the Irish Privy Council in 1892. He opposed Gladstone's second Home Rule Bill in 1893 and presided over the meeting which led to the formal political alliance between the Conservatives and the Liberal Unionists. From 1895 to 1897, Londonderry was Chairman of the London School Board, he returned to the government in April 1900, when Salisbury made him Postmaster General, became a member of the cabinet in November of that year. After Arthur Balfour became prime minister in August 1902, Londonderry became President of the Board of Education. In this role he oversaw the Education Act 1902. Between 1903 and 1905, he was Lord President of the Council; the Unionists fell in December 1905, Londonderry subsequently focused on Irish affairs. He was one of the "scuttlers" who did not vote against the Parliament Act 1911; as president of the Ulster Unionist council, he opposed the third Home Rule Bill proposed by the Liberal government in 1912 and was the second signatory to the Ulster Covenant after Sir Edward Carson.
Lord Londonderry was Lord-Lieutenant of Belfast from 1900 to 1904 and Lord-Lieutenant of Down from 1902 to 1915, a Deputy Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire and County Durham and a Justice of the Peace for County Durham. On 24 June 1869, just before his 17th birthday, he was commissioned as Major in the 2nd Durham Artillery Volunteer Corps a part-time unit commanded by his father and recruited from the family's Seaham Colliery, he succeeded his father in command in 1876 and was still in command of the unit when it transferred to the Territorial Force in 1908 as the 3rd Northumbrian Brigade, Royal Field Artillery, of which he became Honorary Colonel on 7 December 1910. He was appointed to the Honorary Colonelcy of the 3rd Battalion of the Royal Irish Rifles on 26 March 1902; as a large coal-owner in County Durham, he played a major role there. In 1910, he was Mayor of Durham, he received an honorary degree from the University of Durham in recognition of his public services, he was patron of agriculture and race-horse owner.
King Edward VII was a guest at Londonderry's County Durham seat Wynyard Park on five occasions. In 1903 Londonderry was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, he married Lady Theresa Susey Helen Talbot, daughter of Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 19th Earl of Shrewsbury, at the private chapel of Alton Hall in 1875. Like her husband, she was a leading Unionist campaigner, President of the Ulster Women's Unionist Council, they had one daughter. The second son, Lord Charles Stewart Reginald Vane-Tempest-Stewart, died in October 1899, aged 19; the daughter, Lady Helen, married the 6th Earl of Ilchester. Lady Londonderry had an affair with Harry Cust. Another of Cust's lovers, Countess de Grey, found Lady Londonderry's passionate love letters to Cust in his bedroom. In an act of jealousy and vengeance, she had a servant deliver those letters to Lord Londonderry. Thus, he may have wanted to divorce his wife initially. However, the matrons of society convinced him to withdraw from his divorce plans.
Instead, it has been alleged, as a form of punishment to his wife for her past adultery, he never spoke to her again in private, only in p
Northern Ireland national football team
The Northern Ireland national football team represents Northern Ireland in international association football. From 1882 to 1920, all of Ireland was represented by a single side, the Ireland national football team, organised by the Irish Football Association. In 1921, the jurisdiction of the IFA was reduced to Northern Ireland following the secession of clubs in the soon-to-be Irish Free State, although its team remained the national team for all of Ireland until 1950, used the name Ireland until the 1970s; the Football Association of Ireland organises the separate Republic of Ireland national football team. Although part of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland has always had a representative side that plays in major professional tournaments – whether alongside the rest of Ireland pre-1922 or as its own entity – though not in the Olympic Games, as the International Olympic Committee has always recognised United Kingdom representative sides. Northern Ireland has competed in three FIFA World Cups, reaching the quarter-final stage in the 1958 and 1982 tournaments.
At UEFA Euro 2016, the team made its first appearance at the European tournament and reached the second round. On 18 February 1882, 15 months after the founding of the Irish FA, Ireland made their international debut against England, losing 13–0 in a friendly played at Bloomfield in Belfast; this remains the record defeat for the team, England's largest winning margin. On 25 February 1882, Ireland played their second international, against Wales at the Racecourse Ground, an equaliser from Johnston became Ireland’s first goal. In 1884, Ireland lost all three games. Ireland did not win their first game until 19 February 1887, a 4–1 win over Wales in Belfast. Between their debut and this game, they had a run of 14 defeats and 1 draw, the longest run without a win in the 1800s. Despite the end of this run, heavy defeats continued. On 3 March 1888, they lost 11–0 to Wales and three weeks on 24 March, lost 10–2 to Scotland. Further heavy defeats came on 15 March 1890 when they lost 9–1 to England, on 18 February 1899 when they lost 13–2 to England and on 2 February 1901 when they lost 11–0 to Scotland.
