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Irish Rebellion of 1641

The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup d'état by Irish Catholic gentry, who tried to seize control of the English administration in Ireland to force concessions for Catholics. The coup failed and the rebellion developed into an ethnic conflict between Irish Catholics on one side, English and Scottish Protestants on the other; the rebellion followed the Plantation of Ulster by Protestant settlers from Britain. It began a conflict known as the Irish Confederate Wars, part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms; the rising was sparked by Catholic fears of an impending invasion of Ireland by anti-Catholic forces of the English Long Parliament and the Scottish Covenanters, who were defying the authority of King Charles I. In turn, the rebels' suspected association with Charles helped start the English Civil War; the English and Scottish parliaments refused to raise an army to put down the rebellion unless it was under their command rather than the King's. The Irish rebellion broke out in October 1641 and was followed by several months of violent chaos before the Irish Catholic upper classes and clergy formed the Catholic Confederation in May 1642.

The Confederation became a de facto government of most of Ireland, free from the control of the English administration and loosely aligned with the Royalist side in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The subsequent Irish Confederate Wars continued in Ireland until the 1650s, when Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army decisively defeated the Irish Catholics and Royalists, re-conquered the country; the 1641 Irish Rebellion is seen as a key event in the mid-17th century collapse of the Stuart monarchy. The roots of the 1641 rebellion lay in the failure of the English State in Ireland to assimilate the native Irish elite in the wake of the Elizabethan conquest and plantation of the country; the pre-Elizabethan Irish population is divided into the "Old Irish", the Old English, or descendants of medieval Norman settlers. These groups were antagonistic, with English settled areas such as the Pale around Dublin, south Wexford, other walled towns being fortified against the rural Gaelic clans. By the seventeenth century, the cultural divide between these groups at elite social levels, was declining.

Many Old English lords not only spoke the Irish language, but extensively patronised Irish poetry and music, have been described as Hiberniores Hibernis ipsis. Intermarriage was common. Moreover, in the wake of the Elizabethan conquest, the native population became defined by their shared religion, Roman Catholicism, in distinction to the new Church of England and Church of Scotland of settlers, the Protestant English administration in Ireland. During the decades between the end of the Elizabethan wars of re-conquest in 1603 and the outbreak of rebellion in 1641, the political position of the wealthier landed Irish Catholics was threatened by the English government of Ireland; the Tudor conquest of Ireland during the 16th-century saw the Plantation of Munster occur, in the early 17th century the Plantation of Ulster. In the case of Ulster this was the result of the confiscating of vast amounts of forfeited land from the Irish lords who fled in the Flight of the Earls in 1607. Of this territory 20 % was granted to "deserving" native Irish clans.

By the time of the 1641 rebellion, native Irish society was not benefiting from the plantation and this was exacerbated by the fact many grantees had to sell their estates due to poor management and the debts they incurred. This erosion of their status and influence saw them prepared to join a rebellion if they had more to lose. Many of the exiles found service as mercenaries in the Catholic armies of France, they formed a small émigré Irish community, militantly hostile to the English-run and Protestant state in Ireland, but restrained by the good relations between the Stewart monarchs of Scotland and Ireland, with Spain and France after 1604. In Ireland itself the resentment caused by the plantations was one of the principal causes for the outbreak and spread of the rebellion. Moreover, the Irish Parliament's legislation had to be approved by the shared monarchies privy council, under a 15th-century Act of the Irish Parliament, known as Poynings' Law; the Protestant dominated administration took opportunities to confiscate more land from longstanding landowners.

In the late 1630s Thomas Wentworth, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, proposed a new round of plantations, though these had not been implemented by 1641. In 1641 60% of land still belonged to Catholics. Most of the Irish Catholic upper classes were not ideologically opposed to the sovereignty of Charles I over Ireland, but wanted to be full subjects of the triple monarchy and maintain their pre-eminent position in Irish society; this was prevented by two factors, firstly their religious dissidence, secondly the threat posed to them by the extension of the Plantations. The failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605 curtailed the rights of wealthy Irish Catholics, who had not been involved in the plot. Anglicanism was the only approved form of worship of the Three Kingdoms. Non-attendance at Protestant church services was punishable by recusant fines and the public practice of unapproved faiths by arrest. Catholics could not serve above a certain rank in the army; the Irish privy council was dominated by English Protestants.