In 1899, the Irish FA changed its rules governing the selection of non-resident players. Before the Ireland team selected its players from the Irish League, in particular the three Belfast-based clubs Linfield and Distillery. On 4 March 1899, for the match against Wales, McAteer included four Irish players based in England; the change in policy produced dividends as Ireland won 1–0. Three weeks on 25 March, one of these four players, Archie Goodall, aged 34 years and 279 days, became the oldest player to score in international football during the 19th century when he scored Ireland’s goal in a 9–1 defeat to Scotland. In 1920, Ireland was partitioned into Southern Ireland. In 1922, Southern Ireland gained independence as the Irish Free State to become a republic under the name of Ireland. Amid these political upheavals, a rival football association, the Football Association of Ireland, emerged in Dublin in 1921 and organised a separate league and international team. In 1923, at a time when the home nations had withdrawn from FIFA, the FAI was recognised by FIFA as the governing body of the Irish Free State on the condition that it changed its name to the Football Association of the Irish Free State.
The Irish FA continued to organise its national team on an all-Ireland basis. Between 1928 and 1946, the IFA were not affiliated to FIFA and the two Ireland teams co-existed, never competing in the same competition. On 8 March 1950, however, in a 0–0 draw with Wales at the Racecourse Ground in a FIFA World Cup qualifier, the IFA fielded a team that included four players who were born in the Irish Free State. All four players had played for the FAI in their qualifiers and as a result had played for two different associations in the same FIFA World Cup tournament. After complaints from the FAI, FIFA intervened and restricted players' eligibility based on the political border. In 1953 FIFA ruled neither team could be referred to as Ireland, decreeing that the FAI team be designated as the Republic of Ireland, while the IFA team was to become Northern Ireland; until the 1950s, the major competition for Northern Ireland/Ireland was the British Home Championship. The team had won the competition eight times.
They were the last winners of the now defunct competition held in 1984, hence still are the British champions, the trophy remains the property of the Irish FA. Northern Ireland's best World Cup performance was in their first appearance in the finals, the 1958 World Cup, where they reached the quarter-finals after beating Czechoslovakia 2–1 in the play-off, they were knocked out by France, losing 4–0. In the 1958 competition, Northern Ireland became the least populous country to have qualified for the World Cup, a record that stood until Trinidad and Tobago qualified for the 2006 World Cup. Northern Ireland remains, the least populous country to have qualified for more than one World Cup finals tournament, to win a World Cup finals match, to have progressed from the first round of the World Cup finals. Captain of the national side at the 1958 World Cup was Danny Blanchflower, who captained Tottenham Hotspur in the English league and was twice footballer of the year in England, his younger brother Jackie was a key member of the national team, won two league titles in England with Manchester United, until his career was ended by injuries suffered in the Munich air disaster of February 1958.
Despite the presence of world class forward George Best, another Manchester Uni
Ireland national football team (1882–1950)
The Ireland national football team represented Ireland in association football from 1882 until 1950. It was organised by the Irish Football Association, is the fourth oldest international team in the world, it played in the British Home Championship against England and Wales. Though vying with Wales to avoid the wooden spoon, Ireland did win the Championship in 1914, shared it with England and Scotland in 1903. After the partition of Ireland in the 1920s, although the IFA's administration of club football was restricted to Northern Ireland, the IFA national team continued to select players from the whole of Ireland until 1950, did not adopt the name "Northern Ireland" until 1954 in FIFA competition, the 1970s in the British Home Championship. In 1924, a separate international team, organised by the Football Association of Ireland, fielded a team called Ireland, which now represents the Republic of Ireland. On 18 February 1882, two years after the founding of the Irish FA, Ireland made their international debut against England, losing 0–13 in a friendly played at Bloomfield Park in Belfast, becoming the fourth international side to take the field.
This result remains the record win for the record defeat for an Ireland team. The Irish line-up that day included Samuel Johnston, who at the age of 15 years and 154 days became the youngest international debutant, a record until Aníbal Zapicán Falco played for Uruguay in 1908 at the age of 15 years and nine days. On 25 February 1882 Ireland played their second international against Wales at the Racecourse Ground, Wrexham and an equaliser from Johnston became Ireland's first goal, although Ireland went on to lose 1–7, the goal saw Johnston became the youngest international goalscorer. In 1884 Ireland lost all three games. Ireland did not win their first game until 13 March 1887, a 4–1 win over Wales in Belfast. Between their debut and this game, they had a run of 14 defeats and 1 draw, the longest run without a win in the 19th century. Despite the end of this run, heavy defeats continued to blight Ireland's record, including 3 March 1888 when they lost 0–11 to Wales, on 23 February 1901 when they lost 0–11 to Scotland.
These losses, together with the initial loss to England still constitute the record wins held by each of the other home nation teams. However, there were some brighter moments: on 7 February 1891 an Ireland team featuring Jack Reynolds and four-goal hero Olphert Stanfield defeated Wales 7–2, providing Ireland with their second win. Reynolds international performances attracted the interest of West Bromwich Albion who signed him in March 1891, however it was discovered that Reynolds was English. On 3 March 1894 at the Solitude Ground in Belfast, after thirteen attempts Ireland avoided defeat to England, the team that included Fred Spiksley and Reynolds, who had since switched allegiances, Ireland gained a 2–2 draw. Goals from Stanfield and W. K. Gibson inspired Ireland to come back from 2–0 down to gain a 2–2 draw. Lacking the strength in depth enjoyed by England and Scotland, Irish internationals of this era started younger and their careers lasted longer than their English or Scottish contemporaries.
As a result, Ireland fielded both oldest national teams during the 19th century. Samuel Johnston had led the way in the early 1880s. On 27 February 1886 Shaw Gillespie, at the age of 18, became the youngest goalkeeper of the 19th century. Both Olphert Stanfield and W. K. Gibson were only 17. Another 17-year-old debutant was George Gaukrodger. In Johnston and Gaukrodger, Ireland had three of the four youngest goalscorers in the 19th century. Stanfield would go on to win 30 caps for Ireland, making him the most capped international of the century. Ireland's greatest success on the football field came when they won the 1913–14 British Home Championship; however the foundations for that success had been laid over a decade earlier when Ireland had pioneered the use of national team coaches. The first time in the history of modern football that a national team had a coach was on 20 February 1897 when Billy Crone was in charge of the Ireland team that lost 6–0 to England, again for the wins against Wales on 19 February 1898, on 4 March 1899, Ireland was coached by Hugh McAteer, on 24 February 1900 Robert Torrans coached Ireland for the game against Wales.
In 1914 McAteer would return to coach Ireland to their greatest success. In 1899 the IFA changed its rules governing the selection of non-resident players. Before the Ireland team selected its players from the Irish League, in particular the four Belfast-based clubs, Distillery and Linfield. On 4 March 1899 for the game against Wales, McAteer included four Irish players based in England; the change in policy produced dividends as Ireland won 1–0. Three weeks on 25 March one of these four players, Archie Goodall, aged 34 years and 279 days, became the oldest player to score at international level during the 19th century when he scored in a 1–9 defeat to Scotland. Goodall remained a regular at centre-half for Ireland until he was 40. On 28 March 1903, aged of 38 years and 283 days, he scored the opening goal in a 2–0 win against Wales and became the oldest goalscorer in Ireland's history; the goal helped an Ireland team, that included Jack Kirwan, Billy Scott, Billy McCracken and Robert Milne, clinch a share in the 1902–03 British Home Championship.
Until the competition had been monopolised by England and Scotland. However, in 1903, before goal difference was applied, Ireland forced a three way share. Despite losing their opening game 0–4 to England, th
Lisburn Distillery F.C.
Lisburn Distillery Football Club is a Northern Irish, intermediate football club who are based in Ballyskeagh, County Down and play in the NIFL Premier Intermediate League. The club, founded in 1880, originated in west Belfast, where it was based at Grosvenor Park at Distillery Street off the Grosvenor Road until 1971. After sharing Skegoneill Avenue and Seaview for some years the club moved in 1980 to a permanent new home at New Grosvenor Stadium, County Antrim, on the southern outskirts of Belfast; the club was known as Distillery until 1999, when it changed its name to'Lisburn Distillery' in an attempt to associate itself more with its adopted borough of Lisburn. The club colour is white; the club, a founder member of the Irish League in 1890, was relegated in May 2013. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Neil Harris Jimmy McIntosh Maurice Tadman George Eastham, Sr. Jimmy McAlinden Roy Welsh Billy Hamilton Paul Kirk Tommy Wright Colin McIlwaine & George O'Boyle Irish League: 6 1895–96, 1898–99, 1900–01, 1902–03, 1905–06, 1962–63 Irish Cup: 12 1883–84, 1884–85, 1885–86, 1888–89, 1893–94, 1895–96, 1902–03, 1904–05, 1909–10, 1924–25, 1955–56, 1970–71 Irish League Cup: 1 2010–11 County Antrim Shield: 14 1888–89, 1892–93, 1895–96, 1896–97, 1899–1900, 1902–03, 1904–05, 1914–15, 1918–19, 1919–20, 1945–46, 1953–54, 1963–64, 1985–86 Gold Cup: 5 1913–14, 1919–20, 1924–25, 1929–30, 1993–94 City Cup: 5 1904–05, 1912–13, 1933–34, 1959–60, 1962–63 Ulster Cup: 2 1957–58, 1998–99 Irish League First Division: 2 1998–99, 2001–02 Dublin and Belfast Inter-city Cup: 1 1947–48 Irish Intermediate Cup: 3 1892–93†, 1902–03†, 1947–48‡ Steel & Sons Cup: 1 1900–01ƒ George Wilson Cup: 3 1956–57‡, 1981–82‡, 1987–88‡ McElroy Cup: 2 1918–19‡, 1920–21‡† Won by Distillery Rovers ‡ Won by Distillery II ƒ Won by Distillery West End Irish Junior League: 3 1890–91‡, 1892–93‡, 1902–03‡Irish Junior Cup: 1 1887–88‡‡ Won by Distillery II Official website