The constituencies of the Irish House of Commons were increased, giving Protestants a majority of 108–102 in it, from the session of 1613. The

August 1911 Liverpool Plains state by-election

A by-election was held for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly electorate of Liverpool Plains on 16 August 1911 because of the resignation of Labor Party member Henry Horne because he disagreed with legislation introduced by the Labor Secretary for Lands Niels Nielsen. Mudgee MLA Bill Dunn resigned, the Mudgee by-election was held on the same day. With a margin of 3 votes and 91 informal votes, William Ashford challenged the result before the Elections and Qualifications Committee, which declared the election void. William Ashford comfortably won the subsequent by-election. List of New South Wales state by-elections

Ombudsmen in Pakistan

Ombudsmen in Pakistan is an Ombudsman in Pakistan An ombudsman is an official appointed by the government or by parliament but with a significant degree of independence, charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of maladministration or violation of rights. In some countries an Inspector General, Citizen Advocate or other official may have duties similar to those of a national ombudsman, may be appointed by the legislature. Below the national level an ombudsman may be appointed by a state, local or municipal government, unofficial ombudsmen may be appointed by, or work for, a corporation such as a utility supplier or a newspaper, for an NGO, or for a professional regulatory body. In Pakistan, the establishment of an ombudsman institution had been advocated for some time before Article 276 of the Interim Constitution of 1972 provided for the appointment of a Federal Ombudsman and Provincial Ombudsmen; the Constitution of 1973 provided for a Federal Ombudsman, the institution was created through the Establishment of the Office of Wafaqi Mohtasib Order, 1983, now a part of the Constitution of Pakistan by virtue of Article 270-A.

It started functioning on 8 August 1983. The office of Ombudsman is held by Syed Tahir Shahbaz; the Ombudsman has headquarters in Islamabad and Regional Offices in Lahore, Quetta, Multan, Dera Ismail Khan, Peshawar and Hyderabad Other ombudsman agencies in Pakistan include Provincial Ombudsman offices in Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh. The region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir has an Ombudsman office. Under the Protection against Harassment of Women at Workplace Act 2010, Musarrat Hilali was appointed in the same year to be the first Federal Ombudsperson for Protection against Harassment of Women at Workplace; the Act provides for similar offices at the provincial level. The various ombudsman agencies participate in a Forum of Pakistan Ombudsman, the federal bodies are affiliated to the Asian Ombudsman Association and the International Ombudsman Institute. A further feature of the judicial system is the office of Mohtasib, provided for in the constitution; the office of Mohtasib was established in many early Muslim states to ensure that no wrongs were done to citizens.

Appointed by the president, the Mohtasib holds office for four years. The Mohtasib's purpose is to institutionalize a system for enforcing administrative accountability, through investigating and rectifying any injustice done to a person through maladministration by a federal agency or a federal government official; the Mohtasib is empowered to award compensation to those who have suffered loss or damage as a result of maladministration. Excluded from jurisdiction, are personal grievances or service matters of a public servant as well as matters relating to foreign affairs, national defence, the armed services; this institution is designed to bridge the gap between administrator and citizen, to improve administrative processes and procedures, to help curb misuse of discretionary powers

Jean Chardin

Jean Chardin, born Jean-Baptiste Chardin, known as Sir John Chardin, was a French jeweller and traveller whose ten-volume book The Travels of Sir John Chardin is regarded as one of the finest works of early Western scholarship on Persia and the Near East in general. He was born in Paris, son of a wealthy merchant, jeweller of the Place Dauphine, followed his father's business. In 1664, he started for the East Indies with a Lyons merchant, they journeyed by Constantinople and the Black Sea, reaching Persia early in 1666. The same year Abbas II, made Chardin his agent for the purchase of jewels. In the middle of 1667, he visited India and returned to Persia in 1669; the next year he arrived in Paris. He issued an account of some events to which he was an eyewitness in Persia, entitled'Le Couronnement de Soleiman Troisième,' Paris, 1671. A learned nobleman, Mirza Sefi, a prisoner in his own palace at Ispahan, had entertained him, instructed him in the Persian language, assisted him in this work. Peter de la Croix and Tavernier criticised it, while Ange de la Brosse as defended it.