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
Football Association of Wales
The Football Association of Wales is the governing body of association football in Wales, controls the Wales national football team and its corresponding women's team. It is a member of FIFA, UEFA and the IFAB. Established in 1876, it is the third-oldest national association in the world, one of the four associations, along with the English Football Association, Scottish Football Association, Irish Football Association and FIFA, that make up the International Football Association Board, responsible for the Laws of the Game; the FAW was founded at a meeting held on 2 February 1876 at the Wynnstay Arms Hotel in Wrexham to formalise the arrangements for the forthcoming match against Scotland. In May 1876, a further meeting was called, this time in the ballroom of the Wynnstay Arms Hotel in Ruabon where the name "Football Association of Wales" was agreed and the constitution drawn up; the arguments and discussions continued so long that the local policeman came in to call time."Sadly we have no record of the words used by the police constable as he stood sternly surveying the scene in the Wynnstay Arms, Ruabon, on that May night in 1876.
The meeting ended with Llewelyn Kenrick appointed as the first chairman and honorary secretary with John Hawley Edwards as first treasurer. Kenrick continued to serve the FAW until 1884, when he left because of the trend towards professionalism. In 1897, when the FAW secretary was charged with fraud, Kenrick returned to guide the association through the crisis, he made the final break a few months over the minor issue of the allocation of gate money to Welsh Cup semi-finalists and finalists. Inspired by the success of the FA Cup, in 1877 the FAW ran the inaugural Welsh Cup competition; the trophy was intended to raise the standard of organisation of football in Wales. As such English border clubs were invited to participate; the prominent north-south divide within Wales meant that the association did not set up a national league. By the twentieth century Wales’ senior clubs were competing in English league competitions thus relegating the lower standard and less glamorous Welsh Cup in importance.
The allocation of a place in the European Cup Winners Cup from 1960 did boost interest in the competition but it has remained secondary in the priorities of Wales’ leading clubs. The FAW is financially reliant on the proceeds of international matches. A lack of success on the pitch, Wales’ unstable economy and a reoccurring inability to pick its star players have all meant that the association has struggled to achieve financial security. In the second half of the 20th century this was compounded by a failure to take full advantage of the new commercial and television opportunities that the wider game has enjoyed. On occasions financial problems have led the FAW to stage Wales’ home matches in English stadia where capacities were larger than at domestic grounds; the FAW’s inability to always pick the best players for the national side was rooted in the Welsh game’s subservience to English football. As a foreign association, the FAW had no powers to demand players employed outside Wales be released for its international games.
With Wales’ best players traditionally employed by English clubs, her national team was reliant on clubs’ willingness to release players. This caused reoccuring tensions as the Football League and its clubs tried to impose their authority over the national associations. Many of the FAW’s members have always been affiliated to the FA thus creating an uncertainty over the association’s responsibilities and powers, its unwillingness and inability to assert its independence was illustrated by it following the FA out of FIFA in 1919 and 1928, only to rejoin when its English counterparts did in 1946. Before World War II, like Wales as a whole, the FAW’s ambitions for recognition were within a British context, her first international against opponents from beyond Britain was not until a match against France in 1933. The FAW’s internal relationships were no easier due to a history of tension between members from north and south. Before World War II it did not have complete control over football in the whole nation.
The South Wales and Monmouthshire FA acted as an independent association for all purposes except the national team. Although the south was represented on the FAW, the north retained control of its decision-making council until the 1970s; the location of home internationals was the most common source of tension until 1989 when it was decided to hold all home games in the National Stadium at rugby’s Cardiff Arms Park. When in 1985 the FAW moved its headquarter from Wrexham in the north to the capital Cardiff, the balance of power shifted to the south. By the 1980s there was concern within the FAW that its existence was under threat; the UK’s four independent associations within a single state were unique and the result of football’s British origins. As pressure grew from non-European associations for a greater say in the running of football, Britain’s special position became vulnerable; the case for Wales as a football nation was weak in foreign eyes given the absence of any national league. Thus the FAW founded the League of Wales in 1992 to try and ensure its future.
Over 100 years after the formation of its national association, Wales beca