Chardin again started for the East, August 1671. He was at Constantinople from March to July 1672. A quarrel between the grand vizier and the French ambassador made the position of French subjects dangerous, Chardin escaped in a small vessel across the Black Sea, made a most adventurous journey by Caffa, through Georgia, Armenia to Ispahan, which he reached in 1673. At Sapias, he was robbed by the Mingrelians of all he possessed except two small bundles, worth £6,000, he stayed at Ispahan four years, following the court in all its removals, making particular journeys throughout the land, from the Caspian to the Persian Gulf and the river Indus, visiting several Indian cities. By these two journeys he realised a considerable fortune, deciding to return home, reached Europe in 1677 by a voyage round the Cape of Good Hope. Of four volumes projected the first volume was published in 1686, Journal du Voyage... de Chardin en Parse et aux Indes Orientales, fol. An English translation was issued concurrently.

This volume contains the author's journey from Paris to Ispahan, has the author's half-length portrait by Loggan, with eighteen copper plates folding. His former work is reprinted there with a fulsome'Epistle Dedicatory to James II.'Chardin in his preface announced three other volumes to follow. The last, to contain a short history of Persia, along with his diaries for 1675–77, never appeared; the other three volumes were published at 1711, 4to, Voyages de Mons. Le Chevalier Chardin, as the complete work. In 1711 another edition, with his translation of La Relation des Mingreliens, by J. M, appeared in ten vols. Amsterdam, l2mo. 4to, containing a great number of passages added from his manuscripts, but with many omissions of violent Calvinistic passages. The most complete reprint is that of M. L. Langles, in ten vols. 8vo, Paris, 1811. Chardin's style of writing is simple and graphic, he gives a faithful account of what he saw and heard. Montesquieu, Rousseau and Helvetius acknowledge the value of his writings.

Extracts from his works appear in all the chief collections of travels, but there is no complete English translation. In 1681, Chardin determined to settle in England because of the persecution of Protestants in France, he was well received at court, was soon after appointed court jeweller. He was knighted by Charles II at Whitehall, 17 November 1681; the same day he married a Protestant lady, daughter of M. de Lardinière Peigné, councillor in the Parliament of Rouen a refugee in London. He carried on a considerable trade in jewels, in the correspondence of his time was called'the flower of merchants.' In 1682, when he lived in Holland House, Kensington, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. In 1684, the king sent him as envoy to Holland, where he stayed some years, was styled agent to the East India Company. On his return to London he devoted most of his time to oriental studies. In the prefaces to his works, 1686 and 1711, besides travels he speaks of what he calls'my favourite desipi,' or'Notes upon Passages of to the Holy Scriptures, illustrated by Eastern ally Customs and Manners,' as having occupied his time for many years.

He did not live after to publish it, after his death the manuscript was supposed to be lost. Some of his descendants advertised a reward of twenty guineas for it; when Thomas Harmer published a second edition of his,'Observations on divers pissages of Scripture,' 2 vols. London, 1776, 8vo, it was found that by the help of Sir Philip Musgrave, a descendant of Chardin, he had recovered the lost manuscript in six small volumes, had incorporated all of them in his work, under the author's name, or signed'MS. C.' i.e. manuscript of Chardin. In his latter years Chardin lived at Turnin. Sir John died in Chiswick, London in 1713, he was buried in Turnham Green. A funeral monument to Chardin exists in Westminster Abbey, bearing the inscription Sir John Chardin – nomen sibi fecit eundo; the remains of Chardin's library were sold by James Levy at Tom's coffee-house, St. Martin's Lane, 1712–13, he had three daughters. His eldest son, was created a baronet 1720 and died unmarried, he had three others, Daniel and George.

He left his large Kempton Manor House and estate, Sunbury on Thames to his nephew Sir Philip Chardin Musgrave. Modern scholars consider the 1711 editi

Legislative districts of Batangas

The Legislative Districts of Batangas are the representations of the province of Batangas in the various national legislatures of the Philippines. The province is represented in the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines through its first, third, fourth and sixth congressional districts. Batangas was divided into three representative districts from 1907 to 1972, with a minor adjustment of district boundaries as mandated by Act No. 3378 taking effect starting in the 1928 elections. When seats for the upper house of the Philippine Legislature were elected from territory-based districts between 1916 and 1935, the province formed part of the fifth senatorial district which elected two out of the 24-member senate. In the disruption caused by the Second World War, two delegates represented the province in the National Assembly of the Japanese-sponsored Second Philippine Republic: one was the provincial governor, while the other was elected through a provincial assembly of KALIBAPI members during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines.

Upon the restoration of the Philippine Commonwealth in 1945, the province retained its three pre-war representative districts. The province was represented in the Interim Batasang Pambansa as part of Region IV-A from 1978 to 1984, elected four representatives, at large, to the Regular Batasang Pambansa in 1984. Batangas was reapportioned into four congressional districts under the new Constitution, proclaimed on February 11, 1987, elected members to the restored House of Representatives starting that same year; the passage of Republic Act No. 10673 on August 19, 2015 increased the number of the province's representatives from four to six. R. A. No. 10673 separated Batangas City and Lipa from the second and fourth districts, constituted these cities into the province's fifth and sixth districts, respectively. These two new districts elected their first separate representatives beginning in the 2016 elections. Municipalities: Balayan, Calatagan, Lian, Taal, Tuy Population: 608,977 Municipalities: Balayan, Lemery, Taal, Tanauan, Calatagan, San Luis Municipalities: Balayan, Calatagan, Lian, San Luis, Tuy, San Nicolas, Santa Teresita Notes Municipalities: Bauan, Mabini, San Luis, San Pascual, Tingloy Population: 295,504 City: Batangas City Municipalities: Bauan, Mabini, San Luis, San Pascual, Tingloy Population: 575,588 Municipalities: Batangas, Cuenca, San Luis, Mabini Municipalities: Alitagtag, Bauan, Ibaan, Lobo, San Juan, Tingloy, San Pascual City: Santo Tomas, Tanauan Municipalities: Agoncillo, Balete, Laurel, Mataas na Kahoy, San Nicolas, Santa Teresita, Talisay Population: 685,965 Municipalities: Bolbok, Lobo, San Jose, Santo Tomas, Taysan Municipalities: Lipa, Rosario, San Jose, Santo Tomas, Tanauan, Mataas na Kahoy, Padre Garcia, Laurel Municipalities: Ibaan, Padre Garcia, San Jose, San Juan, Taysan Population: 441,599 City: Lipa Municipalities: Ibaan, Padre Garcia, San Jose, San Juan, Taysan Population: 680,553 City: Batangas City Population: 329,874 City: Lipa Population: 332,386

2013–14 Southampton F.C. season

The 2013–14 Southampton F. C. season was the club's 15th season in the Premier League, their 37th in the top division of English football. Having secured their place in the Premier League the previous season following a seven-year absence from the top flight, the club progressed in their league performance and achieved their main aim of a top-ten finish. Southampton finished eighth in the Premier League table, having won 15, drawn 11, lost 12 of their 38 games played: their best season since 2002–03, they made it to the fifth round of the FA Cup and the fourth round of the League Cup. After releasing eight players at the beginning of the season, Southampton signed Croatian centre back Dejan Lovren from French side Lyon for a fee reported to be in the region of £8.5 million. The club broke their record transfer fee twice, first signing Kenyan midfielder Victor Wanyama from Scottish club Celtic for £12.5 million and enlisting Italian striker Dani Osvaldo for £15 million. Defender Vegard Forren and midfielder Richard Chaplow left the club in July, winger Jason Puncheon joined Crystal Palace on loan for the season, former team captain Dean Hammond was sold to Leicester City, striker Emmanuel Mayuka joined French side Sochaux-Montbéliard on loan for the season.

In the January transfer window, Tadanari Lee and Aaron Martin were released from the club. Club record signing Dani Osvaldo left the club in a loan move to Juventus on 31 January, following his involvement in a training ground fight with defender José Fonte earlier in the month. Displaying evidence of a much stronger defence than the previous season, Southampton started 2013–14 well by winning six of their first 11 games, conceding only five goals, remaining unbeaten for two months between September and November, reaching a peak of third in the Premier League table in the process; this run of form led to manager Mauricio Pochettino being named the Premier League Manager of the Month for October, ahead of José Mourinho, Arsène Wenger, Brendan Rodgers. Four losses in their next six matches followed and the Saints had fallen to ninth position by Christmas; the team returned on Boxing Day to pick up their first win since early November, a period of mixed fortunes saw the team remain just above the middle of the league table.

After repeated speculation surrounding his future with the club, it was announced on 15 January 2014 that Southampton chairman Nicola Cortese, who helped bring the club out of administration in 2009 with owner Markus Liebherr, had resigned from the post. This was due to tensions with Liebherr's daughter Katharina, who took over ownership of the club when her father died in 2010. Rumours that it was Katherina Liebherr's intention to sell the club circulated but were subsequently proven to be unfounded; the future of manager Mauricio Pochettino was called into question by Cortese's departure, after he had stated that he would leave if Cortese left, but he committed his future to the club until at least the end of the season, with a more long-term decision to be made upon the season's conclusion. A number of sources claimed that Southampton's players were at risk of leaving, with Luke Shaw, Adam Lallana, Rickie Lambert all being linked with moves away from the club, although Liebherr announced that "The club no plans to sell any of the squad" during January.

After much speculation, Ralph Krueger was appointed chairman on 12 March 2014. Southampton began their pre-season preparations on 17 July 2013, a month before the Premier League season is due to begin, with a match against Spanish side Llagostera at the home stadium of Palafrugell; the Saints started the game well, after having an early goal disallowed for offside it was Jay Rodriguez who opened the scoring in the 28th minute after taking advantage of defensive errors in the penalty area. Steven Davis came close to adding a second before the break, but it was the Spanish side who struck next when defender David Cano headed in an equaliser in the second half. With ten substitutions on, remaining player and first-half goalscorer Rodriguez scored a second just a few minutes to put Southampton back in the lead, before departing for James Ward-Prowse. Despite a few late chances, the match remained 2–1 to see the Premier League side win their first pre-season fixture. Southampton faced Palamós three days overcoming the side with a convincing 8–0 win.

Adam Lallana, Jason Puncheon, Morgan Schneiderlin put the Saints three up in the first half, Jay Rodriguez scored from the spot on 60 minutes, before half-time substitute Guly do Prado scored a nine-minute hat-trick to take his side's goal tally to seven. Luke Shaw finished the scoring off five minutes before full-time, marking a successful end to Southampton's time at their Catalan training camp. Southampton travelled to another training camp in the Wörthersee region of Austria, where they faced German side Schalke 04 at the Stadion Villach Lind on 24 July; the Saints started the game positively, with Rickie Lambert and Jay Rodriguez forming a strong partnership up front, but Schalke goalkeeper Timo Hildebrand was on form to deny efforts from Lloyd Isgrove and Jason Puncheon. With the introduction of striker Klaas-Jan Huntelaar though, Schalke came out into the second half the stronger side, with the Dutch 2010 FIFA World Cup runner-up enjoying the majority of his team's chances before breaking the deadlock just before the hour mark.

Despite making six changes in response to the opening goal, Southampton were unable to